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[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-checkout.txt
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1git-checkout(1)
2===============
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3
4NAME
5----
76ce9462 6git-checkout - Checkout a branch or paths to the working tree
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7
8SYNOPSIS
9--------
71bb1033 10[verse]
bb0ceb62 11'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [--track | --no-track] [-b <new_branch> [-l]] [-m] [<branch>]
eac5a401 12'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
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13
14DESCRIPTION
15-----------
4aaa7027 16
71bb1033 17When <paths> are not given, this command switches branches by
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18updating the index and working tree to reflect the specified
19branch, <branch>, and updating HEAD to be <branch> or, if
71bb1033 20specified, <new_branch>. Using -b will cause <new_branch> to
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21be created; in this case you can use the --track or --no-track
22options, which will be passed to `git branch`.
4aaa7027 23
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24As a convenience, --track will default to create a branch whose
25name is constructed from the specified branch name by stripping
26the first namespace level.
27
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28When <paths> are given, this command does *not* switch
29branches. It updates the named paths in the working tree from
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30the index file, or from a named commit. In
31this case, the `-b` options is meaningless and giving
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32either of them results in an error. <tree-ish> argument can be
33used to specify a specific tree-ish (i.e. commit, tag or tree)
34to update the index for the given paths before updating the
35working tree.
4aaa7027 36
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37The index may contain unmerged entries after a failed merge. By
38default, if you try to check out such an entry from the index, the
39checkout operation will fail and nothing will be checked out.
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40Using -f will ignore these unmerged entries. The contents from a
41specific side of the merge can be checked out of the index by
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42using --ours or --theirs. With -m, changes made to the working tree
43file can be discarded to recreate the original conflicted merge result.
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44
45OPTIONS
46-------
6124aee5 47-q::
2be7fcb4 48 Quiet, suppress feedback messages.
6124aee5 49
0270f7c5 50-f::
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51 When switching branches, proceed even if the index or the
52 working tree differs from HEAD. This is used to throw away
53 local changes.
54+
55When checking out paths from the index, do not fail upon unmerged
56entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.
0270f7c5 57
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58--ours::
59--theirs::
60 When checking out paths from the index, check out stage #2
61 ('ours') or #3 ('theirs') for unmerged paths.
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62
63-b::
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64 Create a new branch named <new_branch> and start it at
65 <branch>. The new branch name must pass all checks defined
5162e697 66 by linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
2b1f4247 67 may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.
7fc9d69f 68
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69-t::
70--track::
ba020ef5 71 When creating a new branch, set up configuration so that 'git-pull'
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72 will automatically retrieve data from the start point, which must be
73 a branch. Use this if you always pull from the same upstream branch
74 into the new branch, and if you don't want to use "git pull
75 <repository> <refspec>" explicitly. This behavior is the default
76 when the start point is a remote branch. Set the
77 branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable to `false` if you want
ba020ef5 78 'git-checkout' and 'git-branch' to always behave as if '--no-track' were
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79 given. Set it to `always` if you want this behavior when the
80 start-point is either a local or remote branch.
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82If no '-b' option was given, the name of the new branch will be
83derived from the remote branch, by attempting to guess the name
84of the branch on remote system. If "remotes/" or "refs/remotes/"
85are prefixed, it is stripped away, and then the part up to the
86next slash (which would be the nickname of the remote) is removed.
87This would tell us to use "hack" as the local branch when branching
88off of "origin/hack" (or "remotes/origin/hack", or even
89"refs/remotes/origin/hack"). If the given name has no slash, or the above
90guessing results in an empty name, the guessing is aborted. You can
91exlicitly give a name with '-b' in such a case.
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92
93--no-track::
572fc81d 94 Ignore the branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable.
0746d19a 95
969d326d 96-l::
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97 Create the new branch's reflog. This activates recording of
98 all changes made to the branch ref, enabling use of date
967506bb 99 based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@\{yesterday}".
969d326d 100
1be0659e 101-m::
eac5a401 102--merge::
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103 When switching branches,
104 if you have local modifications to one or more files that
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105 are different between the current branch and the branch to
106 which you are switching, the command refuses to switch
107 branches in order to preserve your modifications in context.
108 However, with this option, a three-way merge between the current
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109 branch, your working tree contents, and the new branch
110 is done, and you will be on the new branch.
111+
112When a merge conflict happens, the index entries for conflicting
113paths are left unmerged, and you need to resolve the conflicts
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114and mark the resolved paths with `git add` (or `git rm` if the merge
115should result in deletion of the path).
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116+
117When checking out paths from the index, this option lets you recreate
118the conflicted merge in the specified paths.
1be0659e 119
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120--conflict=<style>::
121 The same as --merge option above, but changes the way the
122 conflicting hunks are presented, overriding the
123 merge.conflictstyle configuration variable. Possible values are
124 "merge" (default) and "diff3" (in addition to what is shown by
125 "merge" style, shows the original contents).
1be0659e 126
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127<new_branch>::
128 Name for the new branch.
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130<branch>::
131 Branch to checkout; may be any object ID that resolves to a
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132 commit. Defaults to HEAD.
133+
134When this parameter names a non-branch (but still a valid commit object),
135your HEAD becomes 'detached'.
136
137
138Detached HEAD
139-------------
140
141It is sometimes useful to be able to 'checkout' a commit that is
142not at the tip of one of your branches. The most obvious
143example is to check out the commit at a tagged official release
144point, like this:
145
146------------
147$ git checkout v2.6.18
148------------
149
150Earlier versions of git did not allow this and asked you to
151create a temporary branch using `-b` option, but starting from
152version 1.5.0, the above command 'detaches' your HEAD from the
153current branch and directly point at the commit named by the tag
154(`v2.6.18` in the above example).
155
156You can use usual git commands while in this state. You can use
b1889c36 157`git reset --hard $othercommit` to further move around, for
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158example. You can make changes and create a new commit on top of
159a detached HEAD. You can even create a merge by using `git
160merge $othercommit`.
161
162The state you are in while your HEAD is detached is not recorded
163by any branch (which is natural --- you are not on any branch).
164What this means is that you can discard your temporary commits
165and merges by switching back to an existing branch (e.g. `git
166checkout master`), and a later `git prune` or `git gc` would
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167garbage-collect them. If you did this by mistake, you can ask
168the reflog for HEAD where you were, e.g.
169
170------------
171$ git log -g -2 HEAD
172------------
7fc9d69f 173
4aaa7027 174
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175EXAMPLES
176--------
4aaa7027 177
1be0659e 178. The following sequence checks out the `master` branch, reverts
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179the `Makefile` to two revisions back, deletes hello.c by
180mistake, and gets it back from the index.
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4aaa7027 182------------
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183$ git checkout master <1>
184$ git checkout master~2 Makefile <2>
4aaa7027 185$ rm -f hello.c
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186$ git checkout hello.c <3>
187------------
188+
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189<1> switch branch
190<2> take out a file out of other commit
48aeecdc 191<3> restore hello.c from HEAD of current branch
1be0659e 192+
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193If you have an unfortunate branch that is named `hello.c`, this
194step would be confused as an instruction to switch to that branch.
195You should instead write:
1be0659e 196+
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197------------
198$ git checkout -- hello.c
199------------
200
1be0659e 201. After working in a wrong branch, switching to the correct
71bb1033 202branch would be done using:
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203+
204------------
205$ git checkout mytopic
206------------
207+
208However, your "wrong" branch and correct "mytopic" branch may
209differ in files that you have locally modified, in which case,
210the above checkout would fail like this:
211+
212------------
213$ git checkout mytopic
214fatal: Entry 'frotz' not uptodate. Cannot merge.
215------------
216+
217You can give the `-m` flag to the command, which would try a
218three-way merge:
219+
220------------
221$ git checkout -m mytopic
222Auto-merging frotz
223------------
224+
225After this three-way merge, the local modifications are _not_
226registered in your index file, so `git diff` would show you what
227changes you made since the tip of the new branch.
228
229. When a merge conflict happens during switching branches with
230the `-m` option, you would see something like this:
231+
232------------
233$ git checkout -m mytopic
234Auto-merging frotz
235merge: warning: conflicts during merge
236ERROR: Merge conflict in frotz
237fatal: merge program failed
238------------
239+
240At this point, `git diff` shows the changes cleanly merged as in
241the previous example, as well as the changes in the conflicted
242files. Edit and resolve the conflict and mark it resolved with
d7f078b8 243`git add` as usual:
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244+
245------------
246$ edit frotz
d7f078b8 247$ git add frotz
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248------------
249
4aaa7027 250
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251Author
252------
253Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
254
255Documentation
256--------------
257Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
258
259GIT
260---
9e1f0a85 261Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite