Clarify SubmittingPatches Checklist
[git/git.git] / Documentation / SubmittingPatches
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1Checklist (and a short version for the impatient):
2
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3 Commits:
4
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5 - make commits of logical units
6 - check for unnecessary whitespace with "git diff --check"
7 before committing
8 - do not check in commented out code or unneeded files
9 - provide a meaningful commit message
10 - the first line of the commit message should be a short
11 description and should skip the full stop
12 - if you want your work included in git.git, add a
13 "Signed-off-by: Your Name <your@email.com>" line to the
14 commit message (or just use the option "-s" when
15 committing) to confirm that you agree to the Developer's
16 Certificate of Origin
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17
18 Patch:
19
56333bac 20 - use "git format-patch -M" to create the patch
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21 - send your patch to <git@vger.kernel.org>. If you use
22 git-send-email(1), please test it first by sending
23 email to yourself.
24 - do not PGP sign your patch
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25 - do not attach your patch, but read in the mail
26 body, unless you cannot teach your mailer to
27 leave the formatting of the patch alone.
28 - be careful doing cut & paste into your mailer, not to
29 corrupt whitespaces.
30 - provide additional information (which is unsuitable for
31 the commit message) between the "---" and the diffstat
32 - send the patch to the list _and_ the maintainer
33
34Long version:
35
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36I started reading over the SubmittingPatches document for Linux
37kernel, primarily because I wanted to have a document similar to
38it for the core GIT to make sure people understand what they are
39doing when they write "Signed-off-by" line.
40
41But the patch submission requirements are a lot more relaxed
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42here on the technical/contents front, because the core GIT is
43thousand times smaller ;-). So here is only the relevant bits.
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44
45
46(1) Make separate commits for logically separate changes.
47
48Unless your patch is really trivial, you should not be sending
49out a patch that was generated between your working tree and
50your commit head. Instead, always make a commit with complete
51commit message and generate a series of patches from your
52repository. It is a good discipline.
53
54Describe the technical detail of the change(s).
55
45d2b286 56If your description starts to get too long, that's a sign that you
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57probably need to split up your commit to finer grained pieces.
58
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59Oh, another thing. I am picky about whitespaces. Make sure your
60changes do not trigger errors with the sample pre-commit hook shipped
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61in templates/hooks--pre-commit. To help ensure this does not happen,
62run git diff --check on your changes before you commit.
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31408251 64
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65(2) Generate your patch using git tools out of your commits.
66
67git based diff tools (git, Cogito, and StGIT included) generate
68unidiff which is the preferred format.
69
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70You do not have to be afraid to use -M option to "git diff" or
71"git format-patch", if your patch involves file renames. The
72receiving end can handle them just fine.
73
74Please make sure your patch does not include any extra files
75which do not belong in a patch submission. Make sure to review
76your patch after generating it, to ensure accuracy. Before
77sending out, please make sure it cleanly applies to the "master"
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78branch head. If you are preparing a work based on "next" branch,
79that is fine, but please mark it as such.
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80
81
82(3) Sending your patches.
83
45d2b286 84People on the git mailing list need to be able to read and
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85comment on the changes you are submitting. It is important for
86a developer to be able to "quote" your changes, using standard
87e-mail tools, so that they may comment on specific portions of
addf88e4 88your code. For this reason, all patches should be submitted
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89"inline". WARNING: Be wary of your MUAs word-wrap
90corrupting your patch. Do not cut-n-paste your patch; you can
91lose tabs that way if you are not careful.
31408251 92
45d2b286 93It is a common convention to prefix your subject line with
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94[PATCH]. This lets people easily distinguish patches from other
95e-mail discussions.
96
97"git format-patch" command follows the best current practice to
98format the body of an e-mail message. At the beginning of the
99patch should come your commit message, ending with the
100Signed-off-by: lines, and a line that consists of three dashes,
101followed by the diffstat information and the patch itself. If
102you are forwarding a patch from somebody else, optionally, at
103the beginning of the e-mail message just before the commit
104message starts, you can put a "From: " line to name that person.
105
106You often want to add additional explanation about the patch,
107other than the commit message itself. Place such "cover letter"
108material between the three dash lines and the diffstat.
109
110Do not attach the patch as a MIME attachment, compressed or not.
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111Do not let your e-mail client send quoted-printable. Do not let
112your e-mail client send format=flowed which would destroy
113whitespaces in your patches. Many
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114popular e-mail applications will not always transmit a MIME
115attachment as plain text, making it impossible to comment on
116your code. A MIME attachment also takes a bit more time to
117process. This does not decrease the likelihood of your
118MIME-attached change being accepted, but it makes it more likely
119that it will be postponed.
120
121Exception: If your mailer is mangling patches then someone may ask
9847f7e0 122you to re-send them using MIME, that is OK.
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124Do not PGP sign your patch, at least for now. Most likely, your
125maintainer or other people on the list would not have your PGP
126key and would not bother obtaining it anyway. Your patch is not
127judged by who you are; a good patch from an unknown origin has a
128far better chance of being accepted than a patch from a known,
129respected origin that is done poorly or does incorrect things.
130
131If you really really really really want to do a PGP signed
132patch, format it as "multipart/signed", not a text/plain message
133that starts with '-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----'. That is
134not a text/plain, it's something else.
135
136Note that your maintainer does not necessarily read everything
137on the git mailing list. If your patch is for discussion first,
138send it "To:" the mailing list, and optionally "cc:" him. If it
139is trivially correct or after the list reached a consensus, send
140it "To:" the maintainer and optionally "cc:" the list.
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142Also note that your maintainer does not actively involve himself in
143maintaining what are in contrib/ hierarchy. When you send fixes and
144enhancements to them, do not forget to "cc: " the person who primarily
145worked on that hierarchy in contrib/.
146
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84ab7b6f 148(4) Sign your work
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149
150To improve tracking of who did what, we've borrowed the
151"sign-off" procedure from the Linux kernel project on patches
152that are being emailed around. Although core GIT is a lot
153smaller project it is a good discipline to follow it.
154
155The sign-off is a simple line at the end of the explanation for
156the patch, which certifies that you wrote it or otherwise have
157the right to pass it on as a open-source patch. The rules are
158pretty simple: if you can certify the below:
159
160 Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1
161
162 By making a contribution to this project, I certify that:
163
164 (a) The contribution was created in whole or in part by me and I
165 have the right to submit it under the open source license
166 indicated in the file; or
167
168 (b) The contribution is based upon previous work that, to the best
169 of my knowledge, is covered under an appropriate open source
170 license and I have the right under that license to submit that
171 work with modifications, whether created in whole or in part
172 by me, under the same open source license (unless I am
173 permitted to submit under a different license), as indicated
174 in the file; or
175
176 (c) The contribution was provided directly to me by some other
177 person who certified (a), (b) or (c) and I have not modified
178 it.
179
180 (d) I understand and agree that this project and the contribution
181 are public and that a record of the contribution (including all
182 personal information I submit with it, including my sign-off) is
183 maintained indefinitely and may be redistributed consistent with
184 this project or the open source license(s) involved.
185
186then you just add a line saying
187
188 Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <random@developer.example.org>
189
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190This line can be automatically added by git if you run the git-commit
191command with the -s option.
192
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193Some people also put extra tags at the end. They'll just be ignored for
194now, but you can do this to mark internal company procedures or just
195point out some special detail about the sign-off.
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196
197
198------------------------------------------------
199MUA specific hints
200
201Some of patches I receive or pick up from the list share common
202patterns of breakage. Please make sure your MUA is set up
203properly not to corrupt whitespaces. Here are two common ones
204I have seen:
205
206* Empty context lines that do not have _any_ whitespace.
207
208* Non empty context lines that have one extra whitespace at the
209 beginning.
210
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211One test you could do yourself if your MUA is set up correctly is:
212
213* Send the patch to yourself, exactly the way you would, except
214 To: and Cc: lines, which would not contain the list and
215 maintainer address.
216
217* Save that patch to a file in UNIX mailbox format. Call it say
218 a.patch.
219
220* Try to apply to the tip of the "master" branch from the
221 git.git public repository:
222
223 $ git fetch http://kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git master:test-apply
224 $ git checkout test-apply
225 $ git reset --hard
226 $ git applymbox a.patch
227
228If it does not apply correctly, there can be various reasons.
229
230* Your patch itself does not apply cleanly. That is _bad_ but
231 does not have much to do with your MUA. Please rebase the
232 patch appropriately.
233
234* Your MUA corrupted your patch; applymbox would complain that
235 the patch does not apply. Look at .dotest/ subdirectory and
236 see what 'patch' file contains and check for the common
237 corruption patterns mentioned above.
238
239* While you are at it, check what are in 'info' and
240 'final-commit' files as well. If what is in 'final-commit' is
241 not exactly what you would want to see in the commit log
242 message, it is very likely that your maintainer would end up
243 hand editing the log message when he applies your patch.
244 Things like "Hi, this is my first patch.\n", if you really
245 want to put in the patch e-mail, should come after the
246 three-dash line that signals the end of the commit message.
247
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248
249Pine
250----
251
252(Johannes Schindelin)
253
254I don't know how many people still use pine, but for those poor
255souls it may be good to mention that the quell-flowed-text is
256needed for recent versions.
257
258... the "no-strip-whitespace-before-send" option, too. AFAIK it
259was introduced in 4.60.
260
261(Linus Torvalds)
262
263And 4.58 needs at least this.
264
265---
266diff-tree 8326dd8350be64ac7fc805f6563a1d61ad10d32c (from e886a61f76edf5410573e92e38ce22974f9c40f1)
267Author: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@g5.osdl.org>
268Date: Mon Aug 15 17:23:51 2005 -0700
269
270 Fix pine whitespace-corruption bug
271
272 There's no excuse for unconditionally removing whitespace from
273 the pico buffers on close.
274
275diff --git a/pico/pico.c b/pico/pico.c
276--- a/pico/pico.c
277+++ b/pico/pico.c
278@@ -219,7 +219,9 @@ PICO *pm;
279 switch(pico_all_done){ /* prepare for/handle final events */
280 case COMP_EXIT : /* already confirmed */
281 packheader();
282+#if 0
283 stripwhitespace();
284+#endif
285 c |= COMP_EXIT;
286 break;
287
288
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289(Daniel Barkalow)
290
291> A patch to SubmittingPatches, MUA specific help section for
292> users of Pine 4.63 would be very much appreciated.
293
294Ah, it looks like a recent version changed the default behavior to do the
295right thing, and inverted the sense of the configuration option. (Either
296that or Gentoo did it.) So you need to set the
297"no-strip-whitespace-before-send" option, unless the option you have is
298"strip-whitespace-before-send", in which case you should avoid checking
299it.
300
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301
302Thunderbird
303-----------
304
305(A Large Angry SCM)
306
307Here are some hints on how to successfully submit patches inline using
cf6de18a 308Thunderbird.
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309
310This recipe appears to work with the current [*1*] Thunderbird from Suse.
311
312The following Thunderbird extensions are needed:
313 AboutConfig 0.5
314 http://aboutconfig.mozdev.org/
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315 External Editor 0.7.2
316 http://globs.org/articles.php?lng=en&pg=8
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317
3181) Prepare the patch as a text file using your method of choice.
319
3202) Before opening a compose window, use Edit->Account Settings to
321uncheck the "Compose messages in HTML format" setting in the
322"Composition & Addressing" panel of the account to be used to send the
323patch. [*2*]
324
3253) In the main Thunderbird window, _before_ you open the compose window
326for the patch, use Tools->about:config to set the following to the
327indicated values:
328 mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed => false
cf6de18a 329 mailnews.wraplength => 0
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330
3314) Open a compose window and click the external editor icon.
332
3335) In the external editor window, read in the patch file and exit the
334editor normally.
335
3366) Back in the compose window: Add whatever other text you wish to the
337message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
338
3397) Optionally, undo the about:config/account settings changes made in
340steps 2 & 3.
341
342
343[Footnotes]
344*1* Version 1.0 (20041207) from the MozillaThunderbird-1.0-5 rpm of Suse
3459.3 professional updates.
346
347*2* It may be possible to do this with about:config and the following
348settings but I haven't tried, yet.
349 mail.html_compose => false
350 mail.identity.default.compose_html => false
351 mail.identity.id?.compose_html => false
352
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354Gnus
355----
356
357'|' in the *Summary* buffer can be used to pipe the current
358message to an external program, and this is a handy way to drive
359"git am". However, if the message is MIME encoded, what is
360piped into the program is the representation you see in your
361*Article* buffer after unwrapping MIME. This is often not what
362you would want for two reasons. It tends to screw up non ASCII
363characters (most notably in people's names), and also
364whitespaces (fatal in patches). Running 'C-u g' to display the
365message in raw form before using '|' to run the pipe can work
366this problem around.
367
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368
369KMail
370-----
371
372This should help you to submit patches inline using KMail.
373
3741) Prepare the patch as a text file.
375
3762) Click on New Mail.
377
3783) Go under "Options" in the Composer window and be sure that
379"Word wrap" is not set.
380
3814) Use Message -> Insert file... and insert the patch.
382
3835) Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish to the
384message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.