Expand documentation describing --signoff
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-commit.txt
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1git-commit(1)
2=============
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3
4NAME
5----
c3f0baac 6git-commit - Record changes to the repository
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7
8SYNOPSIS
9--------
353ce815 10[verse]
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11'git commit' [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend]
12 [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
13 [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
14 [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
0460ed2c 15 [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
340f2c5e 16 [-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Stores the current contents of the index in a new commit along
21with a log message from the user describing the changes.
62033318 22
a76c2acb 23The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
f9935bf9 24
0b444cdb 251. by using 'git add' to incrementally "add" changes to the
a76c2acb 26 index before using the 'commit' command (Note: even modified
6c96753d 27 files must be "added");
5bfc4f23 28
0b444cdb 292. by using 'git rm' to remove files from the working tree
a76c2acb 30 and the index, again before using the 'commit' command;
6c96753d 31
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323. by listing files as arguments to the 'commit' command, in which
33 case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead
6fc4a7e5 34 record the current content of the listed files (which must already
2de9b711 35 be known to Git);
6c96753d 36
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374. by using the -a switch with the 'commit' command to automatically
38 "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
39 listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index
40 that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform the
41 actual commit;
6c96753d 42
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435. by using the --interactive or --patch switches with the 'commit' command
44 to decide one by one which files or hunks should be part of the commit,
6cf378f0 45 before finalizing the operation. See the ``Interactive Mode'' section of
b4bd4668 46 linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate these modes.
6cbf07ef 47
60c2993c 48The `--dry-run` option can be used to obtain a
6c96753d 49summary of what is included by any of the above for the next
60c2993c 50commit by giving the same set of parameters (options and paths).
6c96753d 51
483bc4f0 52If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after
0b444cdb 53that, you can recover from it with 'git reset'.
5bfc4f23 54
6d35cc76 55
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56OPTIONS
57-------
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58-a::
59--all::
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60 Tell the command to automatically stage files that have
61 been modified and deleted, but new files you have not
2de9b711 62 told Git about are not affected.
62033318 63
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64-p::
65--patch::
66 Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose
67 which changes to commit. See linkgit:git-add[1] for
68 details.
69
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70-C <commit>::
71--reuse-message=<commit>::
bc47c29e 72 Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message
62033318 73 and the authorship information (including the timestamp)
bc47c29e 74 when creating the commit.
62033318 75
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76-c <commit>::
77--reedit-message=<commit>::
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78 Like '-C', but with '-c' the editor is invoked, so that
79 the user can further edit the commit message.
80
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81--fixup=<commit>::
82 Construct a commit message for use with `rebase --autosquash`.
83 The commit message will be the subject line from the specified
84 commit with a prefix of "fixup! ". See linkgit:git-rebase[1]
85 for details.
86
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87--squash=<commit>::
88 Construct a commit message for use with `rebase --autosquash`.
89 The commit message subject line is taken from the specified
90 commit with a prefix of "squash! ". Can be used with additional
91 commit message options (`-m`/`-c`/`-C`/`-F`). See
92 linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details.
93
c51f6cee 94--reset-author::
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95 When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a
96 a conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the
1fd63cac 97 resulting commit now belongs to the committer. This also renews
37f7a857 98 the author timestamp.
c51f6cee 99
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100--short::
101 When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See
102 linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies `--dry-run`.
103
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104--branch::
105 Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.
106
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107--porcelain::
108 When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready
109 format. See linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies
110 `--dry-run`.
111
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112--long::
113 When doing a dry-run, give the output in a the long-format.
114 Implies `--dry-run`.
115
7c9f7038 116-z::
e858af6d 117--null::
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118 When showing `short` or `porcelain` status output, terminate
119 entries in the status output with NUL, instead of LF. If no
120 format is given, implies the `--porcelain` output format.
121
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122-F <file>::
123--file=<file>::
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124 Take the commit message from the given file. Use '-' to
125 read the message from the standard input.
126
c4a7ff52 127--author=<author>::
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128 Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the
129 standard `A U Thor <author@example.com>` format. Otherwise <author>
130 is assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for an existing
131 commit by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i --author=<author>);
132 the commit author is then copied from the first such commit found.
130fcca6 133
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134--date=<date>::
135 Override the author date used in the commit.
136
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137-m <msg>::
138--message=<msg>::
62033318 139 Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
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140 If multiple `-m` options are given, their values are
141 concatenated as separate paragraphs.
62033318 142
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143-t <file>::
144--template=<file>::
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145 When editing the commit message, start the editor with the
146 contents in the given file. The `commit.template` configuration
147 variable is often used to give this option implicitly to the
148 command. This mechanism can be used by projects that want to
149 guide participants with some hints on what to write in the message
150 in what order. If the user exits the editor without editing the
151 message, the commit is aborted. This has no effect when a message
152 is given by other means, e.g. with the `-m` or `-F` options.
d1cc130a 153
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154-s::
155--signoff::
a0178ae2 156 Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
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157 log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the project,
158 but it typically certifies that committer has
159 the rights to submit this work under the same license and
160 agrees to a Developer Certificate of Origin
161 (see http://developercertificate.org/ for more information).
3f971fc4 162
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163-n::
164--no-verify::
aa6da6cd 165 This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks.
6998e4db 166 See also linkgit:githooks[5].
eaa54efc 167
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168--allow-empty::
169 Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its
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170 sole parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you
171 from making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and
6b677a28 172 is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts.
36863af1 173
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174--allow-empty-message::
175 Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign
6b677a28 176 SCM interface scripts. It allows you to create a commit with an
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177 empty commit message without using plumbing commands like
178 linkgit:git-commit-tree[1].
179
5f065737 180--cleanup=<mode>::
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181 This option determines how the supplied commit message should be
182 cleaned up before committing. The '<mode>' can be `strip`,
75df1f43 183 `whitespace`, `verbatim`, `scissors` or `default`.
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184+
185--
186strip::
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187 Strip leading and trailing empty lines, trailing whitespace,
188 commentary and collapse consecutive empty lines.
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189whitespace::
190 Same as `strip` except #commentary is not removed.
191verbatim::
192 Do not change the message at all.
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193scissors::
194 Same as `whitespace`, except that everything from (and
195 including) the line
196 "`# ------------------------ >8 ------------------------`"
197 is truncated if the message is to be edited. "`#`" can be
198 customized with core.commentChar.
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199default::
200 Same as `strip` if the message is to be edited.
201 Otherwise `whitespace`.
202--
203+
204The default can be changed by the 'commit.cleanup' configuration
205variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
5f065737 206
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207-e::
208--edit::
6d35cc76 209 The message taken from file with `-F`, command line with
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210 `-m`, and from commit object with `-C` are usually used as
211 the commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
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212 further edit the message taken from these sources.
213
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214--no-edit::
215 Use the selected commit message without launching an editor.
216 For example, `git commit --amend --no-edit` amends a commit
217 without changing its commit message.
218
ae5d8470 219--amend::
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220 Replace the tip of the current branch by creating a new
221 commit. The recorded tree is prepared as usual (including
222 the effect of the `-i` and `-o` options and explicit
223 pathspec), and the message from the original commit is used
224 as the starting point, instead of an empty message, when no
225 other message is specified from the command line via options
226 such as `-m`, `-F`, `-c`, etc. The new commit has the same
227 parents and author as the current one (the `--reset-author`
228 option can countermand this).
ae5d8470 229+
6cbd5d7d 230--
ae5d8470 231It is a rough equivalent for:
6cbd5d7d 232------
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233 $ git reset --soft HEAD^
234 $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
235 $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD
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236
237------
ae5d8470 238but can be used to amend a merge commit.
6cbd5d7d 239--
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240+
241You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you
242amend a commit that has already been published. (See the "RECOVERING
243FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
ae5d8470 244
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245--no-post-rewrite::
246 Bypass the post-rewrite hook.
247
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248-i::
249--include::
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250 Before making a commit out of staged contents so far,
251 stage the contents of paths given on the command line
252 as well. This is usually not what you want unless you
253 are concluding a conflicted merge.
62033318 254
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255-o::
256--only::
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257 Make a commit by taking the updated working tree contents
258 of the paths specified on the
d4ba07ca 259 command line, disregarding any contents that have been
d956a20a 260 staged for other paths. This is the default mode of operation of
0b444cdb 261 'git commit' if any paths are given on the command line,
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262 in which case this option can be omitted.
263 If this option is specified together with '--amend', then
04c8ce9c 264 no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend
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265 the last commit without committing changes that have
266 already been staged.
267
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268-u[<mode>]::
269--untracked-files[=<mode>]::
4cc62606 270 Show untracked files.
4bfee30a 271+
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272The mode parameter is optional (defaults to 'all'), and is used to
273specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
274default is 'normal', i.e. show untracked files and directories.
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275+
276The possible options are:
4bfee30a 277+
6c2ce048 278 - 'no' - Show no untracked files
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279 - 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories
280 - 'all' - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
d6293d1f 281+
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282The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles
283configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
af83bed6 284
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285-v::
286--verbose::
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287 Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what
288 would be committed at the bottom of the commit message
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289 template to help the user describe the commit by reminding
290 what changes the commit has.
291 Note that this diff output doesn't have its
292 lines prefixed with '#'. This diff will not be a part
293 of the commit message.
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295If specified twice, show in addition the unified diff between
296what would be committed and the worktree files, i.e. the unstaged
297changes to tracked files.
af83bed6 298
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299-q::
300--quiet::
23bfbb81 301 Suppress commit summary message.
ebd124c6 302
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303--dry-run::
304 Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are
305 to be committed, paths with local changes that will be left
306 uncommitted and paths that are untracked.
307
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308--status::
309 Include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the commit
310 message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
311 message. Defaults to on, but can be used to override
312 configuration variable commit.status.
313
314--no-status::
315 Do not include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the
316 commit message template when using an editor to prepare the
317 default commit message.
318
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319-S[<keyid>]::
320--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
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321 GPG-sign commits. The `keyid` argument is optional and
322 defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be
323 stuck to the option without a space.
098bbdc3 324
55ca3f99 325--no-gpg-sign::
da0005b8 326 Countermand `commit.gpgSign` configuration variable that is
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327 set to force each and every commit to be signed.
328
e994004f 329\--::
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330 Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
331
332<file>...::
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333 When files are given on the command line, the command
334 commits the contents of the named files, without
335 recording the changes already staged. The contents of
336 these files are also staged for the next commit on top
337 of what have been staged before.
3ae854c3 338
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339:git-commit: 1
340include::date-formats.txt[]
3ae854c3 341
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342EXAMPLES
343--------
344When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in
345your working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area
0b444cdb 346called the "index" with 'git add'. A file can be
97e9a221 347reverted back, only in the index but not in the working tree,
6cf378f0 348to that of the last commit with `git reset HEAD -- <file>`,
0b444cdb 349which effectively reverts 'git add' and prevents the changes to
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350this file from participating in the next commit. After building
351the state to be committed incrementally with these commands,
352`git commit` (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what
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353has been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the
354command. An example:
355
356------------
357$ edit hello.c
358$ git rm goodbye.c
359$ git add hello.c
360$ git commit
361------------
362
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363Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can
364tell `git commit` to notice the changes to the files whose
365contents are tracked in
366your working tree and do corresponding `git add` and `git rm`
367for you. That is, this example does the same as the earlier
368example if there is no other change in your working tree:
369
370------------
371$ edit hello.c
372$ rm goodbye.c
373$ git commit -a
374------------
375
376The command `git commit -a` first looks at your working tree,
377notices that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c,
378and performs necessary `git add` and `git rm` for you.
379
380After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the
381changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to `git commit`.
382When pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that
383only records the changes made to the named paths:
384
385------------
386$ edit hello.c hello.h
387$ git add hello.c hello.h
388$ edit Makefile
389$ git commit Makefile
390------------
391
392This makes a commit that records the modification to `Makefile`.
393The changes staged for `hello.c` and `hello.h` are not included
394in the resulting commit. However, their changes are not lost --
395they are still staged and merely held back. After the above
396sequence, if you do:
397
398------------
399$ git commit
400------------
401
402this second commit would record the changes to `hello.c` and
403`hello.h` as expected.
404
0b444cdb 405After a merge (initiated by 'git merge' or 'git pull') stops
483bc4f0 406because of conflicts, cleanly merged
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407paths are already staged to be committed for you, and paths that
408conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would have to first
0b444cdb 409check which paths are conflicting with 'git status'
6c96753d 410and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would
0b444cdb 411stage the result as usual with 'git add':
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412
413------------
414$ git status | grep unmerged
415unmerged: hello.c
416$ edit hello.c
417$ git add hello.c
418------------
419
420After resolving conflicts and staging the result, `git ls-files -u`
421would stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done,
422run `git commit` to finally record the merge:
423
424------------
425$ git commit
426------------
427
428As with the case to record your own changes, you can use `-a`
429option to save typing. One difference is that during a merge
430resolution, you cannot use `git commit` with pathnames to
431alter the order the changes are committed, because the merge
432should be recorded as a single commit. In fact, the command
433refuses to run when given pathnames (but see `-i` option).
434
435
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436DISCUSSION
437----------
438
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439Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
440with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
441change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description.
52ffe995 442The text up to the first blank line in a commit message is treated
2de9b711 443as the commit title, and that title is used throughout Git.
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444For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a commit into email, and it uses
445the title on the Subject line and the rest of the commit in the body.
936f32d3 446
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447include::i18n.txt[]
448
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449ENVIRONMENT AND CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
450---------------------------------------
451The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the
452GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the
453VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in that
b4479f07 454order). See linkgit:git-var[1] for details.
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455
456HOOKS
457-----
8089c85b 458This command can run `commit-msg`, `prepare-commit-msg`, `pre-commit`,
6998e4db 459and `post-commit` hooks. See linkgit:githooks[5] for more
6c96753d 460information.
130fcca6 461
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462FILES
463-----
464
465`$GIT_DIR/COMMIT_EDITMSG`::
466 This file contains the commit message of a commit in progress.
467 If `git commit` exits due to an error before creating a commit,
468 any commit message that has been provided by the user (e.g., in
469 an editor session) will be available in this file, but will be
470 overwritten by the next invocation of `git commit`.
130fcca6 471
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472SEE ALSO
473--------
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474linkgit:git-add[1],
475linkgit:git-rm[1],
476linkgit:git-mv[1],
477linkgit:git-merge[1],
478linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
130fcca6 479
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480GIT
481---
9e1f0a85 482Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite