log: update to OPT_BOOL
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-format-patch.txt
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1git-format-patch(1)
2===================
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-format-patch - Prepare patches for e-mail submission
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
353ce815 11[verse]
50710ce4 12'git format-patch' [-k] [(-o|--output-directory) <dir> | --stdout]
f693b7e9 13 [--no-thread | --thread[=<style>]]
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14 [(--attach|--inline)[=<boundary>] | --no-attach]
15 [-s | --signoff]
6622d9c7 16 [--signature=<signature> | --no-signature]
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17 [-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
18 [--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
19 [--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
20 [--ignore-if-in-upstream]
7952ea66 21 [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix] [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
ae6c098f 22 [--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
e422c0cf 23 [--cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
50710ce4 24 [<common diff options>]
8a1d076e 25 [ <since> | <revision range> ]
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26
27DESCRIPTION
28-----------
2052d146 29
8a1d076e 30Prepare each commit with its patch in
2052d146 31one file per commit, formatted to resemble UNIX mailbox format.
2052d146 32The output of this command is convenient for e-mail submission or
0b444cdb 33for use with 'git am'.
35ef3a4c 34
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35There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
36
371. A single commit, <since>, specifies that the commits leading
38 to the tip of the current branch that are not in the history
39 that leads to the <since> to be output.
40
412. Generic <revision range> expression (see "SPECIFYING
9d83e382 42 REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7]) means the
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43 commits in the specified range.
44
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45The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
46apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
dce5ef14 47history up until <commit>, use the '\--root' option: `git format-patch
6cf378f0 48--root <commit>`. If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
dce5ef14 49can do this with `git format-patch -1 <commit>`.
8a1d076e 50
e6ff0f42 51By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the
2052d146 52first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
dce5ef14 53the filename. With the `--numbered-files` option, the output file names
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54will only be numbers, without the first line of the commit appended.
55The names of the output files are printed to standard
dce5ef14 56output, unless the `--stdout` option is specified.
66f04f38 57
dce5ef14 58If `-o` is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise
2052d146 59they are created in the current working directory.
35ef3a4c 60
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61By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] " followed by
62the concatenation of lines from the commit message up to the first blank
63line (see the DISCUSSION section of linkgit:git-commit[1]).
64
65When multiple patches are output, the subject prefix will instead be
66"[PATCH n/m] ". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use `-n`.
67To omit patch numbers from the subject, use `-N`.
35ef3a4c 68
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69If given `--thread`, `git-format-patch` will generate `In-Reply-To` and
70`References` headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
71as replies to the first mail; this also generates a `Message-Id` header to
cc35de84 72reference.
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73
74OPTIONS
75-------
c1a95fa6 76:git-format-patch: 1
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77include::diff-options.txt[]
78
ed5f07a6 79-<n>::
2c642ed8 80 Prepare patches from the topmost <n> commits.
ed5f07a6 81
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82-o <dir>::
83--output-directory <dir>::
35ef3a4c 84 Use <dir> to store the resulting files, instead of the
efd02016 85 current working directory.
35ef3a4c 86
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87-n::
88--numbered::
a567fdcb 89 Name output in '[PATCH n/m]' format, even with a single patch.
35ef3a4c 90
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91-N::
92--no-numbered::
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93 Name output in '[PATCH]' format.
94
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95--start-number <n>::
96 Start numbering the patches at <n> instead of 1.
97
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98--numbered-files::
99 Output file names will be a simple number sequence
100 without the default first line of the commit appended.
e6ff0f42 101
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102-k::
103--keep-subject::
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104 Do not strip/add '[PATCH]' from the first line of the
105 commit log message.
106
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107-s::
108--signoff::
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109 Add `Signed-off-by:` line to the commit message, using
110 the committer identity of yourself.
111
54ba6013 112--stdout::
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113 Print all commits to the standard output in mbox format,
114 instead of creating a file for each one.
7fc9d69f 115
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116--attach[=<boundary>]::
117 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
118 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 119 second part, with `Content-Disposition: attachment`.
c112f689 120
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121--no-attach::
122 Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the
123 configuration setting.
124
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125--inline[=<boundary>]::
126 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
127 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 128 second part, with `Content-Disposition: inline`.
a15a44ef 129
30984ed2 130--thread[=<style>]::
f693b7e9 131--no-thread::
dce5ef14 132 Controls addition of `In-Reply-To` and `References` headers to
f693b7e9 133 make the second and subsequent mails appear as replies to the
dce5ef14 134 first. Also controls generation of the `Message-Id` header to
f693b7e9 135 reference.
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136+
137The optional <style> argument can be either `shallow` or `deep`.
fd1ff306 138'shallow' threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the
30984ed2 139series, where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
6cf378f0 140`--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order. 'deep'
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141threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
142+
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143The default is `--no-thread`, unless the 'format.thread' configuration
144is set. If `--thread` is specified without a style, it defaults to the
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145style specified by 'format.thread' if any, or else `shallow`.
146+
147Beware that the default for 'git send-email' is to thread emails
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148itself. If you want `git format-patch` to take care of threading, you
149will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
28ffb898 150
da56645d 151--in-reply-to=Message-Id::
dce5ef14 152 Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
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153 reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
154 provide a new patch series.
155
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156--ignore-if-in-upstream::
157 Do not include a patch that matches a commit in
158 <until>..<since>. This will examine all patches reachable
159 from <since> but not from <until> and compare them with the
160 patches being generated, and any patch that matches is
161 ignored.
162
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163--subject-prefix=<Subject-Prefix>::
164 Instead of the standard '[PATCH]' prefix in the subject
165 line, instead use '[<Subject-Prefix>]'. This
166 allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
dce5ef14 167 combined with the `--numbered` option.
2d9e4a47 168
7952ea66 169-v <n>::
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170--reroll-count=<n>::
171 Mark the series as the <n>-th iteration of the topic. The
172 output filenames have `v<n>` pretended to them, and the
173 subject prefix ("PATCH" by default, but configurable via the
174 `--subject-prefix` option) has ` v<n>` appended to it. E.g.
175 `--reroll-count=4` may produce `v4-0001-add-makefile.patch`
176 file that has "Subject: [PATCH v4 1/20] Add makefile" in it.
177
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178--to=<email>::
179 Add a `To:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
180 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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181 The negated form `--no-to` discards all `To:` headers added so
182 far (from config or command line).
ae6c098f 183
736cc67d 184--cc=<email>::
dce5ef14 185 Add a `Cc:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
736cc67d 186 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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187 The negated form `--no-cc` discards all `Cc:` headers added so
188 far (from config or command line).
736cc67d 189
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190--add-header=<header>::
191 Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in addition
192 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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193 For example, `--add-header="Organization: git-foo"`.
194 The negated form `--no-add-header` discards *all* (`To:`,
195 `Cc:`, and custom) headers added so far from config or command
196 line.
d7d9c2d0 197
a5a27c79 198--cover-letter::
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199 In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
200 containing the shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can
201 fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
a5a27c79 202
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203--notes[=<ref>]::
204 Append the notes (see linkgit:git-notes[1]) for the commit
205 after the three-dash line.
206+
207The expected use case of this is to write supporting explanation for
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208the commit that does not belong to the commit log message proper,
209and include it with the patch submission. While one can simply write
210these explanations after `format-patch` has run but before sending,
2de9b711 211keeping them as Git notes allows them to be maintained between versions
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212of the patch series (but see the discussion of the `notes.rewrite`
213configuration options in linkgit:git-notes[1] to use this workflow).
e422c0cf 214
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215--[no]-signature=<signature>::
216 Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the signature
217 is separated from the body by a line with '-- ' on it. If the
2de9b711 218 signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the Git version
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219 number.
220
03eeaeae 221--suffix=.<sfx>::
917a8f89 222 Instead of using `.patch` as the suffix for generated
02783075 223 filenames, use specified suffix. A common alternative is
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224 `--suffix=.txt`. Leaving this empty will remove the `.patch`
225 suffix.
03eeaeae 226+
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227Note that the leading character does not have to be a dot; for example,
228you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
03eeaeae 229
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230--quiet::
231 Do not print the names of the generated files to standard output.
232
37c22a4b 233--no-binary::
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234 Do not output contents of changes in binary files, instead
235 display a notice that those files changed. Patches generated
236 using this option cannot be applied properly, but they are
237 still useful for code review.
37c22a4b 238
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239--root::
240 Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it
241 is just a single commit (that would normally be treated as a
242 <since>). Note that root commits included in the specified
243 range are always formatted as creation patches, independently
244 of this flag.
245
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246CONFIGURATION
247-------------
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248You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,
249defaults for the subject prefix and file suffix, number patches when
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250outputting more than one patch, add "To" or "Cc:" headers, configure
251attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.
96ce6d26 252
917a8f89 253------------
96ce6d26 254[format]
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255 headers = "Organization: git-foo\n"
256 subjectprefix = CHANGE
257 suffix = .txt
258 numbered = auto
ae6c098f 259 to = <email>
fe8928e6 260 cc = <email>
0db5260b 261 attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
1d1876e9 262 signoff = true
917a8f89 263------------
03eeaeae 264
96ce6d26 265
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266DISCUSSION
267----------
268
269The patch produced by 'git format-patch' is in UNIX mailbox format,
270with a fixed "magic" time stamp to indicate that the file is output
271from format-patch rather than a real mailbox, like so:
272
273------------
274From 8f72bad1baf19a53459661343e21d6491c3908d3 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
275From: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
276Date: Tue, 13 Jul 2010 11:42:54 -0700
277Subject: [PATCH] =?UTF-8?q?[IA64]=20Put=20ia64=20config=20files=20on=20the=20?=
278 =?UTF-8?q?Uwe=20Kleine-K=C3=B6nig=20diet?=
279MIME-Version: 1.0
280Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
281Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit
282
283arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
284(See commit c2330e286f68f1c408b4aa6515ba49d57f05beae comment)
285
286Do the same for ia64 so we can have sleek & trim looking
287...
288------------
289
290Typically it will be placed in a MUA's drafts folder, edited to add
291timely commentary that should not go in the changelog after the three
292dashes, and then sent as a message whose body, in our example, starts
293with "arch/arm config files were...". On the receiving end, readers
294can save interesting patches in a UNIX mailbox and apply them with
295linkgit:git-am[1].
296
297When a patch is part of an ongoing discussion, the patch generated by
298'git format-patch' can be tweaked to take advantage of the 'git am
299--scissors' feature. After your response to the discussion comes a
300line that consists solely of "`-- >8 --`" (scissors and perforation),
301followed by the patch with unnecessary header fields removed:
302
303------------
304...
305> So we should do such-and-such.
306
307Makes sense to me. How about this patch?
308
309-- >8 --
310Subject: [IA64] Put ia64 config files on the Uwe Kleine-König diet
311
312arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
313...
314------------
315
316When sending a patch this way, most often you are sending your own
317patch, so in addition to the "`From $SHA1 $magic_timestamp`" marker you
318should omit `From:` and `Date:` lines from the patch file. The patch
319title is likely to be different from the subject of the discussion the
320patch is in response to, so it is likely that you would want to keep
321the Subject: line, like the example above.
322
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323Checking for patch corruption
324~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
325Many mailers if not set up properly will corrupt whitespace. Here are
326two common types of corruption:
327
328* Empty context lines that do not have _any_ whitespace.
329
330* Non-empty context lines that have one extra whitespace at the
331 beginning.
332
333One way to test if your MUA is set up correctly is:
334
335* Send the patch to yourself, exactly the way you would, except
336 with To: and Cc: lines that do not contain the list and
337 maintainer address.
338
339* Save that patch to a file in UNIX mailbox format. Call it a.patch,
340 say.
341
342* Apply it:
343
344 $ git fetch <project> master:test-apply
345 $ git checkout test-apply
346 $ git reset --hard
347 $ git am a.patch
348
349If it does not apply correctly, there can be various reasons.
350
351* The patch itself does not apply cleanly. That is _bad_ but
352 does not have much to do with your MUA. You might want to rebase
353 the patch with linkgit:git-rebase[1] before regenerating it in
354 this case.
355
356* The MUA corrupted your patch; "am" would complain that
357 the patch does not apply. Look in the .git/rebase-apply/ subdirectory and
358 see what 'patch' file contains and check for the common
359 corruption patterns mentioned above.
360
361* While at it, check the 'info' and 'final-commit' files as well.
362 If what is in 'final-commit' is not exactly what you would want to
363 see in the commit log message, it is very likely that the
364 receiver would end up hand editing the log message when applying
365 your patch. Things like "Hi, this is my first patch.\n" in the
366 patch e-mail should come after the three-dash line that signals
367 the end of the commit message.
368
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369MUA-SPECIFIC HINTS
370------------------
371Here are some hints on how to successfully submit patches inline using
372various mailers.
373
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374GMail
375~~~~~
376GMail does not have any way to turn off line wrapping in the web
377interface, so it will mangle any emails that you send. You can however
378use "git send-email" and send your patches through the GMail SMTP server, or
379use any IMAP email client to connect to the google IMAP server and forward
380the emails through that.
381
382For hints on using 'git send-email' to send your patches through the
383GMail SMTP server, see the EXAMPLE section of linkgit:git-send-email[1].
384
385For hints on submission using the IMAP interface, see the EXAMPLE
386section of linkgit:git-imap-send[1].
387
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388Thunderbird
389~~~~~~~~~~~
390By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as well as flag
391them as being 'format=flowed', both of which will make the
2de9b711 392resulting email unusable by Git.
dc53151f 393
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394There are three different approaches: use an add-on to turn off line wraps,
395configure Thunderbird to not mangle patches, or use
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396an external editor to keep Thunderbird from mangling the patches.
397
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398Approach #1 (add-on)
399^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
400
401Install the Toggle Word Wrap add-on that is available from
402https://addons.mozilla.org/thunderbird/addon/toggle-word-wrap/
403It adds a menu entry "Enable Word Wrap" in the composer's "Options" menu
404that you can tick off. Now you can compose the message as you otherwise do
405(cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc), but you have to
406insert line breaks manually in any text that you type.
407
408Approach #2 (configuration)
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409^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
410Three steps:
411
4121. Configure your mail server composition as plain text:
413 Edit...Account Settings...Composition & Addressing,
414 uncheck "Compose Messages in HTML".
415
4162. Configure your general composition window to not wrap.
417+
418In Thunderbird 2:
419Edit..Preferences..Composition, wrap plain text messages at 0
420+
421In Thunderbird 3:
422Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
423"mail.wrap_long_lines".
424Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`.
425
4263. Disable the use of format=flowed:
427Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
428"mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed".
429Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`.
430
431After that is done, you should be able to compose email as you
432otherwise would (cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc),
433and the patches will not be mangled.
434
b8959605 435Approach #3 (external editor)
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436^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
437
438The following Thunderbird extensions are needed:
439AboutConfig from http://aboutconfig.mozdev.org/ and
440External Editor from http://globs.org/articles.php?lng=en&pg=8
441
4421. Prepare the patch as a text file using your method of choice.
443
4442. Before opening a compose window, use Edit->Account Settings to
445 uncheck the "Compose messages in HTML format" setting in the
446 "Composition & Addressing" panel of the account to be used to
447 send the patch.
448
4493. In the main Thunderbird window, 'before' you open the compose
450 window for the patch, use Tools->about:config to set the
451 following to the indicated values:
452+
453----------
454 mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed => false
455 mailnews.wraplength => 0
456----------
457
4584. Open a compose window and click the external editor icon.
459
4605. In the external editor window, read in the patch file and exit
461 the editor normally.
462
463Side note: it may be possible to do step 2 with
464about:config and the following settings but no one's tried yet.
465
466----------
467 mail.html_compose => false
468 mail.identity.default.compose_html => false
469 mail.identity.id?.compose_html => false
470----------
471
472There is a script in contrib/thunderbird-patch-inline which can help
473you include patches with Thunderbird in an easy way. To use it, do the
474steps above and then use the script as the external editor.
475
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476KMail
477~~~~~
478This should help you to submit patches inline using KMail.
479
4801. Prepare the patch as a text file.
481
4822. Click on New Mail.
483
4843. Go under "Options" in the Composer window and be sure that
485 "Word wrap" is not set.
486
4874. Use Message -> Insert file... and insert the patch.
488
4895. Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish to the
490 message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
491
e0d48279 492
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493EXAMPLES
494--------
495
921177f5 496* Extract commits between revisions R1 and R2, and apply them on top of
0b444cdb 497the current branch using 'git am' to cherry-pick them:
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498+
499------------
467c0197 500$ git format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git am -3 -k
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501------------
502
503* Extract all commits which are in the current branch but not in the
504origin branch:
505+
506------------
507$ git format-patch origin
508------------
509+
510For each commit a separate file is created in the current directory.
511
512* Extract all commits that lead to 'origin' since the inception of the
513project:
514+
515------------
9c67c757 516$ git format-patch --root origin
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517------------
518
519* The same as the previous one:
520+
521------------
522$ git format-patch -M -B origin
523------------
524+
525Additionally, it detects and handles renames and complete rewrites
526intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A renaming patch reduces
50710ce4 527the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review.
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528Note that non-Git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
529use it only when you know the recipient uses Git to apply your patch.
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530
531* Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format them
532as e-mailable patches:
533+
534------------
535$ git format-patch -3
536------------
28ffb898 537
56ae8df5 538SEE ALSO
28ffb898 539--------
5162e697 540linkgit:git-am[1], linkgit:git-send-email[1]
28ffb898 541
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542GIT
543---
9e1f0a85 544Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite