docs: move core.excludesFile from git-add to gitignore
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-add.txt
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1git-add(1)
2==========
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3
4NAME
5----
5f42ac92 6git-add - Add file contents to the index
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7
8SYNOPSIS
9--------
480611d1 10[verse]
a2681d2b 11'git add' [--verbose | -v] [--dry-run | -n] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
9f60f49b 12 [--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
9472935d 13 [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--renormalize]
7ef7903e 14 [--chmod=(+|-)x] [--] [<pathspec>...]
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15
16DESCRIPTION
17-----------
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18This command updates the index using the current content found in
19the working tree, to prepare the content staged for the next commit.
20It typically adds the current content of existing paths as a whole,
21but with some options it can also be used to add content with
22only part of the changes made to the working tree files applied, or
23remove paths that do not exist in the working tree anymore.
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24
25The "index" holds a snapshot of the content of the working tree, and it
26is this snapshot that is taken as the contents of the next commit. Thus
bd02e97f 27after making any changes to the working tree, and before running
441947f6 28the commit command, you must use the `add` command to add any new or
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29modified files to the index.
30
31This command can be performed multiple times before a commit. It only
32adds the content of the specified file(s) at the time the add command is
33run; if you want subsequent changes included in the next commit, then
441947f6 34you must run `git add` again to add the new content to the index.
5f42ac92 35
441947f6 36The `git status` command can be used to obtain a summary of which
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37files have changes that are staged for the next commit.
38
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39The `git add` command will not add ignored files by default. If any
40ignored files were explicitly specified on the command line, `git add`
d1d028ea 41will fail with a list of ignored files. Ignored files reached by
9d5fc59d 42directory recursion or filename globbing performed by Git (quote your
ca768288 43globs before the shell) will be silently ignored. The 'git add' command can
9d5fc59d 44be used to add ignored files with the `-f` (force) option.
7fc9d69f 45
5162e697 46Please see linkgit:git-commit[1] for alternative ways to add content to a
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47commit.
48
49
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50OPTIONS
51-------
d32805dc 52<pathspec>...::
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53 Files to add content from. Fileglobs (e.g. `*.c`) can
54 be given to add all matching files. Also a
55 leading directory name (e.g. `dir` to add `dir/file1`
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56 and `dir/file2`) can be given to update the index to
57 match the current state of the directory as a whole (e.g.
58 specifying `dir` will record not just a file `dir/file1`
59 modified in the working tree, a file `dir/file2` added to
60 the working tree, but also a file `dir/file3` removed from
ba170517 61 the working tree). Note that older versions of Git used
fdc97abd 62 to ignore removed files; use `--no-all` option if you want
ba170517 63 to add modified or new files but ignore removed ones.
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64+
65For more details about the <pathspec> syntax, see the 'pathspec' entry
66in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
7fc9d69f 67
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68-n::
69--dry-run::
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70 Don't actually add the file(s), just show if they exist and/or will
71 be ignored.
918db541 72
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73-v::
74--verbose::
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75 Be verbose.
76
6a1ad325 77-f::
69c61c4f 78--force::
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79 Allow adding otherwise ignored files.
80
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81-i::
82--interactive::
6a5ad23d 83 Add modified contents in the working tree interactively to
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84 the index. Optional path arguments may be supplied to limit
85 operation to a subset of the working tree. See ``Interactive
86 mode'' for details.
87
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88-p::
89--patch::
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90 Interactively choose hunks of patch between the index and the
91 work tree and add them to the index. This gives the user a chance
92 to review the difference before adding modified contents to the
93 index.
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94+
95This effectively runs `add --interactive`, but bypasses the
96initial command menu and directly jumps to the `patch` subcommand.
97See ``Interactive mode'' for details.
6a5ad23d 98
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99-e::
100--edit::
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101 Open the diff vs. the index in an editor and let the user
102 edit it. After the editor was closed, adjust the hunk headers
103 and apply the patch to the index.
104+
5df4d67d 105The intent of this option is to pick and choose lines of the patch to
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106apply, or even to modify the contents of lines to be staged. This can be
107quicker and more flexible than using the interactive hunk selector.
108However, it is easy to confuse oneself and create a patch that does not
109apply to the index. See EDITING PATCHES below.
c59cb03a 110
bc3561f3 111-u::
69c61c4f 112--update::
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113 Update the index just where it already has an entry matching
114 <pathspec>. This removes as well as modifies index entries to
115 match the working tree, but adds no new files.
968d7072 116+
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117If no <pathspec> is given when `-u` option is used, all
118tracked files in the entire working tree are updated (old versions
119of Git used to limit the update to the current directory and its
120subdirectories).
bc3561f3 121
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122-A::
123--all::
9f60f49b 124--no-ignore-removal::
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125 Update the index not only where the working tree has a file
126 matching <pathspec> but also where the index already has an
ba170517 127 entry. This adds, modifies, and removes index entries to
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128 match the working tree.
129+
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130If no <pathspec> is given when `-A` option is used, all
131files in the entire working tree are updated (old versions
132of Git used to limit the update to the current directory and its
133subdirectories).
8776f5d3 134
45c45e30 135--no-all::
9f60f49b 136--ignore-removal::
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137 Update the index by adding new files that are unknown to the
138 index and files modified in the working tree, but ignore
139 files that have been removed from the working tree. This
140 option is a no-op when no <pathspec> is used.
141+
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142This option is primarily to help users who are used to older
143versions of Git, whose "git add <pathspec>..." was a synonym
144for "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e. ignored removed files.
45c45e30 145
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146-N::
147--intent-to-add::
148 Record only the fact that the path will be added later. An entry
149 for the path is placed in the index with no content. This is
150 useful for, among other things, showing the unstaged content of
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151 such files with `git diff` and committing them with `git commit
152 -a`.
8776f5d3 153
3240240f 154--refresh::
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155 Don't add the file(s), but only refresh their stat()
156 information in the index.
157
3240240f 158--ignore-errors::
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159 If some files could not be added because of errors indexing
160 them, do not abort the operation, but continue adding the
161 others. The command shall still exit with non-zero status.
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162 The configuration variable `add.ignoreErrors` can be set to
163 true to make this the default behaviour.
984b83ef 164
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165--ignore-missing::
166 This option can only be used together with --dry-run. By using
167 this option the user can check if any of the given files would
168 be ignored, no matter if they are already present in the work
169 tree or not.
170
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171--no-warn-embedded-repo::
172 By default, `git add` will warn when adding an embedded
173 repository to the index without using `git submodule add` to
174 create an entry in `.gitmodules`. This option will suppress the
175 warning (e.g., if you are manually performing operations on
176 submodules).
177
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178--renormalize::
179 Apply the "clean" process freshly to all tracked files to
180 forcibly add them again to the index. This is useful after
181 changing `core.autocrlf` configuration or the `text` attribute
182 in order to correct files added with wrong CRLF/LF line endings.
183 This option implies `-u`.
184
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185--chmod=(+|-)x::
186 Override the executable bit of the added files. The executable
187 bit is only changed in the index, the files on disk are left
188 unchanged.
189
e994004f 190\--::
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191 This option can be used to separate command-line options from
192 the list of files, (useful when filenames might be mistaken
193 for command-line options).
194
918db541 195
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196EXAMPLES
197--------
810bf1f9 198
1b6c6cf0 199* Adds content from all `*.txt` files under `Documentation` directory
ba170517 200 and its subdirectories:
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201+
202------------
bf7cbb2f 203$ git add Documentation/\*.txt
921177f5 204------------
810bf1f9 205+
1b6c6cf0 206Note that the asterisk `*` is quoted from the shell in this
dcc901bc 207example; this lets the command include the files from
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208subdirectories of `Documentation/` directory.
209
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210* Considers adding content from all git-*.sh scripts:
211+
212------------
213$ git add git-*.sh
214------------
215+
dcc901bc 216Because this example lets the shell expand the asterisk (i.e. you are
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217listing the files explicitly), it does not consider
218`subdir/git-foo.sh`.
810bf1f9 219
76a8788c 220INTERACTIVE MODE
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221----------------
222When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the
23bfbb81 223output of the 'status' subcommand, and then goes into its
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224interactive command loop.
225
226The command loop shows the list of subcommands available, and
227gives a prompt "What now> ". In general, when the prompt ends
228with a single '>', you can pick only one of the choices given
229and type return, like this:
230
231------------
232 *** Commands ***
233 1: status 2: update 3: revert 4: add untracked
234 5: patch 6: diff 7: quit 8: help
235 What now> 1
236------------
237
441947f6 238You also could say `s` or `sta` or `status` above as long as the
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239choice is unique.
240
241The main command loop has 6 subcommands (plus help and quit).
242
243status::
244
245 This shows the change between HEAD and index (i.e. what will be
441947f6 246 committed if you say `git commit`), and between index and
6a5ad23d 247 working tree files (i.e. what you could stage further before
441947f6 248 `git commit` using `git add`) for each path. A sample output
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249 looks like this:
250+
251------------
252 staged unstaged path
253 1: binary nothing foo.png
254 2: +403/-35 +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl
255------------
256+
257It shows that foo.png has differences from HEAD (but that is
258binary so line count cannot be shown) and there is no
259difference between indexed copy and the working tree
260version (if the working tree version were also different,
261'binary' would have been shown in place of 'nothing'). The
28394787 262other file, git-add{litdd}interactive.perl, has 403 lines added
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263and 35 lines deleted if you commit what is in the index, but
264working tree file has further modifications (one addition and
265one deletion).
266
267update::
268
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269 This shows the status information and issues an "Update>>"
270 prompt. When the prompt ends with double '>>', you can
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271 make more than one selection, concatenated with whitespace or
272 comma. Also you can say ranges. E.g. "2-5 7,9" to choose
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273 2,3,4,5,7,9 from the list. If the second number in a range is
274 omitted, all remaining patches are taken. E.g. "7-" to choose
275 7,8,9 from the list. You can say '*' to choose everything.
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276+
277What you chose are then highlighted with '*',
278like this:
279+
280------------
281 staged unstaged path
282 1: binary nothing foo.png
283* 2: +403/-35 +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl
284------------
285+
286To remove selection, prefix the input with `-`
287like this:
288+
289------------
290Update>> -2
291------------
292+
293After making the selection, answer with an empty line to stage the
294contents of working tree files for selected paths in the index.
295
296revert::
297
298 This has a very similar UI to 'update', and the staged
299 information for selected paths are reverted to that of the
300 HEAD version. Reverting new paths makes them untracked.
301
302add untracked::
303
304 This has a very similar UI to 'update' and
305 'revert', and lets you add untracked paths to the index.
306
307patch::
308
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309 This lets you choose one path out of a 'status' like selection.
310 After choosing the path, it presents the diff between the index
6a5ad23d 311 and the working tree file and asks you if you want to stage
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312 the change of each hunk. You can select one of the following
313 options and type return:
6a5ad23d 314
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315 y - stage this hunk
316 n - do not stage this hunk
a58088ab 317 q - quit; do not stage this hunk or any of the remaining ones
74e42ce1 318 a - stage this hunk and all later hunks in the file
a58088ab 319 d - do not stage this hunk or any of the later hunks in the file
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320 g - select a hunk to go to
321 / - search for a hunk matching the given regex
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322 j - leave this hunk undecided, see next undecided hunk
323 J - leave this hunk undecided, see next hunk
324 k - leave this hunk undecided, see previous undecided hunk
325 K - leave this hunk undecided, see previous hunk
280e50c7 326 s - split the current hunk into smaller hunks
ac083c47 327 e - manually edit the current hunk
280e50c7 328 ? - print help
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329+
330After deciding the fate for all hunks, if there is any hunk
331that was chosen, the index is updated with the selected hunks.
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332+
333You can omit having to type return here, by setting the configuration
da0005b8 334variable `interactive.singleKey` to `true`.
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335
336diff::
337
338 This lets you review what will be committed (i.e. between
339 HEAD and index).
340
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341
342EDITING PATCHES
343---------------
344
345Invoking `git add -e` or selecting `e` from the interactive hunk
346selector will open a patch in your editor; after the editor exits, the
347result is applied to the index. You are free to make arbitrary changes
348to the patch, but note that some changes may have confusing results, or
349even result in a patch that cannot be applied. If you want to abort the
350operation entirely (i.e., stage nothing new in the index), simply delete
351all lines of the patch. The list below describes some common things you
352may see in a patch, and which editing operations make sense on them.
353
354--
355added content::
356
357Added content is represented by lines beginning with "{plus}". You can
358prevent staging any addition lines by deleting them.
359
360removed content::
361
362Removed content is represented by lines beginning with "-". You can
363prevent staging their removal by converting the "-" to a " " (space).
364
365modified content::
366
367Modified content is represented by "-" lines (removing the old content)
368followed by "{plus}" lines (adding the replacement content). You can
369prevent staging the modification by converting "-" lines to " ", and
370removing "{plus}" lines. Beware that modifying only half of the pair is
371likely to introduce confusing changes to the index.
372--
373
374There are also more complex operations that can be performed. But beware
375that because the patch is applied only to the index and not the working
376tree, the working tree will appear to "undo" the change in the index.
469bfc96 377For example, introducing a new line into the index that is in neither
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378the HEAD nor the working tree will stage the new line for commit, but
379the line will appear to be reverted in the working tree.
380
381Avoid using these constructs, or do so with extreme caution.
382
383--
384removing untouched content::
385
386Content which does not differ between the index and working tree may be
387shown on context lines, beginning with a " " (space). You can stage
388context lines for removal by converting the space to a "-". The
389resulting working tree file will appear to re-add the content.
390
391modifying existing content::
392
393One can also modify context lines by staging them for removal (by
394converting " " to "-") and adding a "{plus}" line with the new content.
395Similarly, one can modify "{plus}" lines for existing additions or
396modifications. In all cases, the new modification will appear reverted
397in the working tree.
398
399new content::
400
401You may also add new content that does not exist in the patch; simply
402add new lines, each starting with "{plus}". The addition will appear
403reverted in the working tree.
404--
405
406There are also several operations which should be avoided entirely, as
407they will make the patch impossible to apply:
408
409* adding context (" ") or removal ("-") lines
410* deleting context or removal lines
411* modifying the contents of context or removal lines
412
56ae8df5 413SEE ALSO
872d001f 414--------
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415linkgit:git-status[1]
416linkgit:git-rm[1]
417linkgit:git-reset[1]
418linkgit:git-mv[1]
419linkgit:git-commit[1]
420linkgit:git-update-index[1]
810bf1f9 421
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422GIT
423---
9e1f0a85 424Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite