revision.c: introduce --min-parents and --max-parents options
[git/git.git] / Documentation / rev-list-options.txt
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1Commit Formatting
2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3
4ifdef::git-rev-list[]
5Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
6more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
7linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]
8endif::git-rev-list[]
9
10include::pretty-options.txt[]
11
12--relative-date::
13
14 Synonym for `--date=relative`.
15
0adda936 16--date=(relative|local|default|iso|rfc|short|raw)::
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17
18 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
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19 as when using "--pretty". `log.date` config variable sets a default
20 value for log command's --date option.
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21+
22`--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
23e.g. "2 hours ago".
24+
25`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local timezone.
26+
27`--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
28+
29`--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
30format, often found in E-mail messages.
31+
32`--date=short` shows only date but not time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
33+
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34`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw git format `%s %z` format.
35+
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36`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original timezone
37(either committer's or author's).
38
adf60f14 39ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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40--header::
41
42 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
43 separated with a NUL character.
adf60f14 44endif::git-rev-list[]
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45
46--parents::
47
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48 Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent...").
49 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
fdcf39e5 50
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51--children::
52
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53 Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child...").
54 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
72276a3e 55
adf60f14 56ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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57--timestamp::
58 Print the raw commit timestamp.
adf60f14 59endif::git-rev-list[]
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60
61--left-right::
62
63 Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
64 Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
65 the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
66 commits are prefixed with `-`.
67+
68For example, if you have this topology:
69+
70-----------------------------------------------------------------------
71 y---b---b branch B
72 / \ /
73 / .
74 / / \
75 o---x---a---a branch A
76-----------------------------------------------------------------------
77+
d777af86 78you would get an output like this:
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79+
80-----------------------------------------------------------------------
81 $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
82
83 >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
84 >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
85 <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
86 <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
87 -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
88 -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
89-----------------------------------------------------------------------
90
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91--graph::
92
93 Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
94 on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
95 to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
96 to be drawn properly.
97+
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98This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
99+
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100This implies the '--topo-order' option by default, but the
101'--date-order' option may also be specified.
102
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103ifdef::git-rev-list[]
104--count::
105 Print a number stating how many commits would have been
106 listed, and suppress all other output. When used together
107 with '--left-right', instead print the counts for left and
108 right commits, separated by a tab.
109endif::git-rev-list[]
110
111
9612e743 112ifndef::git-rev-list[]
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113Diff Formatting
114~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
115
116Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
117Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
118options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
119
120-c::
121
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122 With this option, diff output for a merge commit
123 shows the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
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124 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
125 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
126 which were modified from all parents.
127
128--cc::
129
130 This flag implies the '-c' options and further compresses the
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131 patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
132 the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
133 one of them without modification.
fdcf39e5 134
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135-m::
136
137 This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like
138 regular commits; for each merge parent, a separate log entry
139 and diff is generated. An exception is that only diff against
140 the first parent is shown when '--first-parent' option is given;
141 in that case, the output represents the changes the merge
142 brought _into_ the then-current branch.
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143
144-r::
145
146 Show recursive diffs.
147
148-t::
149
150 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies '-r'.
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151
152-s::
153 Suppress diff output.
9612e743 154endif::git-rev-list[]
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155
156Commit Limiting
157~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
158
159Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
160special notations explained in the description, additional commit
161limiting may be applied.
162
163--
164
3240240f 165-n 'number'::
982962ce 166--max-count=<number>::
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167
168 Limit the number of commits output.
169
982962ce 170--skip=<number>::
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171
172 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
173
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174--since=<date>::
175--after=<date>::
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176
177 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
178
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179--until=<date>::
180--before=<date>::
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181
182 Show commits older than a specific date.
183
56b6d01d 184ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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185--max-age=<timestamp>::
186--min-age=<timestamp>::
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187
188 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
56b6d01d 189endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 190
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191--author=<pattern>::
192--committer=<pattern>::
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193
194 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
195 header lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression).
196
982962ce 197--grep=<pattern>::
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198
199 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
200 matches the specified pattern (regular expression).
201
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202--all-match::
203 Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
204 --author and --committer instead of ones that match at least one.
205
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206-i::
207--regexp-ignore-case::
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208
209 Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.
210
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211-E::
212--extended-regexp::
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213
214 Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
215 instead of the default basic regular expressions.
216
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217-F::
218--fixed-strings::
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219
220 Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
221 pattern as a regular expression).
222
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223--remove-empty::
224
225 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
226
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227--merges::
228
229 Print only merge commits.
230
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231--no-merges::
232
233 Do not print commits with more than one parent.
234
235--first-parent::
236 Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
237 commit. This option can give a better overview when
238 viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
239 because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
240 adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
241 this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
242 brought in to your history by such a merge.
243
244--not::
245
246 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
247 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next '--not'.
248
249--all::
250
cc1b8d8b 251 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/` are listed on the
fdcf39e5 252 command line as '<commit>'.
c2e6385d 253
62b4698e 254--branches[=<pattern>]::
c2e6385d 255
cc1b8d8b 256 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/heads` are listed
62b4698e 257 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
b09fe971 258 branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?',
6a5d0b0a 259 '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 260
62b4698e 261--tags[=<pattern>]::
c2e6385d 262
cc1b8d8b 263 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/tags` are listed
62b4698e 264 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
b09fe971 265 tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?', '*',
6a5d0b0a 266 or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 267
62b4698e 268--remotes[=<pattern>]::
c2e6385d 269
cc1b8d8b 270 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/remotes` are listed
62b4698e 271 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
0e615b25 272 remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob.
6a5d0b0a 273 If pattern lacks '?', '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
fdcf39e5 274
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275--glob=<glob-pattern>::
276 Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob '<glob-pattern>'
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277 are listed on the command line as '<commit>'. Leading 'refs/',
278 is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks '?', '*',
6a5d0b0a 279 or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
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280
281
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282ifndef::git-rev-list[]
283--bisect::
284
cc1b8d8b 285 Pretend as if the bad bisection ref `refs/bisect/bad`
af06e93a 286 was listed and as if it was followed by `--not` and the good
cc1b8d8b 287 bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` on the command
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288 line.
289endif::git-rev-list[]
290
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291--stdin::
292
293 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
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294 line, read them from the standard input. If a '--' separator is
295 seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
296 result.
fdcf39e5 297
8b3dce56 298ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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299--quiet::
300
301 Don't print anything to standard output. This form
302 is primarily meant to allow the caller to
303 test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
304 connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
305 to /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.
adf60f14 306endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 307
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308--cherry-mark::
309
310 Like `--cherry-pick` (see below) but mark equivalent commits
311 with `=` rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with `+`.
312
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313--cherry-pick::
314
315 Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
316 another commit on the "other side" when the set of
317 commits are limited with symmetric difference.
318+
319For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
320to list all commits on only one side of them is with
321`--left-right`, like the example above in the description of
322that option. It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked
323from the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked
324from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
325excluded from the output.
326
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327--left-only::
328--right-only::
329
330 List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric range,
331 i.e. only those which would be marked `<` resp. `>` by
332 `--left-right`.
333+
334For example, `--cherry-pick --right-only A...B` omits those
335commits from `B` which are in `A` or are patch-equivalent to a commit in
336`A`. In other words, this lists the `{plus}` commits from `git cherry A B`.
337More precisely, `--cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges` gives the exact
338list.
339
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340--cherry::
341
342 A synonym for `--right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges`; useful to
343 limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that
344 have been applied to the other side of a forked history with
345 `git log --cherry upstream...mybranch`, similar to
346 `git cherry upstream mybranch`.
347
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348-g::
349--walk-reflogs::
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350
351 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
352 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
353 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
354 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
b9190e79 355 nor 'commit1\...commit2' notations cannot be used).
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356+
357With '\--pretty' format other than oneline (for obvious reasons),
358this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
359taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@\{Nth}' notation is
360used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
18a2197e 361'commit@\{now}', output also uses 'commit@\{timestamp}' notation
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362instead. Under '\--pretty=oneline', the commit message is
363prefixed with this information on the same line.
e534735a 364This option cannot be combined with '\--reverse'.
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365See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
366
367--merge::
368
369 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
370 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
371
372--boundary::
373
374 Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually
375 not shown.
376
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377--
378
379History Simplification
380~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
381
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382Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
383commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
384'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
385is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
386
387The following options select the commits to be shown:
388
389<paths>::
390
391 Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
392
393--simplify-by-decoration::
394
395 Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
396
397Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
398
399The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
400
401Default mode::
402
403 Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
404 final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
405 branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
406 with the same content)
407
408--full-history::
409
410 As the default mode but does not prune some history.
411
412--dense::
413
414 Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
415 meaningful history.
416
417--sparse::
418
419 All commits in the simplified history are shown.
420
421--simplify-merges::
422
423 Additional option to '--full-history' to remove some needless
424 merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
425 commits contributing to this merge.
426
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427--ancestry-path::
428
429 When given a range of commits to display (e.g. 'commit1..commit2'
430 or 'commit2 {caret}commit1'), only display commits that exist
431 directly on the ancestry chain between the 'commit1' and
432 'commit2', i.e. commits that are both descendants of 'commit1',
433 and ancestors of 'commit2'.
434
7bc2508b 435A more detailed explanation follows.
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436
437Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
438that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
439filtered for `foo`, they look different and equal, respectively.)
440
441In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
442illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
443that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
444-----------------------------------------------------------------------
445 .-A---M---N---O---P
446 / / / / /
447 I B C D E
448 \ / / / /
449 `-------------'
450-----------------------------------------------------------------------
451The horizontal line of history A--P is taken to be the first parent of
452each merge. The commits are:
453
454* `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
455 "asdf", and a file `quux` exists with contents "quux". Initial
456 commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
457
458* In `A`, `foo` contains just "foo".
459
460* `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
461 hence TREESAME to all parents.
462
463* `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to "foobar",
464 so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
465
466* `D` sets `foo` to "baz". Its merge `O` combines the strings from
467 `N` and `D` to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
468
469* `E` changes `quux` to "xyzzy", and its merge `P` combines the
470 strings to "quux xyzzy". Despite appearing interesting, `P` is
471 TREESAME to all parents.
472
473'rev-list' walks backwards through history, including or excluding
474commits based on whether '\--full-history' and/or parent rewriting
475(via '\--parents' or '\--children') are used. The following settings
476are available.
477
478Default mode::
479
480 Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
481 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below). If the
482 commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
483 only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
484 parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
485 parents.
486+
487This results in:
488+
489-----------------------------------------------------------------------
490 .-A---N---O
f70d0586 491 / / /
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492 I---------D
493-----------------------------------------------------------------------
494+
495Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
496available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
497considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
498empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
499+
500Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does
501not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
502parent lines.
503
504--full-history without parent rewriting::
505
506 This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
507 all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
508 Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
509 included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
510 the example, we get
511+
512-----------------------------------------------------------------------
513 I A B N D O
514-----------------------------------------------------------------------
515+
516`P` and `M` were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent. `E`,
517`C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
518do not appear.
519+
520Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
521about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
522them disconnected.
523
524--full-history with parent rewriting::
525
526 Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
527 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below).
528+
529Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
530Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
531themselves. This results in
532+
533-----------------------------------------------------------------------
534 .-A---M---N---O---P
535 / / / / /
536 I B / D /
537 \ / / / /
538 `-------------'
539-----------------------------------------------------------------------
540+
541Compare to '\--full-history' without rewriting above. Note that `E`
542was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
543rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
544`N`. Note also that `P` was included despite being TREESAME.
545
546In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
547affects inclusion:
548
3240240f 549--dense::
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550
551 Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
552 to any parent.
553
3240240f 554--sparse::
fdcf39e5 555
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556 All commits that are walked are included.
557+
558Note that without '\--full-history', this still simplifies merges: if
559one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
560sides of the merge are never walked.
fdcf39e5 561
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562--simplify-merges::
563
564 First, build a history graph in the same way that
565 '\--full-history' with parent rewriting does (see above).
566+
567Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
568history according to the following rules:
569+
570--
571* Set `C'` to `C`.
572+
573* Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
574 the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and
575 remove duplicates.
576+
577* If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
578 zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
579 Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
580--
581+
582The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
583'\--full-history' with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
584+
585-----------------------------------------------------------------------
586 .-A---M---N---O
587 / / /
588 I B D
589 \ / /
590 `---------'
591-----------------------------------------------------------------------
592+
593Note the major differences in `N` and `P` over '\--full-history':
594+
595--
596* `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
597 other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
598+
599* `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
600 removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
601--
fdcf39e5 602
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603Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:
604
605--ancestry-path::
606
607 Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry
608 chain between the "from" and "to" commits in the given commit
609 range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the "to"
610 commit, and descendants of the "from" commit.
611+
612As an example use case, consider the following commit history:
613+
614-----------------------------------------------------------------------
615 D---E-------F
616 / \ \
617 B---C---G---H---I---J
618 / \
619 A-------K---------------L--M
620-----------------------------------------------------------------------
621+
622A regular 'D..M' computes the set of commits that are ancestors of `M`,
623but excludes the ones that are ancestors of `D`. This is useful to see
624what happened to the history leading to `M` since `D`, in the sense
625that "what does `M` have that did not exist in `D`". The result in this
626example would be all the commits, except `A` and `B` (and `D` itself,
627of course).
628+
629When we want to find out what commits in `M` are contaminated with the
630bug introduced by `D` and need fixing, however, we might want to view
631only the subset of 'D..M' that are actually descendants of `D`, i.e.
632excluding `C` and `K`. This is exactly what the '\--ancestry-path'
633option does. Applied to the 'D..M' range, it results in:
634+
635-----------------------------------------------------------------------
636 E-------F
637 \ \
638 G---H---I---J
639 \
640 L--M
641-----------------------------------------------------------------------
642
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643The '\--simplify-by-decoration' option allows you to view only the
644big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
645that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
646(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
647above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
648contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
649commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
650
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652Bisection Helpers
653~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
654
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655--bisect::
656
657Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
af06e93a 658included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
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659`refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
660exists) and the good bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` are
af06e93a 661added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
cc1b8d8b 662are no refs in `refs/bisect/`, if
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663
664-----------------------------------------------------------------------
6514aa36 665 $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
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666-----------------------------------------------------------------------
667
668outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
669
670-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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671 $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
672 $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
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673-----------------------------------------------------------------------
674
675would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
676introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
677generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
678one.
679
680--bisect-vars::
681
af06e93a 682This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
cc1b8d8b 683`refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
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684text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
685name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
686expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
687to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
688`bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
689number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
690`bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
691`bisect_all`.
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692
693--bisect-all::
694
695This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
696commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
cc1b8d8b 697commits. Refs in `refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
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698from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
699`--bisect`.)
3d2d4f96 700+
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701This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
702test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
703may not compile for example).
3d2d4f96 704+
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705This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
706after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
707`--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
708endif::git-rev-list[]
709
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710
711Commit Ordering
712~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
713
714By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
715
716--topo-order::
717
718 This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
719 descendant commits are shown before their parents).
720
721--date-order::
722
723 This option is similar to '--topo-order' in the sense that no
724 parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things
725 are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.
726
727--reverse::
728
729 Output the commits in reverse order.
730 Cannot be combined with '\--walk-reflogs'.
731
732Object Traversal
733~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
734
735These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.
736
737--objects::
738
739 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
740 commits. '--objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me
741 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
742 object 'bar', but not 'foo'".
743
744--objects-edge::
745
746 Similar to '--objects', but also print the IDs of excluded
747 commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
748 linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build "thin" pack, which records
749 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
750 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
751
752--unpacked::
753
754 Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
755 in packs.
756
757--no-walk::
758
759 Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their ancestors.
760
761--do-walk::
762
763 Overrides a previous --no-walk.