Refactor submodule push check to use string list instead of integer
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
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1git-push(1)
2===========
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
97925fde 11[verse]
9f67fee2 12'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
e9fcd1e2 13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
e3163c75 14 [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
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15
16DESCRIPTION
17-----------
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18
19Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
20necessary to complete the given refs.
7fc9d69f 21
cc55aaec 22You can make interesting things happen to a repository
eb0362a4 23every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
5162e697 24documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
eb0362a4 25
7fc9d69f 26
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27OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
28------------------
3598a308 29<repository>::
85a97d4e 30 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
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31 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
32 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
33 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
3598a308 34
2c9693bd 35<refspec>...::
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36 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
37 `{plus}`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
38 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
39 It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
40 in the remote repository is to be updated.
3598a308 41+
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42The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
43it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
9d83e382 44`HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]).
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46The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
47push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
48be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
49updated.
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51The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
52on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
a75d7b54 53update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `{plus}`,
149f6ddf 54you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
a75d7b54 55fast-forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
149f6ddf 56EXAMPLES below for details.
3598a308 57+
80391846 58`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
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59+
60Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
61the remote repository.
a83619d6 62+
a75d7b54 63The special refspec `:` (or `{plus}:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
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64directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
65the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
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66already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
67if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
68nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
7fc9d69f 69
3240240f 70--all::
cc55aaec 71 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 72 refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
d6a73596 73
3240240f 74--mirror::
ff206748 75 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 76 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
73f03627 77 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
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78 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
79 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
80 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
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81 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
82 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
83 set.
ff206748 84
9f67fee2 85-n::
3240240f 86--dry-run::
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87 Do everything except actually send the updates.
88
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89--porcelain::
90 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
91 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
92 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
93
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94--delete::
95 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
96 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
97
3240240f 98--tags::
cc1b8d8b 99 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
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100 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
101 line.
102
3240240f 103--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
4fc988ef 104--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
ba020ef5 105 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
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106 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
107 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
108 a directory on the default $PATH.
109
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110-f::
111--force::
f0fff36e 112 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
64a476e6 113 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
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114 This flag disables the check. This can cause the
115 remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
7fc9d69f 116
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117--repo=<repository>::
118 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
0b444cdb 119 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
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120 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
121 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
122 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
123 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
124 the difference between these two commands
125+
126--------------------------
127git push public #1
128git push --repo=public #2
129--------------------------
130+
131is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
132only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
0b444cdb 133useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
dc36f265 134
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135-u::
136--set-upstream::
137 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
138 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
139 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
140 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
141
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142--thin::
143--no-thin::
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144 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
145 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
146 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
147 \--thin.
dc36f265 148
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149-q::
150--quiet::
151 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
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152 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
153 error stream.
989119d9 154
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155-v::
156--verbose::
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157 Run verbosely.
158
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159--progress::
160 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
161 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
162 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
163 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
989119d9 164
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165--recurse-submodules=check::
166 Check whether all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
167 pushed are available on a remote tracking branch. Otherwise the
168 push will be aborted and the command will exit with non-zero status.
169
170
37ba0561 171include::urls-remotes.txt[]
eb0362a4 172
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173OUTPUT
174------
175
176The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
177section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
178locally or via ssh).
179
180The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
181representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
182
183-------------------------------
184 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
185-------------------------------
186
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187If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
188
189-------------------------------
190 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
191-------------------------------
192
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193The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
194option is used.
195
066a5268 196flag::
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197 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
198(space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
199`{plus}`;; for a successful forced update;
200`-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
201`*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
202`!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
203`=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
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204
205summary::
206 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
207 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
208 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
b9190e79 209 `<old>\...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
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210+
211For a failed update, more details are given:
212+
213--
214rejected::
215 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
216 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
217
218remote rejected::
219 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
220 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
221 of the following safety options in effect:
222 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
223 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
224 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
225 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
226
227remote failure::
228 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
229 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
230 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
231--
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232
233from::
234 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
235 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
236 name of the local ref is omitted.
237
238to::
239 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
240 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
241
242reason::
243 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
244 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
245 failure is described.
bb9fca80 246
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247Note about fast-forwards
248------------------------
249
250When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
251point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
252fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
253
254In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
255commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
256builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
257
258In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
259suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
260a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
261leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
262
263----------------
264
265 B
266 /
267 ---X---A
268
269----------------
270
271Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
272back to the original repository you two obtained the original commit X.
273
274The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
275commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
276
277But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
278now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
279so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
280will now start building on top of B.
281
282The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
283to prevent such loss of history.
284
285If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
286the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
287history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
288by both parties, and push the result back.
289
290You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
291the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
292and B.
293
294----------------
295
296 B---C
297 / /
298 ---X---A
299
300----------------
301
302Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
303push will be accepted.
304
305Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
306with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
307create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
308A.
309
310----------------
311
312 B D
313 / /
314 ---X---A
315
316----------------
317
318Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
319accepted.
320
321There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
322rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
323pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
324A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
325commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
326forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
327you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
328(and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
329overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
330a case where you do mean to lose history.
331
332
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333Examples
334--------
335
5d2fc913 336`git push`::
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337 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
338 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
339 configured for the current branch).
340
5d2fc913 341`git push origin`::
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342 Without additional configuration, works like
343 `git push origin :`.
344+
345The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
346configured by setting the `push` option of the remote.
347+
348For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
349use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
350the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
351`git push origin`.
352
5d2fc913 353`git push origin :`::
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354 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
355 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
356 description of "matching" branches.
357
5d2fc913 358`git push origin master`::
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359 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
360 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
361 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
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362 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
363 created.
bb9fca80 364
5d2fc913 365`git push origin HEAD`::
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366 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
367 remote.
bb9fca80 368
5d2fc913 369`git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev`::
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370 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
371 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
372 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `origin` repository, then
373 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
bb9fca80 374
5d2fc913 375`git push origin HEAD:master`::
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376 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
377 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
378 branch without thinking about its local name.
379
5d2fc913 380`git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental`::
4e560158 381 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
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382 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
383 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
384 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
385 the ref name on its own will work.
4e560158 386
5d2fc913 387`git push origin :experimental`::
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388 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
389 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
390
5d2fc913 391`git push origin {plus}dev:master`::
149f6ddf 392 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
a75d7b54 393 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
149f6ddf 394 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
a75d7b54 395 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
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396+
397----
398 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
399 \
400 X---Y---Z dev
401----
402+
403The above command would change the origin repository to
404+
405----
406 A---B (unnamed branch)
407 /
408 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
409----
410+
411Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
412and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
413a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
414
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415GIT
416---
9e1f0a85 417Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite