builtin/push.c: use OPT_BOOL, not OPT_BOOLEAN
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
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1git-push(1)
2===========
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
97925fde 11[verse]
c2aba155 12'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
6ddba5e2 13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
90d32d1f 14 [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
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15
16DESCRIPTION
17-----------
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18
19Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
20necessary to complete the given refs.
7fc9d69f 21
cc55aaec 22You can make interesting things happen to a repository
eb0362a4 23every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
5162e697 24documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
eb0362a4 25
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26When the command line does not specify where to push with the
27`<repository>` argument, `branch.*.remote` configuration for the
28current branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the
29configuration is missing, it defaults to 'origin'.
30
31When the command line does not specify what to push with `<refspec>...`
32arguments or `--all`, `--mirror`, `--tags` options, the command finds
33the default `<refspec>` by consulting `remote.*.push` configuration,
34and if it is not found, honors `push.default` configuration to decide
35what to push (See gitlink:git-config[1] for the meaning of `push.default`).
36
7fc9d69f 37
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38OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
39------------------
3598a308 40<repository>::
85a97d4e 41 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
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42 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
43 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
44 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
3598a308 45
2c9693bd 46<refspec>...::
cfe1348d 47 Specify what destination ref to update with what source object.
7a0d911f 48 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
cfe1348d 49 `+`, followed by the source object <src>, followed
7a0d911f 50 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
3598a308 51+
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52The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
53it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
9d83e382 54`HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]).
3598a308 55+
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56The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
57push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
58be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
59updated.
3598a308 60+
149f6ddf 61The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
dbfeddb1 62on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if <dst> is not
40eff179 63a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if it can fast-forward
2de9b711 64<dst>. By having the optional leading `+`, you can tell Git to update
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65the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by default (e.g., it is not a
66fast-forward.) This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
149f6ddf 67EXAMPLES below for details.
3598a308 68+
80391846 69`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
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70+
71Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
72the remote repository.
a83619d6 73+
6cf378f0 74The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
2de9b711 75directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
89edd5a9 76the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
cfe1348d 77already exists on the remote side.
7fc9d69f 78
3240240f 79--all::
cc55aaec 80 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 81 refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
d6a73596 82
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83--prune::
84 Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example
85 a remote branch `tmp` will be removed if a local branch with the same
86 name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs, e.g.
6cf378f0 87 `git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/*` would
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88 make sure that remote `refs/tmp/foo` will be removed if `refs/heads/foo`
89 doesn't exist.
90
3240240f 91--mirror::
ff206748 92 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 93 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
73f03627 94 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
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95 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
96 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
97 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
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98 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
99 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
100 set.
ff206748 101
9f67fee2 102-n::
3240240f 103--dry-run::
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104 Do everything except actually send the updates.
105
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106--porcelain::
107 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
108 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
109 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
110
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111--delete::
112 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
113 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
114
3240240f 115--tags::
cc1b8d8b 116 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
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117 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
118 line.
119
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120--follow-tags::
121 Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option,
122 and also push annotated tags in `refs/tags` that are missing
123 from the remote but are pointing at committish that are
124 reachable from the refs being pushed.
125
3240240f 126--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
4fc988ef 127--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
ba020ef5 128 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
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129 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
130 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
131 a directory on the default $PATH.
132
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133-f::
134--force::
f0fff36e 135 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
64a476e6 136 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
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137 This flag disables the check. This can cause the
138 remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
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139 Note that `--force` applies to all the refs that are pushed,
140 hence using it with `push.default` set to `matching` or with
141 multiple push destinations configured with `remote.*.push`
142 may overwrite refs other than the current branch (including
143 local refs that are strictly behind their remote counterpart).
144 To force a push to only one branch, use a `+` in front of the
145 refspec to push (e.g `git push origin +master` to force a push
146 to the `master` branch). See the `<refspec>...` section above
147 for details.
7fc9d69f 148
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149--repo=<repository>::
150 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
0b444cdb 151 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
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152 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
153 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
154 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
155 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
156 the difference between these two commands
157+
158--------------------------
159git push public #1
160git push --repo=public #2
161--------------------------
162+
163is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
164only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
0b444cdb 165useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
dc36f265 166
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167-u::
168--set-upstream::
169 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
170 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
171 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
172 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
173
0460ed2c 174--[no-]thin::
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175 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
176 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
177 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
178 \--thin.
dc36f265 179
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180-q::
181--quiet::
182 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
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183 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
184 error stream.
989119d9 185
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186-v::
187--verbose::
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188 Run verbosely.
189
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190--progress::
191 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
192 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
193 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
194 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
989119d9 195
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196--recurse-submodules=check|on-demand::
197 Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
a6d3bde5 198 pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch. If 'check' is
2de9b711 199 used Git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
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200 the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote
201 of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be
202 aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
203 all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will
204 be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary
205 revisions it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status.
d2b17b32 206
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207--[no-]verify::
208 Toggle the pre-push hook (see linkgit:githooks[5]). The
209 default is \--verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the
210 push. With \--no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.
211
d2b17b32 212
37ba0561 213include::urls-remotes.txt[]
eb0362a4 214
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215OUTPUT
216------
217
218The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
2de9b711 219section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
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220locally or via ssh).
221
222The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
223representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
224
225-------------------------------
226 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
227-------------------------------
228
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229If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
230
231-------------------------------
232 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
233-------------------------------
234
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235The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
236option is used.
237
066a5268 238flag::
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239 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
240(space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
6cf378f0 241`+`;; for a successful forced update;
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242`-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
243`*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
244`!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
245`=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
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246
247summary::
248 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
249 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
250 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
6cf378f0 251 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
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252+
253For a failed update, more details are given:
254+
255--
256rejected::
257 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
258 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
259
260remote rejected::
261 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
262 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
263 of the following safety options in effect:
264 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
265 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
266 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
267 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
268
269remote failure::
270 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
271 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
272 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
273--
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274
275from::
276 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
277 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
278 name of the local ref is omitted.
279
280to::
281 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
282 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
283
284reason::
285 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
286 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
287 failure is described.
bb9fca80 288
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289Note about fast-forwards
290------------------------
291
292When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
293point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
294fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
295
296In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
297commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
298builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
299
300In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
301suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
302a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
303leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
304
305----------------
306
307 B
308 /
309 ---X---A
310
311----------------
312
313Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
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314back to the original repository from which you two obtained the original
315commit X.
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316
317The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
318commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
319
320But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
321now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
322so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
323will now start building on top of B.
324
325The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
326to prevent such loss of history.
327
328If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
329the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
330history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
331by both parties, and push the result back.
332
333You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
334the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
335and B.
336
337----------------
338
339 B---C
340 / /
341 ---X---A
342
343----------------
344
345Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
346push will be accepted.
347
348Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
349with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
350create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
351A.
352
353----------------
354
355 B D
356 / /
357 ---X---A
358
359----------------
360
361Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
362accepted.
363
364There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
365rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
366pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
367A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
368commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
369forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
370you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
371(and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
372overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
373a case where you do mean to lose history.
374
375
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376Examples
377--------
378
5d2fc913 379`git push`::
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380 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
381 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
382 configured for the current branch).
383
5d2fc913 384`git push origin`::
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385 Without additional configuration, works like
386 `git push origin :`.
387+
388The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
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389configured by setting the `push` option of the remote, or the `push.default`
390configuration variable.
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391+
392For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
393use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
394the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
395`git push origin`.
396
5d2fc913 397`git push origin :`::
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398 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
399 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
400 description of "matching" branches.
401
5d2fc913 402`git push origin master`::
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403 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
404 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
405 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
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406 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
407 created.
bb9fca80 408
5d2fc913 409`git push origin HEAD`::
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410 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
411 remote.
bb9fca80 412
b48990e7 413`git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev`::
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414 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
415 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
b48990e7 416 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `mothership` repository;
2c9693bd 417 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
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418+
419This is to emulate `git fetch` run on the `mothership` using `git
420push` that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate
421the work done on `satellite`, and is often necessary when you can
422only make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into
423mothership but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite
424because the latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).
425+
426After running this `git push` on the `satellite` machine, you would
427ssh into the `mothership` and run `git merge` there to complete the
428emulation of `git pull` that were run on `mothership` to pull changes
429made on `satellite`.
bb9fca80 430
5d2fc913 431`git push origin HEAD:master`::
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432 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
433 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
434 branch without thinking about its local name.
435
5d2fc913 436`git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental`::
4e560158 437 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
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438 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
439 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
440 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
441 the ref name on its own will work.
4e560158 442
5d2fc913 443`git push origin :experimental`::
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444 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
445 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
446
6cf378f0 447`git push origin +dev:master`::
149f6ddf 448 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
a75d7b54 449 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
149f6ddf 450 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
a75d7b54 451 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
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452+
453----
454 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
455 \
456 X---Y---Z dev
457----
458+
459The above command would change the origin repository to
460+
461----
462 A---B (unnamed branch)
463 /
464 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
465----
466+
467Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
468and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
469a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
470
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471GIT
472---
9e1f0a85 473Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite