rev-parse --branches/--tags/--remotes=pattern
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-rev-parse.txt
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1git-rev-parse(1)
2================
3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-rev-parse - Pick out and massage parameters
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
b1889c36 11'git rev-parse' [ --option ] <args>...
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12
13DESCRIPTION
14-----------
5077fa9c 15
abda1ef5 16Many git porcelainish commands take mixture of flags
5077fa9c 17(i.e. parameters that begin with a dash '-') and parameters
ba020ef5 18meant for the underlying 'git-rev-list' command they use internally
483bc4f0 19and flags and parameters for the other commands they use
ba020ef5 20downstream of 'git-rev-list'. This command is used to
5077fa9c 21distinguish between them.
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22
23
24OPTIONS
25-------
21d47835 26--parseopt::
ba020ef5 27 Use 'git-rev-parse' in option parsing mode (see PARSEOPT section below).
21d47835 28
2163e3f7 29--keep-dashdash::
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30 Only meaningful in `--parseopt` mode. Tells the option parser to echo
31 out the first `--` met instead of skipping it.
32
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33--stop-at-non-option::
34 Only meaningful in `--parseopt` mode. Lets the option parser stop at
35 the first non-option argument. This can be used to parse sub-commands
36 that take options themself.
37
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38--sq-quote::
39 Use 'git-rev-parse' in shell quoting mode (see SQ-QUOTE
40 section below). In contrast to the `--sq` option below, this
41 mode does only quoting. Nothing else is done to command input.
42
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43--revs-only::
44 Do not output flags and parameters not meant for
ba020ef5 45 'git-rev-list' command.
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46
47--no-revs::
48 Do not output flags and parameters meant for
ba020ef5 49 'git-rev-list' command.
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50
51--flags::
52 Do not output non-flag parameters.
53
54--no-flags::
55 Do not output flag parameters.
56
57--default <arg>::
58 If there is no parameter given by the user, use `<arg>`
59 instead.
60
61--verify::
62 The parameter given must be usable as a single, valid
63 object name. Otherwise barf and abort.
64
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65-q::
66--quiet::
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67 Only meaningful in `--verify` mode. Do not output an error
68 message if the first argument is not a valid object name;
69 instead exit with non-zero status silently.
70
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71--sq::
72 Usually the output is made one line per flag and
73 parameter. This option makes output a single line,
74 properly quoted for consumption by shell. Useful when
75 you expect your parameter to contain whitespaces and
76 newlines (e.g. when using pickaxe `-S` with
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77 'git-diff-\*'). In contrast to the `--sq-quote` option,
78 the command input is still interpreted as usual.
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79
80--not::
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81 When showing object names, prefix them with '{caret}' and
82 strip '{caret}' prefix from the object names that already have
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83 one.
84
85--symbolic::
86 Usually the object names are output in SHA1 form (with
babfaba2 87 possible '{caret}' prefix); this option makes them output in a
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88 form as close to the original input as possible.
89
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90--symbolic-full-name::
91 This is similar to \--symbolic, but it omits input that
92 are not refs (i.e. branch or tag names; or more
93 explicitly disambiguating "heads/master" form, when you
94 want to name the "master" branch when there is an
95 unfortunately named tag "master"), and show them as full
96 refnames (e.g. "refs/heads/master").
5077fa9c 97
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98--abbrev-ref[={strict|loose}]::
99 A non-ambiguous short name of the objects name.
100 The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict
101 abbreviation mode.
102
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103--all::
104 Show all refs found in `$GIT_DIR/refs`.
105
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106--branches[=pattern]::
107 Show branch refs found in `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads`. If `pattern`
108 is given, only branches matching given shell glob are shown.
109 If pattern lacks '?', '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is impiled.
a62be77f 110
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111--tags[=pattern]::
112 Show tag refs found in `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags`. If `pattern`
113 is given, only tags matching given shell glob are shown.
114 If pattern lacks '?', '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is impiled.
a62be77f 115
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116--remotes[=pattern]::
117 Show tag refs found in `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes`. If `pattern`
118 is given, only remote tracking branches matching given shell glob
119 are shown. If pattern lacks '?', '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is
120 impiled.
a62be77f 121
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122--glob=glob-pattern::
123 Show refs matching shell glob pattern `glob-pattern`. If pattern
124 specified lacks leading 'refs/', it is automatically prepended.
125 If pattern lacks '?', '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is impiled.
126
5077fa9c 127--show-prefix::
5f94c730 128 When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the
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129 path of the current directory relative to the top-level
130 directory.
7fc9d69f 131
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132--show-cdup::
133 When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the
134 path of the top-level directory relative to the current
135 directory (typically a sequence of "../", or an empty string).
136
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137--git-dir::
138 Show `$GIT_DIR` if defined else show the path to the .git directory.
139
c9bf7be2 140--is-inside-git-dir::
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141 When the current working directory is below the repository
142 directory print "true", otherwise "false".
143
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144--is-inside-work-tree::
145 When the current working directory is inside the work tree of the
146 repository print "true", otherwise "false".
147
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148--is-bare-repository::
149 When the repository is bare print "true", otherwise "false".
c9bf7be2 150
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151--short::
152--short=number::
735d80b3 153 Instead of outputting the full SHA1 values of object names try to
abda1ef5 154 abbreviate them to a shorter unique name. When no length is specified
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155 7 is used. The minimum length is 4.
156
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157--since=datestring::
158--after=datestring::
483bc4f0 159 Parse the date string, and output the corresponding
ba020ef5 160 --max-age= parameter for 'git-rev-list'.
a3114b34 161
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162--until=datestring::
163--before=datestring::
483bc4f0 164 Parse the date string, and output the corresponding
ba020ef5 165 --min-age= parameter for 'git-rev-list'.
a3114b34 166
7fc9d69f 167<args>...::
5077fa9c 168 Flags and parameters to be parsed.
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169
170
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171SPECIFYING REVISIONS
172--------------------
173
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174A revision parameter typically, but not necessarily, names a
175commit object. They use what is called an 'extended SHA1'
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176syntax. Here are various ways to spell object names. The
177ones listed near the end of this list are to name trees and
178blobs contained in a commit.
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179
180* The full SHA1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or
181 a substring of such that is unique within the repository.
182 E.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and dae86e both
183 name the same commit object if there are no other object in
184 your repository whose object name starts with dae86e.
185
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186* An output from 'git-describe'; i.e. a closest tag, optionally
187 followed by a dash and a number of commits, followed by a dash, a
188 `g`, and an abbreviated object name.
6b09c788 189
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190* A symbolic ref name. E.g. 'master' typically means the commit
191 object referenced by $GIT_DIR/refs/heads/master. If you
192 happen to have both heads/master and tags/master, you can
72e9340c 193 explicitly say 'heads/master' to tell git which one you mean.
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194 When ambiguous, a `<name>` is disambiguated by taking the
195 first match in the following rules:
3a45f625 196
0ac30568 197 . if `$GIT_DIR/<name>` exists, that is what you mean (this is usually
fd11ae0b 198 useful only for `HEAD`, `FETCH_HEAD`, `ORIG_HEAD` and `MERGE_HEAD`);
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199
200 . otherwise, `$GIT_DIR/refs/<name>` if exists;
201
202 . otherwise, `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<name>` if exists;
203
204 . otherwise, `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<name>` if exists;
205
206 . otherwise, `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes/<name>` if exists;
207
208 . otherwise, `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes/<name>/HEAD` if exists.
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209+
210HEAD names the commit your changes in the working tree is based on.
211FETCH_HEAD records the branch you fetched from a remote repository
212with your last 'git-fetch' invocation.
213ORIG_HEAD is created by commands that moves your HEAD in a drastic
214way, to record the position of the HEAD before their operation, so that
215you can change the tip of the branch back to the state before you ran
216them easily.
217MERGE_HEAD records the commit(s) you are merging into your branch
218when you run 'git-merge'.
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219
220* A ref followed by the suffix '@' with a date specification
221 enclosed in a brace
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222 pair (e.g. '\{yesterday\}', '\{1 month 2 weeks 3 days 1 hour 1
223 second ago\}' or '\{1979-02-26 18:30:00\}') to specify the value
224 of the ref at a prior point in time. This suffix may only be
225 used immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an
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226 existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>). Note that this looks up the state
227 of your *local* ref at a given time; e.g., what was in your local
228 `master` branch last week. If you want to look at commits made during
229 certain times, see `--since` and `--until`.
d556fae2 230
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231* A ref followed by the suffix '@' with an ordinal specification
232 enclosed in a brace pair (e.g. '\{1\}', '\{15\}') to specify
233 the n-th prior value of that ref. For example 'master@\{1\}'
234 is the immediate prior value of 'master' while 'master@\{5\}'
235 is the 5th prior value of 'master'. This suffix may only be used
236 immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an existing
237 log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>).
238
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239* You can use the '@' construct with an empty ref part to get at a
240 reflog of the current branch. For example, if you are on the
241 branch 'blabla', then '@\{1\}' means the same as 'blabla@\{1\}'.
242
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243* The special construct '@\{-<n>\}' means the <n>th branch checked out
244 before the current one.
245
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246* A suffix '{caret}' to a revision parameter means the first parent of
247 that commit object. '{caret}<n>' means the <n>th parent (i.e.
248 'rev{caret}'
249 is equivalent to 'rev{caret}1'). As a special rule,
250 'rev{caret}0' means the commit itself and is used when 'rev' is the
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251 object name of a tag object that refers to a commit object.
252
54bd2558 253* A suffix '{tilde}<n>' to a revision parameter means the commit
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254 object that is the <n>th generation grand-parent of the named
255 commit object, following only the first parent. I.e. rev~3 is
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256 equivalent to rev{caret}{caret}{caret} which is equivalent to
257 rev{caret}1{caret}1{caret}1. See below for a illustration of
258 the usage of this form.
3a45f625 259
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260* A suffix '{caret}' followed by an object type name enclosed in
261 brace pair (e.g. `v0.99.8{caret}\{commit\}`) means the object
262 could be a tag, and dereference the tag recursively until an
263 object of that type is found or the object cannot be
264 dereferenced anymore (in which case, barf). `rev{caret}0`
265 introduced earlier is a short-hand for `rev{caret}\{commit\}`.
266
267* A suffix '{caret}' followed by an empty brace pair
268 (e.g. `v0.99.8{caret}\{\}`) means the object could be a tag,
269 and dereference the tag recursively until a non-tag object is
270 found.
271
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272* A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text: this names
273 a commit whose commit message starts with the specified text.
274 This name returns the youngest matching commit which is
275 reachable from any ref. If the commit message starts with a
276 '!', you have to repeat that; the special sequence ':/!',
277 followed by something else than '!' is reserved for now.
278
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279* A suffix ':' followed by a path; this names the blob or tree
280 at the given path in the tree-ish object named by the part
281 before the colon.
282
283* A colon, optionally followed by a stage number (0 to 3) and a
284 colon, followed by a path; this names a blob object in the
285 index at the given path. Missing stage number (and the colon
a5d86f74 286 that follows it) names a stage 0 entry. During a merge, stage
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287 1 is the common ancestor, stage 2 is the target branch's version
288 (typically the current branch), and stage 3 is the version from
289 the branch being merged.
6b09c788 290
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291Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger. Both commit nodes B
292and C are parents of commit node A. Parent commits are ordered
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293left-to-right.
294
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295........................................
296G H I J
297 \ / \ /
298 D E F
299 \ | / \
300 \ | / |
301 \|/ |
302 B C
303 \ /
304 \ /
305 A
306........................................
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307
308 A = = A^0
309 B = A^ = A^1 = A~1
310 C = A^2 = A^2
311 D = A^^ = A^1^1 = A~2
312 E = B^2 = A^^2
313 F = B^3 = A^^3
314 G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
315 H = D^2 = B^^2 = A^^^2 = A~2^2
316 I = F^ = B^3^ = A^^3^
317 J = F^2 = B^3^2 = A^^3^2
318
3a45f625 319
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320SPECIFYING RANGES
321-----------------
322
ba020ef5 323History traversing commands such as 'git-log' operate on a set
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324of commits, not just a single commit. To these commands,
325specifying a single revision with the notation described in the
326previous section means the set of commits reachable from that
327commit, following the commit ancestry chain.
328
329To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix `{caret}`
dcb11263 330notation is used. E.g. `{caret}r1 r2` means commits reachable
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331from `r2` but exclude the ones reachable from `r1`.
332
333This set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand
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334for it. When you have two commits `r1` and `r2` (named according
335to the syntax explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you can ask
336for commits that are reachable from r2 excluding those that are reachable
dcb11263 337from r1 by `{caret}r1 r2` and it can be written as `r1..r2`.
be4c7014 338
dcb11263 339A similar notation `r1\...r2` is called symmetric difference
be4c7014 340of `r1` and `r2` and is defined as
dcb11263 341`r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2)`.
e18ee576 342It is the set of commits that are reachable from either one of
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343`r1` or `r2` but not from both.
344
62476c8e 345Two other shorthands for naming a set that is formed by a commit
faf466ff 346and its parent commits exist. The `r1{caret}@` notation means all
62476c8e 347parents of `r1`. `r1{caret}!` includes commit `r1` but excludes
faf466ff 348all of its parents.
62476c8e 349
a5d86f74 350Here are a handful of examples:
be4c7014 351
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352 D G H D
353 D F G H I J D F
354 ^G D H D
355 ^D B E I J F B
356 B...C G H D E B C
357 ^D B C E I J F B C
358 C^@ I J F
359 F^! D G H D F
be4c7014 360
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361PARSEOPT
362--------
363
ba020ef5 364In `--parseopt` mode, 'git-rev-parse' helps massaging options to bring to shell
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365scripts the same facilities C builtins have. It works as an option normalizer
366(e.g. splits single switches aggregate values), a bit like `getopt(1)` does.
367
368It takes on the standard input the specification of the options to parse and
369understand, and echoes on the standard output a line suitable for `sh(1)` `eval`
370to replace the arguments with normalized ones. In case of error, it outputs
371usage on the standard error stream, and exits with code 129.
372
373Input Format
374~~~~~~~~~~~~
375
ba020ef5 376'git-rev-parse --parseopt' input format is fully text based. It has two parts,
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377separated by a line that contains only `--`. The lines before the separator
378(should be more than one) are used for the usage.
379The lines after the separator describe the options.
380
381Each line of options has this format:
382
383------------
ff962a3f 384<opt_spec><flags>* SP+ help LF
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385------------
386
387`<opt_spec>`::
388 its format is the short option character, then the long option name
389 separated by a comma. Both parts are not required, though at least one
390 is necessary. `h,help`, `dry-run` and `f` are all three correct
391 `<opt_spec>`.
392
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393`<flags>`::
394 `<flags>` are of `*`, `=`, `?` or `!`.
395 * Use `=` if the option takes an argument.
396
397 * Use `?` to mean that the option is optional (though its use is discouraged).
398
399 * Use `*` to mean that this option should not be listed in the usage
400 generated for the `-h` argument. It's shown for `--help-all` as
a5af0e2c 401 documented in linkgit:gitcli[7].
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402
403 * Use `!` to not make the corresponding negated long option available.
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404
405The remainder of the line, after stripping the spaces, is used
406as the help associated to the option.
407
408Blank lines are ignored, and lines that don't match this specification are used
409as option group headers (start the line with a space to create such
410lines on purpose).
411
412Example
413~~~~~~~
414
415------------
416OPTS_SPEC="\
417some-command [options] <args>...
418
419some-command does foo and bar!
420--
421h,help show the help
422
423foo some nifty option --foo
424bar= some cool option --bar with an argument
425
426 An option group Header
427C? option C with an optional argument"
428
b1889c36 429eval `echo "$OPTS_SPEC" | git rev-parse --parseopt -- "$@" || echo exit $?`
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430------------
431
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432SQ-QUOTE
433--------
434
435In `--sq-quote` mode, 'git-rev-parse' echoes on the standard output a
436single line suitable for `sh(1)` `eval`. This line is made by
437normalizing the arguments following `--sq-quote`. Nothing other than
438quoting the arguments is done.
439
440If you want command input to still be interpreted as usual by
441'git-rev-parse' before the output is shell quoted, see the `--sq`
442option.
443
444Example
445~~~~~~~
446
447------------
448$ cat >your-git-script.sh <<\EOF
449#!/bin/sh
450args=$(git rev-parse --sq-quote "$@") # quote user-supplied arguments
451command="git frotz -n24 $args" # and use it inside a handcrafted
452 # command line
453eval "$command"
454EOF
455
456$ sh your-git-script.sh "a b'c"
457------------
458
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459EXAMPLES
460--------
461
462* Print the object name of the current commit:
463+
464------------
465$ git rev-parse --verify HEAD
466------------
467
468* Print the commit object name from the revision in the $REV shell variable:
469+
470------------
471$ git rev-parse --verify $REV
472------------
473+
474This will error out if $REV is empty or not a valid revision.
475
476* Same as above:
477+
478------------
479$ git rev-parse --default master --verify $REV
480------------
481+
482but if $REV is empty, the commit object name from master will be printed.
483
21d47835 484
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485Author
486------
21d47835 487Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> .
59eb68aa 488Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> and Pierre Habouzit <madcoder@debian.org>
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489
490Documentation
491--------------
492Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
493
494GIT
495---
9e1f0a85 496Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite