revision.c: introduce --cherry-mark
[git/git.git] / Documentation / rev-list-options.txt
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1Commit Formatting
2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3
4ifdef::git-rev-list[]
5Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
6more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
7linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]
8endif::git-rev-list[]
9
10include::pretty-options.txt[]
11
12--relative-date::
13
14 Synonym for `--date=relative`.
15
0adda936 16--date=(relative|local|default|iso|rfc|short|raw)::
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17
18 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
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19 as when using "--pretty". `log.date` config variable sets a default
20 value for log command's --date option.
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21+
22`--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
23e.g. "2 hours ago".
24+
25`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local timezone.
26+
27`--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
28+
29`--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
30format, often found in E-mail messages.
31+
32`--date=short` shows only date but not time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
33+
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34`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw git format `%s %z` format.
35+
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36`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original timezone
37(either committer's or author's).
38
adf60f14 39ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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40--header::
41
42 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
43 separated with a NUL character.
adf60f14 44endif::git-rev-list[]
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45
46--parents::
47
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48 Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent...").
49 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
fdcf39e5 50
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51--children::
52
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53 Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child...").
54 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
72276a3e 55
adf60f14 56ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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57--timestamp::
58 Print the raw commit timestamp.
adf60f14 59endif::git-rev-list[]
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60
61--left-right::
62
63 Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
64 Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
65 the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
66 commits are prefixed with `-`.
67+
68For example, if you have this topology:
69+
70-----------------------------------------------------------------------
71 y---b---b branch B
72 / \ /
73 / .
74 / / \
75 o---x---a---a branch A
76-----------------------------------------------------------------------
77+
d777af86 78you would get an output like this:
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79+
80-----------------------------------------------------------------------
81 $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
82
83 >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
84 >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
85 <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
86 <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
87 -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
88 -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
89-----------------------------------------------------------------------
90
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91--graph::
92
93 Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
94 on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
95 to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
96 to be drawn properly.
97+
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98This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
99+
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100This implies the '--topo-order' option by default, but the
101'--date-order' option may also be specified.
102
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103ifdef::git-rev-list[]
104--count::
105 Print a number stating how many commits would have been
106 listed, and suppress all other output. When used together
107 with '--left-right', instead print the counts for left and
108 right commits, separated by a tab.
109endif::git-rev-list[]
110
111
9612e743 112ifndef::git-rev-list[]
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113Diff Formatting
114~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
115
116Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
117Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
118options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
119
120-c::
121
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122 With this option, diff output for a merge commit
123 shows the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
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124 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
125 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
126 which were modified from all parents.
127
128--cc::
129
130 This flag implies the '-c' options and further compresses the
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131 patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
132 the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
133 one of them without modification.
fdcf39e5 134
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135-m::
136
137 This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like
138 regular commits; for each merge parent, a separate log entry
139 and diff is generated. An exception is that only diff against
140 the first parent is shown when '--first-parent' option is given;
141 in that case, the output represents the changes the merge
142 brought _into_ the then-current branch.
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143
144-r::
145
146 Show recursive diffs.
147
148-t::
149
150 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies '-r'.
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151
152-s::
153 Suppress diff output.
9612e743 154endif::git-rev-list[]
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155
156Commit Limiting
157~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
158
159Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
160special notations explained in the description, additional commit
161limiting may be applied.
162
163--
164
3240240f 165-n 'number'::
982962ce 166--max-count=<number>::
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167
168 Limit the number of commits output.
169
982962ce 170--skip=<number>::
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171
172 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
173
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174--since=<date>::
175--after=<date>::
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176
177 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
178
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179--until=<date>::
180--before=<date>::
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181
182 Show commits older than a specific date.
183
56b6d01d 184ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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185--max-age=<timestamp>::
186--min-age=<timestamp>::
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187
188 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
56b6d01d 189endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 190
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191--author=<pattern>::
192--committer=<pattern>::
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193
194 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
195 header lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression).
196
982962ce 197--grep=<pattern>::
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198
199 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
200 matches the specified pattern (regular expression).
201
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202--all-match::
203 Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
204 --author and --committer instead of ones that match at least one.
205
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206-i::
207--regexp-ignore-case::
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208
209 Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.
210
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211-E::
212--extended-regexp::
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213
214 Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
215 instead of the default basic regular expressions.
216
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217-F::
218--fixed-strings::
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219
220 Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
221 pattern as a regular expression).
222
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223--remove-empty::
224
225 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
226
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227--merges::
228
229 Print only merge commits.
230
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231--no-merges::
232
233 Do not print commits with more than one parent.
234
235--first-parent::
236 Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
237 commit. This option can give a better overview when
238 viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
239 because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
240 adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
241 this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
242 brought in to your history by such a merge.
243
244--not::
245
246 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
247 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next '--not'.
248
249--all::
250
cc1b8d8b 251 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/` are listed on the
fdcf39e5 252 command line as '<commit>'.
c2e6385d 253
62b4698e 254--branches[=<pattern>]::
c2e6385d 255
cc1b8d8b 256 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/heads` are listed
62b4698e 257 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
b09fe971 258 branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?',
6a5d0b0a 259 '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 260
62b4698e 261--tags[=<pattern>]::
c2e6385d 262
cc1b8d8b 263 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/tags` are listed
62b4698e 264 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
b09fe971 265 tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?', '*',
6a5d0b0a 266 or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 267
62b4698e 268--remotes[=<pattern>]::
c2e6385d 269
cc1b8d8b 270 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/remotes` are listed
62b4698e 271 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
0e615b25 272 remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob.
6a5d0b0a 273 If pattern lacks '?', '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
fdcf39e5 274
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275--glob=<glob-pattern>::
276 Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob '<glob-pattern>'
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277 are listed on the command line as '<commit>'. Leading 'refs/',
278 is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks '?', '*',
6a5d0b0a 279 or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
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280
281
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282ifndef::git-rev-list[]
283--bisect::
284
cc1b8d8b 285 Pretend as if the bad bisection ref `refs/bisect/bad`
af06e93a 286 was listed and as if it was followed by `--not` and the good
cc1b8d8b 287 bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` on the command
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288 line.
289endif::git-rev-list[]
290
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291--stdin::
292
293 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
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294 line, read them from the standard input. If a '--' separator is
295 seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
296 result.
fdcf39e5 297
8b3dce56 298ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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299--quiet::
300
301 Don't print anything to standard output. This form
302 is primarily meant to allow the caller to
303 test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
304 connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
305 to /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.
adf60f14 306endif::git-rev-list[]
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307
308--cherry-pick::
309
310 Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
311 another commit on the "other side" when the set of
312 commits are limited with symmetric difference.
313+
314For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
315to list all commits on only one side of them is with
316`--left-right`, like the example above in the description of
317that option. It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked
318from the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked
319from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
320excluded from the output.
321
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322--left-only::
323--right-only::
324
325 List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric range,
326 i.e. only those which would be marked `<` resp. `>` by
327 `--left-right`.
328+
329For example, `--cherry-pick --right-only A...B` omits those
330commits from `B` which are in `A` or are patch-equivalent to a commit in
331`A`. In other words, this lists the `{plus}` commits from `git cherry A B`.
332More precisely, `--cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges` gives the exact
333list.
334
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335-g::
336--walk-reflogs::
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337
338 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
339 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
340 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
341 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
b9190e79 342 nor 'commit1\...commit2' notations cannot be used).
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343+
344With '\--pretty' format other than oneline (for obvious reasons),
345this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
346taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@\{Nth}' notation is
347used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
18a2197e 348'commit@\{now}', output also uses 'commit@\{timestamp}' notation
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349instead. Under '\--pretty=oneline', the commit message is
350prefixed with this information on the same line.
e534735a 351This option cannot be combined with '\--reverse'.
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352See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
353
354--merge::
355
356 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
357 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
358
359--boundary::
360
361 Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually
362 not shown.
363
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364--
365
366History Simplification
367~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
368
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369Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
370commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
371'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
372is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
373
374The following options select the commits to be shown:
375
376<paths>::
377
378 Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
379
380--simplify-by-decoration::
381
382 Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
383
384Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
385
386The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
387
388Default mode::
389
390 Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
391 final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
392 branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
393 with the same content)
394
395--full-history::
396
397 As the default mode but does not prune some history.
398
399--dense::
400
401 Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
402 meaningful history.
403
404--sparse::
405
406 All commits in the simplified history are shown.
407
408--simplify-merges::
409
410 Additional option to '--full-history' to remove some needless
411 merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
412 commits contributing to this merge.
413
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414--ancestry-path::
415
416 When given a range of commits to display (e.g. 'commit1..commit2'
417 or 'commit2 {caret}commit1'), only display commits that exist
418 directly on the ancestry chain between the 'commit1' and
419 'commit2', i.e. commits that are both descendants of 'commit1',
420 and ancestors of 'commit2'.
421
7bc2508b 422A more detailed explanation follows.
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423
424Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
425that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
426filtered for `foo`, they look different and equal, respectively.)
427
428In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
429illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
430that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
431-----------------------------------------------------------------------
432 .-A---M---N---O---P
433 / / / / /
434 I B C D E
435 \ / / / /
436 `-------------'
437-----------------------------------------------------------------------
438The horizontal line of history A--P is taken to be the first parent of
439each merge. The commits are:
440
441* `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
442 "asdf", and a file `quux` exists with contents "quux". Initial
443 commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
444
445* In `A`, `foo` contains just "foo".
446
447* `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
448 hence TREESAME to all parents.
449
450* `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to "foobar",
451 so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
452
453* `D` sets `foo` to "baz". Its merge `O` combines the strings from
454 `N` and `D` to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
455
456* `E` changes `quux` to "xyzzy", and its merge `P` combines the
457 strings to "quux xyzzy". Despite appearing interesting, `P` is
458 TREESAME to all parents.
459
460'rev-list' walks backwards through history, including or excluding
461commits based on whether '\--full-history' and/or parent rewriting
462(via '\--parents' or '\--children') are used. The following settings
463are available.
464
465Default mode::
466
467 Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
468 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below). If the
469 commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
470 only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
471 parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
472 parents.
473+
474This results in:
475+
476-----------------------------------------------------------------------
477 .-A---N---O
f70d0586 478 / / /
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479 I---------D
480-----------------------------------------------------------------------
481+
482Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
483available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
484considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
485empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
486+
487Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does
488not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
489parent lines.
490
491--full-history without parent rewriting::
492
493 This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
494 all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
495 Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
496 included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
497 the example, we get
498+
499-----------------------------------------------------------------------
500 I A B N D O
501-----------------------------------------------------------------------
502+
503`P` and `M` were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent. `E`,
504`C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
505do not appear.
506+
507Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
508about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
509them disconnected.
510
511--full-history with parent rewriting::
512
513 Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
514 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below).
515+
516Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
517Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
518themselves. This results in
519+
520-----------------------------------------------------------------------
521 .-A---M---N---O---P
522 / / / / /
523 I B / D /
524 \ / / / /
525 `-------------'
526-----------------------------------------------------------------------
527+
528Compare to '\--full-history' without rewriting above. Note that `E`
529was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
530rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
531`N`. Note also that `P` was included despite being TREESAME.
532
533In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
534affects inclusion:
535
3240240f 536--dense::
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537
538 Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
539 to any parent.
540
3240240f 541--sparse::
fdcf39e5 542
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543 All commits that are walked are included.
544+
545Note that without '\--full-history', this still simplifies merges: if
546one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
547sides of the merge are never walked.
fdcf39e5 548
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549--simplify-merges::
550
551 First, build a history graph in the same way that
552 '\--full-history' with parent rewriting does (see above).
553+
554Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
555history according to the following rules:
556+
557--
558* Set `C'` to `C`.
559+
560* Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
561 the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and
562 remove duplicates.
563+
564* If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
565 zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
566 Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
567--
568+
569The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
570'\--full-history' with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
571+
572-----------------------------------------------------------------------
573 .-A---M---N---O
574 / / /
575 I B D
576 \ / /
577 `---------'
578-----------------------------------------------------------------------
579+
580Note the major differences in `N` and `P` over '\--full-history':
581+
582--
583* `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
584 other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
585+
586* `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
587 removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
588--
fdcf39e5 589
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590Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:
591
592--ancestry-path::
593
594 Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry
595 chain between the "from" and "to" commits in the given commit
596 range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the "to"
597 commit, and descendants of the "from" commit.
598+
599As an example use case, consider the following commit history:
600+
601-----------------------------------------------------------------------
602 D---E-------F
603 / \ \
604 B---C---G---H---I---J
605 / \
606 A-------K---------------L--M
607-----------------------------------------------------------------------
608+
609A regular 'D..M' computes the set of commits that are ancestors of `M`,
610but excludes the ones that are ancestors of `D`. This is useful to see
611what happened to the history leading to `M` since `D`, in the sense
612that "what does `M` have that did not exist in `D`". The result in this
613example would be all the commits, except `A` and `B` (and `D` itself,
614of course).
615+
616When we want to find out what commits in `M` are contaminated with the
617bug introduced by `D` and need fixing, however, we might want to view
618only the subset of 'D..M' that are actually descendants of `D`, i.e.
619excluding `C` and `K`. This is exactly what the '\--ancestry-path'
620option does. Applied to the 'D..M' range, it results in:
621+
622-----------------------------------------------------------------------
623 E-------F
624 \ \
625 G---H---I---J
626 \
627 L--M
628-----------------------------------------------------------------------
629
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630The '\--simplify-by-decoration' option allows you to view only the
631big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
632that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
633(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
634above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
635contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
636commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
637
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639Bisection Helpers
640~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
641
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642--bisect::
643
644Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
af06e93a 645included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
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646`refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
647exists) and the good bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` are
af06e93a 648added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
cc1b8d8b 649are no refs in `refs/bisect/`, if
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650
651-----------------------------------------------------------------------
6514aa36 652 $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
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653-----------------------------------------------------------------------
654
655outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
656
657-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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658 $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
659 $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
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660-----------------------------------------------------------------------
661
662would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
663introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
664generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
665one.
666
667--bisect-vars::
668
af06e93a 669This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
cc1b8d8b 670`refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
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671text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
672name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
673expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
674to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
675`bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
676number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
677`bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
678`bisect_all`.
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679
680--bisect-all::
681
682This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
683commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
cc1b8d8b 684commits. Refs in `refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
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685from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
686`--bisect`.)
3d2d4f96 687+
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688This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
689test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
690may not compile for example).
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692This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
693after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
694`--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
695endif::git-rev-list[]
696
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697
698Commit Ordering
699~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
700
701By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
702
703--topo-order::
704
705 This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
706 descendant commits are shown before their parents).
707
708--date-order::
709
710 This option is similar to '--topo-order' in the sense that no
711 parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things
712 are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.
713
714--reverse::
715
716 Output the commits in reverse order.
717 Cannot be combined with '\--walk-reflogs'.
718
719Object Traversal
720~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
721
722These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.
723
724--objects::
725
726 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
727 commits. '--objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me
728 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
729 object 'bar', but not 'foo'".
730
731--objects-edge::
732
733 Similar to '--objects', but also print the IDs of excluded
734 commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
735 linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build "thin" pack, which records
736 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
737 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
738
739--unpacked::
740
741 Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
742 in packs.
743
744--no-walk::
745
746 Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their ancestors.
747
748--do-walk::
749
750 Overrides a previous --no-walk.