Git 2.2
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
44e1e4d6 12'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
68e4b552 13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
673151a9 25linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
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26commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27in-depth introduction.
cb22bc44 28
7687ae98 29After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
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30page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
06ab60c0 32manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
4514ad4f 33
2de9b711 34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
7687ae98 35can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
34b604af 36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
2ff3f61a 41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
06ab60c0 42unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
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43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
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46* link:v2.2.0/git.html[documentation for release 2.2]
47
48* release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
50
49c3e926 51* link:v2.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.3]
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52
53* release notes for
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57 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
58
32f56600 59* link:v2.0.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.4]
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61* release notes for
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66 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
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70* release notes for
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75 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
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7bbc4e8f 77* link:v1.8.5.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.5]
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78
79* release notes for
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89* release notes for
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95 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
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104 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
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1d2375dd 361
efe05b01 362* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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363
364* release notes for
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365 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
366 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
367 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
368 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
369 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
370 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
371 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
372 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 373
e708af6e 374* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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375
376* release notes for
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377 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
378 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
379 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
380 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
381 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
382 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
383 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
384 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
385 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 386
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387* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
388
aba170cd 389* release notes for
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390 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
391 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
392 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
393 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
394 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
395 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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396
397* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
398
399* release notes for
761e742d
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400 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
401 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
402 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
403 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
404 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
405 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
406 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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407
408* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
409
aba170cd 410* release notes for
761e742d
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411 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
412 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
413 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
414 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
415 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
416 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
417 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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418
419* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
420 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
421 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
422 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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423
424============
425
426endif::stalenotes[]
427
cb22bc44
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428OPTIONS
429-------
430--version::
2de9b711 431 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
cb22bc44
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432
433--help::
a87cd02c 434 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
0f6f195b 435 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
2de9b711 436 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
0f6f195b 437 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
45533d26
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438+
439Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 440displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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441because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
442help ...`.
cb22bc44 443
44e1e4d6
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444-C <path>::
445 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
446 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
447 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
448 <path>`.
449+
450This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
451`--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
452made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
453example the following invocations are equivalent:
454
455 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
456 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
457
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458-c <name>=<value>::
459 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
460 given will override values from configuration files.
461 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
462 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
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463+
464Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
465`foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
466config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
467foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
8b1fa778 468
62b4698e 469--exec-path[=<path>]::
2de9b711 470 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 471 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 472 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
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473 the current setting and then exit.
474
89a56bfb 475--html-path::
2de9b711 476 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
239b5ed9 477 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 478
f2dd8c37 479--man-path::
239b5ed9 480 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
2de9b711 481 this version of Git and exit.
f2dd8c37
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482
483--info-path::
239b5ed9 484 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
2de9b711 485 version of Git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 486
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487-p::
488--paginate::
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489 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
490 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
491 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
492 below).
6acbcb92 493
463a849d 494--no-pager::
2de9b711 495 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
463a849d 496
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497--git-dir=<path>::
498 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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499 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
500 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 501
892c41b9 502--work-tree=<path>::
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503 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
504 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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505 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
506 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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507 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
508 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 509
d49483f0 510--namespace=<path>::
2de9b711 511 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
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512 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
513 variable.
514
6acbcb92 515--bare::
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516 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
517 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
518 directory.
519
b0fa7ab5 520--no-replace-objects::
2de9b711 521 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
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522 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
523
823ab40f 524--literal-pathspecs::
a16bf9dd
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525 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
526 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
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527 variable to `1`.
528
6fb02165 529--glob-pathspecs::
bd30c2e4
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530 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
531 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
532 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
533 magic ":(literal)"
534
6fb02165 535--noglob-pathspecs::
bd30c2e4
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536 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
537 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
538 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
539 magic ":(glob)"
9755afbd 540
6fb02165 541--icase-pathspecs::
93d93537
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542 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
543 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
9755afbd 544
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545GIT COMMANDS
546------------
9755afbd 547
2de9b711 548We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
23091e95 549("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 550
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551High-level commands (porcelain)
552-------------------------------
553
554We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
555ancillary user utilities.
556
557Main porcelain commands
558~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 559
377e8139 560include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 561
90933efb 562Ancillary Commands
23091e95 563~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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564Manipulators:
565
377e8139 566include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 567
90933efb 568Interrogators:
204ee6a9 569
377e8139 570include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 571
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572
573Interacting with Others
574~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
575
576These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
577people via patch over e-mail.
578
579include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
580
581
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582Low-level commands (plumbing)
583-----------------------------
584
2de9b711 585Although Git includes its
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586own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
587development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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588might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
589linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 590
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591The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
592to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
593than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
594primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
595on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
596end user experience.
597
598The following description divides
599the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
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600the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
601compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
602repositories.
603
89bf2077 604
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605Manipulation commands
606~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 607
377e8139 608include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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609
610
611Interrogation commands
612~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
613
377e8139 614include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
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615
616In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
617the working tree.
618
619
620Synching repositories
621~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
622
377e8139 623include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 624
57f6ec02 625The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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626typically do not use them directly.
627
628include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
629
630
631Internal helper commands
632~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
633
634These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
635users typically do not use them directly.
636
637include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
638
b1f33d62 639
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640Configuration Mechanism
641-----------------------
642
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643Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
644repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
645like this:
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646
647------------
648#
2fa090b6 649# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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650#
651
652; core variables
653[core]
654 ; Don't trust file modes
655 filemode = false
656
657; user identity
658[user]
659 name = "Junio C Hamano"
c0179c0d 660 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
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661
662------------
663
664Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
06300d97 665their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
c0179c0d 666list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
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667
668
6c84e2e0 669Identifier Terminology
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670----------------------
671<object>::
2fa090b6 672 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
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673
674<blob>::
2fa090b6 675 Indicates a blob object name.
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676
677<tree>::
2fa090b6 678 Indicates a tree object name.
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679
680<commit>::
2fa090b6 681 Indicates a commit object name.
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682
683<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 684 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
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685 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
686 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
687 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 688
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689<commit-ish>::
690 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
691 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
692 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
693 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
694
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695<type>::
696 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 697 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
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698
699<file>::
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700 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
701 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 702
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703Symbolic Identifiers
704--------------------
2de9b711 705Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 706symbolic notation:
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707
708HEAD::
0abcfbff 709 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 710
c1bdacf9 711<tag>::
2fa090b6 712 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 713 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 714
c1bdacf9 715<head>::
2fa090b6 716 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 717 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 718
d47107d8 719For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 720"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 721
c1bdacf9
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722
723File/Directory Structure
724------------------------
c1bdacf9 725
6998e4db 726Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 727
6998e4db 728Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 729
c1bdacf9 730Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 731`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 732
a1d4aa74 733
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734Terminology
735-----------
6998e4db 736Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
2cf565c5
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737
738
739Environment Variables
740---------------------
2de9b711 741Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
2cf565c5 742
2de9b711 743The Git Repository
c1bdacf9 744~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2de9b711 745These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
c1bdacf9 746is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2de9b711 747Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
c1bdacf9
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748
749'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
750 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
5f3aa197
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751 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
752 is used.
c1bdacf9 753
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754'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
755 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
756 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
757 files. By default index file version [23] is used.
758
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759'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
760 If the object storage directory is specified via this
761 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
762 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
763 directory is used.
764
765'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
2de9b711 766 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
c1bdacf9 767 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
80ba074f 768 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
2de9b711 769 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
80ba074f 770 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
c1bdacf9
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771
772'GIT_DIR'::
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773 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
774 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
775 for the base of the repository.
75940a00 776 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
c1bdacf9 777
892c41b9 778'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
a758a349 779 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
06ab60c0 780 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
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781 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
782
d49483f0 783'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
2de9b711 784 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
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785 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
786
0454dd93 787'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
7ec30aaa 788 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
3e07d268 789 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
7ec30aaa
MH
790 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
791 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
792 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
793 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
794 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
795 might be present in order to compare them with the current
796 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
797 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
798 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
799 e.g.,
800 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
0454dd93 801
cf87463e 802'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
e6405517 803 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
2de9b711 804 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
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805 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
806 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
2de9b711 807 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
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808 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
809 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
810 command line.
8030e442 811
2de9b711 812Git Commits
c1bdacf9
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813~~~~~~~~~~~
814'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
815'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
816'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
817'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
818'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 819'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 820'EMAIL'::
5162e697 821 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
c1bdacf9 822
2de9b711 823Git Diffs
c1bdacf9 824~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 825'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
fde97d8a
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826 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
827 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
828 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
2de9b711 829 value passed on the Git diff command line.
fde97d8a 830
d81ed1b5 831'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
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832 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
833 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
834 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
835 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
836
837 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
838+
839where:
840
841 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
842 contents of <old|new>,
d5fa1f1a 843 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
fde97d8a 844 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
fde97d8a
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845+
846The file parameters can point at the user's working file
847(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
848when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
849index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
850temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
851+
852For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
853parameter, <path>.
ee7fb0b1
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854+
855For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
856'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
857
858'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
859 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
860
861'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
862 The total number of paths.
2cf565c5 863
575ba9d6
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864other
865~~~~~
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866'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
867 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
868 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 869 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 870
c27d205a 871'GIT_PAGER'::
a7738c77 872 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
2de9b711 873 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
ab54cd6c
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874 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
875 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 876
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877'GIT_EDITOR'::
878 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
2de9b711 879 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
36384c97
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880 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
881 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
882
d5538b41 883'GIT_SSH'::
0b444cdb
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884 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
885 and 'git push' will use this command instead
2fd02c92 886 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
e39c695d
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887 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two or
888 four arguments: the 'username@host' (or just 'host')
889 from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
890 remote system, optionally preceded by '-p' (literally) and
891 the 'port' from the URL when it specifies something other
892 than the default SSH port.
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893+
894To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
895you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
896then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
897+
898Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
899personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
900for further details.
901
453842c9 902'GIT_ASKPASS'::
2de9b711 903 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
453842c9 904 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
06ab60c0 905 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
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906 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
907 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
908
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909'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
910 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
911 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
912 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
913 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
914 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
915 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
916
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917'GIT_FLUSH'::
918 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
0b444cdb 919 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
627a8b8d 920 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
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921 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
922 flushed. If this
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923 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
924 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
2de9b711 925 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
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926 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
927
575ba9d6 928'GIT_TRACE'::
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929 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
930 command execution and external command execution.
931+
932If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
933is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
934stderr.
935+
936If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
937and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
938value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
939trace messages into this file descriptor.
940+
941Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
942(starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
943as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
944into it.
945+
946Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
947"false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
575ba9d6 948
b12ca963 949'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
67dc598e 950 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
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951 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
952 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
953 pack-related performance problems.
67dc598e 954 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
b12ca963 955
1dd278ce 956'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
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957 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
958 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
959 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
960 starting with "PACK".
961 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
962
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963'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
964 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
965 time of each Git command.
966 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
967
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968'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
969 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
970 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
971 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
972
973'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
974 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
975 cloning of shallow repositories.
976 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1dd278ce 977
823ab40f 978GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
2de9b711 979 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
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980 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
981 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
982 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
983 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
2de9b711 984 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
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985 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
986
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987GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
988 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
989 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
990
991GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
992 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
993 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
994
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995GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
996 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
997 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
998
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999'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1000 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1001 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1002 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1003 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1004 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1005 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1006 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1007 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1008
823ab40f 1009
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1010Discussion[[Discussion]]
1011------------------------
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1012
1013More detail on the following is available from the
2de9b711 1014link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 1015user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
40dac517 1016
2de9b711 1017A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
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1018subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1019things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1020of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1021contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1022as tags and branch heads.
1023
1024The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1025hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 1026directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
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1027and some number of parent commits.
1028
1029The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1030"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1031represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1032parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1033
d5fa1f1a 1034All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
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1035written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1036The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1037just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1038purpose.
1039
1040When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1041efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1042
1043Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
d5fa1f1a
TA
1044may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1045with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1046recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
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1047tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1048`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1049
1050The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1051path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1052the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1053attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1054corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1055working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1056be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1057content stored in the index.
1058
1059The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1060for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1061unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 1062
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1063FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1064---------------------
1065
1066See the references in the "description" section to get started
2de9b711 1067using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
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1068for a first-time user.
1069
2de9b711 1070The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
7687ae98 1071user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
2de9b711 1072introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
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1073
1074See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1075
1076See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1077examples.
1078
1079The internals are documented in the
48a8c26c 1080link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
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1081
1082Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1083read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1084
1085
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1086Authors
1087-------
48bb914e 1088Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
2de9b711 1089C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
405869d0 1090<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
6ecc01f2
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1091gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1092
1093If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
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1094output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1095the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 1096
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1097Reporting Bugs
1098--------------
1099
1100Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1101development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1102subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1103
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1104SEE ALSO
1105--------
1106linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
673151a9 1107linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 1108linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
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1109linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1110linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 1111
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1112GIT
1113---
9e1f0a85 1114Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite