pager: config variable pager.color
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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7984eabe 1git(7)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
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11'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=GIT_EXEC_PATH]] [-p|--paginate]
12 [--bare] [--git-dir=GIT_DIR] [--help] COMMAND [ARGS]
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13
14DESCRIPTION
15-----------
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16Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
17unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
18and full access to internals.
19
20See this link:tutorial.html[tutorial] to get started, then see
21link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
22"man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
23also want to read link:cvs-migration.html[CVS migration].
cb22bc44 24
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25The COMMAND is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
26as defined in the configuration file (see gitlink:git-repo-config[1]).
27
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28OPTIONS
29-------
30--version::
a87cd02c 31 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
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32
33--help::
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34 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
35 commands. If a git command is named this option will bring up
36 the man-page for that command. If the option '--all' or '-a' is
37 given then all available commands are printed.
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38
39--exec-path::
a87cd02c 40 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
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41 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
42 environment variable. If no path is given 'git' will print
43 the current setting and then exit.
44
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45-p|--paginate::
46 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER).
47
48--git-dir=<path>::
49 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
50 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable.
51
52--bare::
53 Same as --git-dir=`pwd`.
9755afbd 54
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55FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
56---------------------
9755afbd 57
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58See the references above to get started using git. The following is
59probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
8db9307c 60
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61The <<Discussion,Discussion>> section below and the
62link:core-tutorial.html[Core tutorial] both provide introductions to the
63underlying git architecture.
e6fc2346 64
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65See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
66examples.
9755afbd 67
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68GIT COMMANDS
69------------
9755afbd 70
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71We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
72("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 73
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74Low-level commands (plumbing)
75-----------------------------
e6fc2346 76
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77Although git includes its
78own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
79development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
80might start by reading about gitlink:git-update-index[1] and
81gitlink:git-read-tree[1].
2cf565c5 82
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83We divide the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
84the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
85compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
86repositories.
204ee6a9 87
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88Manipulation commands
89~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
a7154e91 90gitlink:git-apply[1]::
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91 Reads a "diff -up1" or git generated patch file and
92 applies it to the working tree.
93
a7154e91 94gitlink:git-checkout-index[1]::
2fa090b6 95 Copy files from the index to the working tree.
2cf565c5 96
a7154e91 97gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 98 Creates a new commit object.
2cf565c5 99
a7154e91 100gitlink:git-hash-object[1]::
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101 Computes the object ID from a file.
102
a52e4ef8 103gitlink:git-index-pack[1]::
2fa090b6 104 Build pack idx file for an existing packed archive.
9cf6d335 105
a7154e91 106gitlink:git-init-db[1]::
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107 Creates an empty git object database, or reinitialize an
108 existing one.
2cf565c5 109
a7154e91 110gitlink:git-merge-index[1]::
2fa090b6 111 Runs a merge for files needing merging.
2cf565c5 112
a7154e91 113gitlink:git-mktag[1]::
2fa090b6 114 Creates a tag object.
2cf565c5 115
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116gitlink:git-mktree[1]::
117 Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.
118
a7154e91 119gitlink:git-pack-objects[1]::
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120 Creates a packed archive of objects.
121
a7154e91 122gitlink:git-prune-packed[1]::
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123 Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.
124
a7154e91 125gitlink:git-read-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 126 Reads tree information into the index.
2cf565c5 127
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128gitlink:git-repo-config[1]::
129 Get and set options in .git/config.
130
a7154e91 131gitlink:git-unpack-objects[1]::
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132 Unpacks objects out of a packed archive.
133
a7154e91 134gitlink:git-update-index[1]::
2fa090b6 135 Registers files in the working tree to the index.
2cf565c5 136
a7154e91 137gitlink:git-write-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 138 Creates a tree from the index.
2cf565c5 139
e31bb3bb 140
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141Interrogation commands
142~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
f85a4191 143
a7154e91 144gitlink:git-cat-file[1]::
2fa090b6 145 Provide content or type/size information for repository objects.
2cf565c5 146
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147gitlink:git-describe[1]::
148 Show the most recent tag that is reachable from a commit.
149
a7154e91 150gitlink:git-diff-index[1]::
2fa090b6 151 Compares content and mode of blobs between the index and repository.
2cf565c5 152
a7154e91 153gitlink:git-diff-files[1]::
2fa090b6 154 Compares files in the working tree and the index.
2cf565c5 155
a7154e91 156gitlink:git-diff-stages[1]::
2fa090b6 157 Compares two "merge stages" in the index.
83db04ff 158
a7154e91 159gitlink:git-diff-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 160 Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.
f85a4191 161
a7154e91 162gitlink:git-fsck-objects[1]::
2fa090b6 163 Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database.
2cf565c5 164
a7154e91 165gitlink:git-ls-files[1]::
2fa090b6 166 Information about files in the index and the working tree.
2cf565c5 167
a7154e91 168gitlink:git-ls-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 169 Displays a tree object in human readable form.
2cf565c5 170
a7154e91 171gitlink:git-merge-base[1]::
2fa090b6 172 Finds as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.
2cf565c5 173
a60d2d8f 174gitlink:git-name-rev[1]::
2fa090b6 175 Find symbolic names for given revs.
a60d2d8f 176
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177gitlink:git-pack-redundant[1]::
178 Find redundant pack files.
179
a7154e91 180gitlink:git-rev-list[1]::
2fa090b6 181 Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.
2cf565c5 182
a7154e91 183gitlink:git-show-index[1]::
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184 Displays contents of a pack idx file.
185
a7154e91 186gitlink:git-tar-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 187 Creates a tar archive of the files in the named tree object.
2cf565c5 188
a7154e91 189gitlink:git-unpack-file[1]::
2fa090b6 190 Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.
2cf565c5 191
a7154e91 192gitlink:git-var[1]::
2fa090b6 193 Displays a git logical variable.
aed022ab 194
a7154e91 195gitlink:git-verify-pack[1]::
2fa090b6 196 Validates packed git archive files.
f9253394 197
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198In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
199the working tree.
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200
201
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202Synching repositories
203~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
204
a7154e91 205gitlink:git-fetch-pack[1]::
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206 Updates from a remote repository (engine for ssh and
207 local transport).
f85a4191 208
a7154e91 209gitlink:git-http-fetch[1]::
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210 Downloads a remote git repository via HTTP by walking
211 commit chain.
204ee6a9 212
a7154e91 213gitlink:git-local-fetch[1]::
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214 Duplicates another git repository on a local system by
215 walking commit chain.
204ee6a9 216
a7154e91 217gitlink:git-peek-remote[1]::
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218 Lists references on a remote repository using
219 upload-pack protocol (engine for ssh and local
220 transport).
2f2de9b4 221
a7154e91 222gitlink:git-receive-pack[1]::
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223 Invoked by 'git-send-pack' to receive what is pushed to it.
224
a7154e91 225gitlink:git-send-pack[1]::
f85a4191 226 Pushes to a remote repository, intelligently.
2f2de9b4 227
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228gitlink:git-http-push[1]::
229 Push missing objects using HTTP/DAV.
230
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231gitlink:git-shell[1]::
232 Restricted shell for GIT-only SSH access.
233
a7154e91 234gitlink:git-ssh-fetch[1]::
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235 Pulls from a remote repository over ssh connection by
236 walking commit chain.
508e67ab 237
a7154e91 238gitlink:git-ssh-upload[1]::
2fa090b6 239 Helper "server-side" program used by git-ssh-fetch.
2f2de9b4 240
a7154e91 241gitlink:git-update-server-info[1]::
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242 Updates auxiliary information on a dumb server to help
243 clients discover references and packs on it.
244
a7154e91 245gitlink:git-upload-pack[1]::
efc7fa53 246 Invoked by 'git-fetch-pack' to push
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247 what are asked for.
248
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249gitlink:git-upload-tar[1]::
250 Invoked by 'git-tar-tree --remote' to return the tar
251 archive the other end asked for.
252
2f2de9b4 253
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254High-level commands (porcelain)
255-------------------------------
256
257We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
258ancillary user utilities.
259
260Main porcelain commands
261~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 262
a7154e91 263gitlink:git-add[1]::
2fa090b6 264 Add paths to the index.
905197de 265
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266gitlink:git-am[1]::
267 Apply patches from a mailbox, but cooler.
268
a7154e91 269gitlink:git-applymbox[1]::
2fa090b6 270 Apply patches from a mailbox, original version by Linus.
f85a4191 271
a7154e91 272gitlink:git-bisect[1]::
2fa090b6 273 Find the change that introduced a bug by binary search.
f85a4191 274
a7154e91 275gitlink:git-branch[1]::
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276 Create and Show branches.
277
a7154e91 278gitlink:git-checkout[1]::
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279 Checkout and switch to a branch.
280
a7154e91 281gitlink:git-cherry-pick[1]::
f85a4191 282 Cherry-pick the effect of an existing commit.
3f971fc4 283
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284gitlink:git-clean[1]::
285 Remove untracked files from the working tree.
286
a7154e91 287gitlink:git-clone[1]::
f85a4191 288 Clones a repository into a new directory.
3f971fc4 289
a7154e91 290gitlink:git-commit[1]::
f85a4191 291 Record changes to the repository.
3f971fc4 292
a7154e91 293gitlink:git-diff[1]::
2aba319a 294 Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.
35ef3a4c 295
a7154e91 296gitlink:git-fetch[1]::
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297 Download from a remote repository via various protocols.
298
a7154e91 299gitlink:git-format-patch[1]::
2aba319a 300 Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
35ef3a4c 301
a7154e91 302gitlink:git-grep[1]::
2fa090b6 303 Print lines matching a pattern.
2aba319a 304
a7154e91 305gitlink:git-log[1]::
f85a4191 306 Shows commit logs.
62033318 307
a7154e91 308gitlink:git-ls-remote[1]::
f85a4191 309 Shows references in a remote or local repository.
ab9b3138 310
a7154e91 311gitlink:git-merge[1]::
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312 Grand unified merge driver.
313
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314gitlink:git-mv[1]::
315 Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.
316
a7154e91 317gitlink:git-pull[1]::
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318 Fetch from and merge with a remote repository.
319
a7154e91 320gitlink:git-push[1]::
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321 Update remote refs along with associated objects.
322
a7154e91 323gitlink:git-rebase[1]::
2fa090b6 324 Rebase local commits to the updated upstream head.
62033318 325
a7154e91 326gitlink:git-repack[1]::
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327 Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
328
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329gitlink:git-rerere[1]::
330 Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.
331
a7154e91 332gitlink:git-reset[1]::
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333 Reset current HEAD to the specified state.
334
a7154e91 335gitlink:git-resolve[1]::
f85a4191 336 Merge two commits.
83db04ff 337
a7154e91 338gitlink:git-revert[1]::
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339 Revert an existing commit.
340
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341gitlink:git-rm[1]::
342 Remove files from the working tree and from the index.
343
a7154e91 344gitlink:git-shortlog[1]::
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345 Summarizes 'git log' output.
346
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347gitlink:git-show[1]::
348 Show one commit log and its diff.
349
a7154e91 350gitlink:git-show-branch[1]::
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351 Show branches and their commits.
352
a7154e91 353gitlink:git-status[1]::
f85a4191 354 Shows the working tree status.
83db04ff 355
a7154e91 356gitlink:git-verify-tag[1]::
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357 Check the GPG signature of tag.
358
a7154e91 359gitlink:git-whatchanged[1]::
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360 Shows commit logs and differences they introduce.
361
e31bb3bb 362
90933efb 363Ancillary Commands
23091e95 364~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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365Manipulators:
366
a7154e91 367gitlink:git-applypatch[1]::
f85a4191 368 Apply one patch extracted from an e-mail.
905197de 369
a7154e91 370gitlink:git-archimport[1]::
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371 Import an arch repository into git.
372
a7154e91 373gitlink:git-convert-objects[1]::
2fa090b6 374 Converts old-style git repository.
2f2de9b4 375
a7154e91 376gitlink:git-cvsimport[1]::
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377 Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
378
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379gitlink:git-cvsexportcommit[1]::
380 Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.
381
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382gitlink:git-cvsserver[1]::
383 A CVS server emulator for git.
384
0086e2c8 385gitlink:git-lost-found[1]::
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386 Recover lost refs that luckily have not yet been pruned.
387
a7154e91 388gitlink:git-merge-one-file[1]::
2fa090b6 389 The standard helper program to use with `git-merge-index`.
204ee6a9 390
a7154e91 391gitlink:git-prune[1]::
2fa090b6 392 Prunes all unreachable objects from the object database.
204ee6a9 393
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394gitlink:git-quiltimport[1]::
395 Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.
396
a7154e91 397gitlink:git-relink[1]::
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398 Hardlink common objects in local repositories.
399
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400gitlink:git-svnimport[1]::
401 Import a SVN repository into git.
402
a7154e91 403gitlink:git-sh-setup[1]::
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404 Common git shell script setup code.
405
a60d2d8f 406gitlink:git-symbolic-ref[1]::
2fa090b6 407 Read and modify symbolic refs.
a60d2d8f 408
a7154e91 409gitlink:git-tag[1]::
2fa090b6 410 An example script to create a tag object signed with GPG.
204ee6a9 411
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412gitlink:git-update-ref[1]::
413 Update the object name stored in a ref safely.
414
204ee6a9 415
90933efb 416Interrogators:
204ee6a9 417
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418gitlink:git-annotate[1]::
419 Annotate file lines with commit info.
420
421gitlink:git-blame[1]::
422 Blame file lines on commits.
423
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424gitlink:git-check-ref-format[1]::
425 Make sure ref name is well formed.
426
a7154e91 427gitlink:git-cherry[1]::
f85a4191 428 Find commits not merged upstream.
905197de 429
a7154e91 430gitlink:git-count-objects[1]::
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431 Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.
432
a7154e91 433gitlink:git-daemon[1]::
72e9340c 434 A really simple server for git repositories.
5077fa9c 435
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436gitlink:git-fmt-merge-msg[1]::
437 Produce a merge commit message.
438
a7154e91 439gitlink:git-get-tar-commit-id[1]::
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440 Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-tar-tree.
441
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442gitlink:git-imap-send[1]::
443 Dump a mailbox from stdin into an imap folder.
444
a7154e91 445gitlink:git-mailinfo[1]::
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446 Extracts patch and authorship information from a single
447 e-mail message, optionally transliterating the commit
448 message into utf-8.
f85a4191 449
a7154e91 450gitlink:git-mailsplit[1]::
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451 A stupid program to split UNIX mbox format mailbox into
452 individual pieces of e-mail.
f85a4191 453
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454gitlink:git-merge-tree[1]::
455 Show three-way merge without touching index.
456
a7154e91 457gitlink:git-patch-id[1]::
f85a4191 458 Compute unique ID for a patch.
204ee6a9 459
a7154e91 460gitlink:git-parse-remote[1]::
2fa090b6 461 Routines to help parsing `$GIT_DIR/remotes/` files.
5077fa9c 462
a7154e91 463gitlink:git-request-pull[1]::
215a7ad1 464 git-request-pull.
5077fa9c 465
a7154e91 466gitlink:git-rev-parse[1]::
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467 Pick out and massage parameters.
468
a7154e91 469gitlink:git-send-email[1]::
83db04ff 470 Send patch e-mails out of "format-patch --mbox" output.
204ee6a9 471
c1fe2fe4 472gitlink:git-symbolic-ref[1]::
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473 Read and modify symbolic refs.
474
a7154e91 475gitlink:git-stripspace[1]::
35ef3a4c 476 Filter out empty lines.
7fc9d69f 477
7fc9d69f 478
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479Commands not yet documented
480---------------------------
7fc9d69f 481
a7154e91 482gitlink:gitk[1]::
2fa090b6 483 The gitk repository browser.
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484
485
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486Configuration Mechanism
487-----------------------
488
2fa090b6 489Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
5773c9f2 490is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
addf88e4 491simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
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492people. Here is an example:
493
494------------
495#
2fa090b6 496# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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497#
498
499; core variables
500[core]
501 ; Don't trust file modes
502 filemode = false
503
504; user identity
505[user]
506 name = "Junio C Hamano"
507 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
508
509------------
510
511Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
512their operation accordingly.
513
514
6c84e2e0 515Identifier Terminology
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516----------------------
517<object>::
2fa090b6 518 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
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519
520<blob>::
2fa090b6 521 Indicates a blob object name.
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522
523<tree>::
2fa090b6 524 Indicates a tree object name.
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525
526<commit>::
2fa090b6 527 Indicates a commit object name.
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528
529<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 530 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
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531 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
532 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
533 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
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534
535<type>::
536 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 537 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
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538
539<file>::
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540 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
541 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 542
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543Symbolic Identifiers
544--------------------
90933efb 545Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 546symbolic notation:
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547
548HEAD::
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549 indicates the head of the current branch (i.e. the
550 contents of `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`).
551
c1bdacf9 552<tag>::
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553 a valid tag 'name'
554 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`).
555
c1bdacf9 556<head>::
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557 a valid head 'name'
558 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`).
559
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560
561File/Directory Structure
562------------------------
c1bdacf9 563
a1d4aa74 564Please see link:repository-layout.html[repository layout] document.
c1bdacf9 565
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566Read link:hooks.html[hooks] for more details about each hook.
567
c1bdacf9 568Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 569`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 570
a1d4aa74 571
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572Terminology
573-----------
1bff6490 574Please see link:glossary.html[glossary] document.
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575
576
577Environment Variables
578---------------------
579Various git commands use the following environment variables:
580
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581The git Repository
582~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
583These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
584is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2fa090b6 585git so take care if using Cogito etc.
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586
587'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
588 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
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589 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
590 is used.
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591
592'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
593 If the object storage directory is specified via this
594 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
595 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
596 directory is used.
597
598'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
599 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
600 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
90933efb 601 specifies a ":" separated list of git object directories which
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602 can be used to search for git objects. New objects will not be
603 written to these directories.
604
605'GIT_DIR'::
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606 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
607 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
608 for the base of the repository.
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609
610git Commits
611~~~~~~~~~~~
612'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
613'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
614'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
615'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
616'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
a7154e91 617 see gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]
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618
619git Diffs
620~~~~~~~~~
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621'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
622'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
c1bdacf9 623 see the "generating patches" section in :
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624 gitlink:git-diff-index[1];
625 gitlink:git-diff-files[1];
626 gitlink:git-diff-tree[1]
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628other
629~~~~~
630'GIT_TRACE'::
631 If this variable is set git will print `trace:` messages on
632 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
633 execution and external command execution.
634
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635Discussion[[Discussion]]
636------------------------
941c9449 637include::README[]
6c84e2e0 638
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639Authors
640-------
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641* git's founding father is Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
642* The current git nurse is Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>.
643* The git potty was written by Andres Ericsson <ae@op5.se>.
644* General upbringing is handled by the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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645
646Documentation
647--------------
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648The documentation for git suite was started by David Greaves
649<david@dgreaves.com>, and later enhanced greatly by the
650contributors on the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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651
652GIT
653---
a7154e91 654Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
2cf565c5 655