Git 2.4.1
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
44e1e4d6 12'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
68e4b552 13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
673151a9 25linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
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26commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27in-depth introduction.
cb22bc44 28
7687ae98 29After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
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30page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
06ab60c0 32manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
4514ad4f 33
2de9b711 34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
7687ae98 35can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
34b604af 36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
2ff3f61a 41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
06ab60c0 42unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
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43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
aaa7e0d7 46* link:v2.4.1/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.1]
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47
48* release notes for
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50 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
51
9a3d6375 52* link:v2.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.8]
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53
54* release notes for
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63 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
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fdf96a20 65* link:v2.2.2/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.2]
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67* release notes for
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70 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
71
8e36a6d5 72* link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
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73
74* release notes for
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79 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
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9a8c2b67 81* link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
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83* release notes for
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359 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
360 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
361 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
362 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
363 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
ea02eef0 364
efe05b01 365* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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366
367* release notes for
761e742d
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368 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
369 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
370 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
371 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
372 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
373 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
374 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 375
efe05b01 376* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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377
378* release notes for
761e742d
NP
379 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
380 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
381 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
382 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
383 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
384 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
385 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
1d2375dd 386
efe05b01 387* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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388
389* release notes for
761e742d
NP
390 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
391 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
392 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
393 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
394 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
395 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
396 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
397 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 398
e708af6e 399* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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400
401* release notes for
761e742d
NP
402 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
403 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
404 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
405 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
406 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
407 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
408 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
409 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
410 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 411
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412* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
413
aba170cd 414* release notes for
761e742d
NP
415 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
416 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
417 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
418 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
419 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
420 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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421
422* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
423
424* release notes for
761e742d
NP
425 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
426 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
427 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
428 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
429 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
430 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
431 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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432
433* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
434
aba170cd 435* release notes for
761e742d
NP
436 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
437 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
438 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
439 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
440 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
442 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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443
444* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
445 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
446 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
447 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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448
449============
450
451endif::stalenotes[]
452
cb22bc44
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453OPTIONS
454-------
455--version::
2de9b711 456 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
cb22bc44
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457
458--help::
a87cd02c 459 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
0f6f195b 460 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
2de9b711 461 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
0f6f195b 462 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
45533d26
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463+
464Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 465displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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466because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
467help ...`.
cb22bc44 468
44e1e4d6
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469-C <path>::
470 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
471 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
472 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
473 <path>`.
474+
475This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
476`--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
477made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
478example the following invocations are equivalent:
479
480 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
481 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
482
8b1fa778
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483-c <name>=<value>::
484 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
485 given will override values from configuration files.
486 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
487 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
a789ca70
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488+
489Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
490`foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
491config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
492foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
8b1fa778 493
62b4698e 494--exec-path[=<path>]::
2de9b711 495 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 496 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 497 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
cb22bc44
AE
498 the current setting and then exit.
499
89a56bfb 500--html-path::
2de9b711 501 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
239b5ed9 502 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 503
f2dd8c37 504--man-path::
239b5ed9 505 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
2de9b711 506 this version of Git and exit.
f2dd8c37
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507
508--info-path::
239b5ed9 509 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
2de9b711 510 version of Git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 511
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512-p::
513--paginate::
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514 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
515 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
516 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
517 below).
6acbcb92 518
463a849d 519--no-pager::
2de9b711 520 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
463a849d 521
6acbcb92
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522--git-dir=<path>::
523 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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524 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
525 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 526
892c41b9 527--work-tree=<path>::
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528 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
529 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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530 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
531 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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532 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
533 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 534
d49483f0 535--namespace=<path>::
2de9b711 536 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
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537 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
538 variable.
539
6acbcb92 540--bare::
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541 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
542 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
543 directory.
544
b0fa7ab5 545--no-replace-objects::
2de9b711 546 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
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547 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
548
823ab40f 549--literal-pathspecs::
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550 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
551 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
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552 variable to `1`.
553
6fb02165 554--glob-pathspecs::
bd30c2e4
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555 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
556 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
557 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
558 magic ":(literal)"
559
6fb02165 560--noglob-pathspecs::
bd30c2e4
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561 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
562 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
563 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
564 magic ":(glob)"
9755afbd 565
6fb02165 566--icase-pathspecs::
93d93537
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567 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
568 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
9755afbd 569
23091e95
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570GIT COMMANDS
571------------
9755afbd 572
2de9b711 573We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
23091e95 574("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 575
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576High-level commands (porcelain)
577-------------------------------
578
579We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
580ancillary user utilities.
581
582Main porcelain commands
583~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 584
377e8139 585include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 586
90933efb 587Ancillary Commands
23091e95 588~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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589Manipulators:
590
377e8139 591include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 592
90933efb 593Interrogators:
204ee6a9 594
377e8139 595include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 596
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597
598Interacting with Others
599~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
600
601These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
602people via patch over e-mail.
603
604include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
605
606
b1f33d62
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607Low-level commands (plumbing)
608-----------------------------
609
2de9b711 610Although Git includes its
b1f33d62
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611own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
612development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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613might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
614linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 615
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616The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
617to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
618than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
619primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
620on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
621end user experience.
622
623The following description divides
624the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
b1f33d62
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625the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
626compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
627repositories.
628
89bf2077 629
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630Manipulation commands
631~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 632
377e8139 633include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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634
635
636Interrogation commands
637~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
638
377e8139 639include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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640
641In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
642the working tree.
643
644
645Synching repositories
646~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
647
377e8139 648include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 649
57f6ec02 650The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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651typically do not use them directly.
652
653include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
654
655
656Internal helper commands
657~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
658
659These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
660users typically do not use them directly.
661
662include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
663
b1f33d62 664
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665Configuration Mechanism
666-----------------------
667
c0179c0d
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668Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
669repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
670like this:
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671
672------------
673#
2fa090b6 674# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
5773c9f2
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675#
676
677; core variables
678[core]
679 ; Don't trust file modes
680 filemode = false
681
682; user identity
683[user]
684 name = "Junio C Hamano"
c0179c0d 685 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
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686
687------------
688
689Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
06300d97 690their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
c0179c0d 691list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
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692
693
6c84e2e0 694Identifier Terminology
2cf565c5
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695----------------------
696<object>::
2fa090b6 697 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
2cf565c5
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698
699<blob>::
2fa090b6 700 Indicates a blob object name.
2cf565c5
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701
702<tree>::
2fa090b6 703 Indicates a tree object name.
2cf565c5
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704
705<commit>::
2fa090b6 706 Indicates a commit object name.
2cf565c5
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707
708<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 709 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
6c84e2e0
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710 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
711 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
712 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 713
043d7605
TT
714<commit-ish>::
715 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
716 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
717 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
718 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
719
2cf565c5
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720<type>::
721 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 722 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
2cf565c5
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723
724<file>::
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725 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
726 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 727
c1bdacf9
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728Symbolic Identifiers
729--------------------
2de9b711 730Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 731symbolic notation:
c1bdacf9
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732
733HEAD::
0abcfbff 734 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 735
c1bdacf9 736<tag>::
2fa090b6 737 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 738 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 739
c1bdacf9 740<head>::
2fa090b6 741 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 742 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 743
d47107d8 744For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 745"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 746
c1bdacf9
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747
748File/Directory Structure
749------------------------
c1bdacf9 750
6998e4db 751Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 752
6998e4db 753Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 754
c1bdacf9 755Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 756`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 757
a1d4aa74 758
2cf565c5
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759Terminology
760-----------
6998e4db 761Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
2cf565c5
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762
763
764Environment Variables
765---------------------
2de9b711 766Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
2cf565c5 767
2de9b711 768The Git Repository
c1bdacf9 769~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2de9b711 770These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
c1bdacf9 771is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2de9b711 772Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
c1bdacf9
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773
774'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
775 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
5f3aa197
LS
776 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
777 is used.
c1bdacf9 778
136347d7
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779'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
780 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
781 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
70320541
NTND
782 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
783 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
136347d7 784
c1bdacf9
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785'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
786 If the object storage directory is specified via this
787 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
788 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
789 directory is used.
790
791'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
2de9b711 792 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
c1bdacf9 793 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
80ba074f 794 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
2de9b711 795 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
80ba074f 796 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
c1bdacf9
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797
798'GIT_DIR'::
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799 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
800 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
801 for the base of the repository.
75940a00 802 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
c1bdacf9 803
892c41b9 804'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
a758a349 805 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
06ab60c0 806 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
892c41b9
ML
807 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
808
d49483f0 809'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
2de9b711 810 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
d49483f0
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811 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
812
0454dd93 813'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
7ec30aaa 814 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
3e07d268 815 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
7ec30aaa
MH
816 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
817 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
818 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
819 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
820 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
821 might be present in order to compare them with the current
822 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
823 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
824 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
825 e.g.,
826 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
0454dd93 827
cf87463e 828'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
e6405517 829 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
2de9b711 830 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
e6405517
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831 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
832 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
2de9b711 833 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
cf87463e
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834 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
835 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
836 command line.
8030e442 837
2de9b711 838Git Commits
c1bdacf9
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839~~~~~~~~~~~
840'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
841'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
842'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
843'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
844'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 845'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 846'EMAIL'::
5162e697 847 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
c1bdacf9 848
2de9b711 849Git Diffs
c1bdacf9 850~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 851'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
fde97d8a
SE
852 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
853 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
854 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
2de9b711 855 value passed on the Git diff command line.
fde97d8a 856
d81ed1b5 857'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
fde97d8a
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858 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
859 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
860 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
861 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
862
863 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
864+
865where:
866
867 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
868 contents of <old|new>,
d5fa1f1a 869 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
fde97d8a 870 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
fde97d8a
SE
871+
872The file parameters can point at the user's working file
873(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
874when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
875index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
876temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
877+
878For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
879parameter, <path>.
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880+
881For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
882'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
883
884'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
885 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
886
887'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
888 The total number of paths.
2cf565c5 889
575ba9d6
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890other
891~~~~~
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892'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
893 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
894 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 895 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 896
c27d205a 897'GIT_PAGER'::
a7738c77 898 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
2de9b711 899 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
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900 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
901 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 902
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903'GIT_EDITOR'::
904 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
2de9b711 905 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
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RSM
906 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
907 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
908
d5538b41 909'GIT_SSH'::
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910'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
911 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
912 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
913 when they need to connect to a remote system.
914 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
915 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
916 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
917 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
918 something other than the default SSH port.
d5538b41 919+
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920`$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
921by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
922`$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
923(which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
924needed).
d5538b41
SP
925+
926Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
927personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
928for further details.
929
453842c9 930'GIT_ASKPASS'::
2de9b711 931 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
453842c9 932 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
06ab60c0 933 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
da0005b8 934 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
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935 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
936
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937'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
938 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
939 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
940
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941'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
942 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
943 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
944 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
945 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
946 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
947 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
948
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949'GIT_FLUSH'::
950 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
0b444cdb 951 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
627a8b8d 952 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
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AS
953 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
954 flushed. If this
06f59e9f
TT
955 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
956 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
2de9b711 957 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
06f59e9f
TT
958 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
959
575ba9d6 960'GIT_TRACE'::
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961 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
962 command execution and external command execution.
963+
964If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
965is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
966stderr.
967+
968If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
969and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
970value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
971trace messages into this file descriptor.
972+
973Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
974(starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
975as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
976into it.
977+
978Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
979"false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
575ba9d6 980
b12ca963 981'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
67dc598e 982 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
b12ca963
NTND
983 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
984 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
985 pack-related performance problems.
67dc598e 986 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
b12ca963 987
1dd278ce 988'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
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989 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
990 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
991 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
992 starting with "PACK".
993 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
994
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995'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
996 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
997 time of each Git command.
998 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
999
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1000'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1001 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1002 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1003 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1004
1005'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1006 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1007 cloning of shallow repositories.
1008 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1dd278ce 1009
823ab40f 1010GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
2de9b711 1011 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
823ab40f
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1012 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1013 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1014 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1015 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
2de9b711 1016 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
823ab40f
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1017 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1018
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1019GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1020 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1021 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1022
1023GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1024 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1025 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1026
93d93537
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1027GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1028 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1029 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1030
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1031'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1032 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1033 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1034 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1035 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1036 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1037 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1038 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1039 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1040
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1041`GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1042 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1043 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1044 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1045 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1046 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1047 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1048 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1049 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1050 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1051
823ab40f 1052
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1053Discussion[[Discussion]]
1054------------------------
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1055
1056More detail on the following is available from the
2de9b711 1057link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 1058user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
40dac517 1059
2de9b711 1060A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
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1061subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1062things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1063of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1064contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1065as tags and branch heads.
1066
1067The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1068hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 1069directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
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1070and some number of parent commits.
1071
1072The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1073"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1074represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1075parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1076
d5fa1f1a 1077All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
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1078written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1079The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1080just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1081purpose.
1082
1083When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1084efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1085
1086Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
d5fa1f1a
TA
1087may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1088with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1089recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
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1090tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1091`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1092
1093The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1094path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1095the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1096attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1097corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1098working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1099be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1100content stored in the index.
1101
1102The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1103for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1104unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 1105
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1106FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1107---------------------
1108
1109See the references in the "description" section to get started
2de9b711 1110using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
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1111for a first-time user.
1112
2de9b711 1113The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
7687ae98 1114user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
2de9b711 1115introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
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1116
1117See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1118
1119See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1120examples.
1121
1122The internals are documented in the
48a8c26c 1123link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
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1124
1125Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1126read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1127
1128
cb22bc44
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1129Authors
1130-------
48bb914e 1131Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
2de9b711 1132C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
405869d0 1133<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
6ecc01f2
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1134gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1135
1136If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
d8f708f8
JK
1137output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1138the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 1139
c97ca277
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1140Reporting Bugs
1141--------------
1142
1143Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1144development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1145subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1146
497c8331
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1147SEE ALSO
1148--------
1149linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
673151a9 1150linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 1151linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
801a011d
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1152linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1153linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 1154
2cf565c5
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1155GIT
1156---
9e1f0a85 1157Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite