Merge branch 'rj/highlight-test-hang'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-format-patch.txt
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1git-format-patch(1)
2===================
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-format-patch - Prepare patches for e-mail submission
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
353ce815 11[verse]
50710ce4 12'git format-patch' [-k] [(-o|--output-directory) <dir> | --stdout]
f693b7e9 13 [--no-thread | --thread[=<style>]]
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14 [(--attach|--inline)[=<boundary>] | --no-attach]
15 [-s | --signoff]
6622d9c7 16 [--signature=<signature> | --no-signature]
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17 [-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
18 [--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
19 [--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
20 [--ignore-if-in-upstream]
7952ea66 21 [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix] [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
ae6c098f 22 [--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
2a4c2607 23 [--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
50710ce4 24 [<common diff options>]
8a1d076e 25 [ <since> | <revision range> ]
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26
27DESCRIPTION
28-----------
2052d146 29
8a1d076e 30Prepare each commit with its patch in
2052d146 31one file per commit, formatted to resemble UNIX mailbox format.
2052d146 32The output of this command is convenient for e-mail submission or
0b444cdb 33for use with 'git am'.
35ef3a4c 34
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35There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
36
371. A single commit, <since>, specifies that the commits leading
38 to the tip of the current branch that are not in the history
39 that leads to the <since> to be output.
40
412. Generic <revision range> expression (see "SPECIFYING
9d83e382 42 REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7]) means the
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43 commits in the specified range.
44
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45The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
46apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
dce5ef14 47history up until <commit>, use the '\--root' option: `git format-patch
6cf378f0 48--root <commit>`. If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
dce5ef14 49can do this with `git format-patch -1 <commit>`.
8a1d076e 50
e6ff0f42 51By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the
2052d146 52first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
dce5ef14 53the filename. With the `--numbered-files` option, the output file names
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54will only be numbers, without the first line of the commit appended.
55The names of the output files are printed to standard
dce5ef14 56output, unless the `--stdout` option is specified.
66f04f38 57
dce5ef14 58If `-o` is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise
2052d146 59they are created in the current working directory.
35ef3a4c 60
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61By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] " followed by
62the concatenation of lines from the commit message up to the first blank
63line (see the DISCUSSION section of linkgit:git-commit[1]).
64
65When multiple patches are output, the subject prefix will instead be
66"[PATCH n/m] ". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use `-n`.
67To omit patch numbers from the subject, use `-N`.
35ef3a4c 68
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69If given `--thread`, `git-format-patch` will generate `In-Reply-To` and
70`References` headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
71as replies to the first mail; this also generates a `Message-Id` header to
cc35de84 72reference.
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73
74OPTIONS
75-------
c1a95fa6 76:git-format-patch: 1
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77include::diff-options.txt[]
78
ed5f07a6 79-<n>::
2c642ed8 80 Prepare patches from the topmost <n> commits.
ed5f07a6 81
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82-o <dir>::
83--output-directory <dir>::
35ef3a4c 84 Use <dir> to store the resulting files, instead of the
efd02016 85 current working directory.
35ef3a4c 86
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87-n::
88--numbered::
a567fdcb 89 Name output in '[PATCH n/m]' format, even with a single patch.
35ef3a4c 90
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91-N::
92--no-numbered::
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93 Name output in '[PATCH]' format.
94
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95--start-number <n>::
96 Start numbering the patches at <n> instead of 1.
97
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98--numbered-files::
99 Output file names will be a simple number sequence
100 without the default first line of the commit appended.
e6ff0f42 101
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102-k::
103--keep-subject::
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104 Do not strip/add '[PATCH]' from the first line of the
105 commit log message.
106
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107-s::
108--signoff::
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109 Add `Signed-off-by:` line to the commit message, using
110 the committer identity of yourself.
111
54ba6013 112--stdout::
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113 Print all commits to the standard output in mbox format,
114 instead of creating a file for each one.
7fc9d69f 115
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116--attach[=<boundary>]::
117 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
118 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 119 second part, with `Content-Disposition: attachment`.
c112f689 120
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121--no-attach::
122 Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the
123 configuration setting.
124
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125--inline[=<boundary>]::
126 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
127 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 128 second part, with `Content-Disposition: inline`.
a15a44ef 129
30984ed2 130--thread[=<style>]::
f693b7e9 131--no-thread::
dce5ef14 132 Controls addition of `In-Reply-To` and `References` headers to
f693b7e9 133 make the second and subsequent mails appear as replies to the
dce5ef14 134 first. Also controls generation of the `Message-Id` header to
f693b7e9 135 reference.
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136+
137The optional <style> argument can be either `shallow` or `deep`.
fd1ff306 138'shallow' threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the
30984ed2 139series, where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
6cf378f0 140`--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order. 'deep'
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141threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
142+
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143The default is `--no-thread`, unless the 'format.thread' configuration
144is set. If `--thread` is specified without a style, it defaults to the
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145style specified by 'format.thread' if any, or else `shallow`.
146+
147Beware that the default for 'git send-email' is to thread emails
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148itself. If you want `git format-patch` to take care of threading, you
149will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
28ffb898 150
da56645d 151--in-reply-to=Message-Id::
dce5ef14 152 Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
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153 reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
154 provide a new patch series.
155
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156--ignore-if-in-upstream::
157 Do not include a patch that matches a commit in
158 <until>..<since>. This will examine all patches reachable
159 from <since> but not from <until> and compare them with the
160 patches being generated, and any patch that matches is
161 ignored.
162
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163--subject-prefix=<Subject-Prefix>::
164 Instead of the standard '[PATCH]' prefix in the subject
165 line, instead use '[<Subject-Prefix>]'. This
166 allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
dce5ef14 167 combined with the `--numbered` option.
2d9e4a47 168
7952ea66 169-v <n>::
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170--reroll-count=<n>::
171 Mark the series as the <n>-th iteration of the topic. The
172 output filenames have `v<n>` pretended to them, and the
173 subject prefix ("PATCH" by default, but configurable via the
174 `--subject-prefix` option) has ` v<n>` appended to it. E.g.
175 `--reroll-count=4` may produce `v4-0001-add-makefile.patch`
176 file that has "Subject: [PATCH v4 1/20] Add makefile" in it.
177
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178--to=<email>::
179 Add a `To:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
180 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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181 The negated form `--no-to` discards all `To:` headers added so
182 far (from config or command line).
ae6c098f 183
736cc67d 184--cc=<email>::
dce5ef14 185 Add a `Cc:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
736cc67d 186 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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187 The negated form `--no-cc` discards all `Cc:` headers added so
188 far (from config or command line).
736cc67d 189
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190--from::
191--from=<ident>::
192 Use `ident` in the `From:` header of each commit email. If the
193 author ident of the commit is not textually identical to the
194 provided `ident`, place a `From:` header in the body of the
195 message with the original author. If no `ident` is given, use
196 the committer ident.
197+
198Note that this option is only useful if you are actually sending the
199emails and want to identify yourself as the sender, but retain the
200original author (and `git am` will correctly pick up the in-body
201header). Note also that `git send-email` already handles this
202transformation for you, and this option should not be used if you are
203feeding the result to `git send-email`.
204
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205--add-header=<header>::
206 Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in addition
207 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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208 For example, `--add-header="Organization: git-foo"`.
209 The negated form `--no-add-header` discards *all* (`To:`,
210 `Cc:`, and custom) headers added so far from config or command
211 line.
d7d9c2d0 212
2a4c2607 213--[no-]cover-letter::
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214 In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
215 containing the shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can
216 fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
a5a27c79 217
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218--notes[=<ref>]::
219 Append the notes (see linkgit:git-notes[1]) for the commit
220 after the three-dash line.
221+
222The expected use case of this is to write supporting explanation for
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223the commit that does not belong to the commit log message proper,
224and include it with the patch submission. While one can simply write
225these explanations after `format-patch` has run but before sending,
2de9b711 226keeping them as Git notes allows them to be maintained between versions
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227of the patch series (but see the discussion of the `notes.rewrite`
228configuration options in linkgit:git-notes[1] to use this workflow).
e422c0cf 229
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230--[no]-signature=<signature>::
231 Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the signature
232 is separated from the body by a line with '-- ' on it. If the
2de9b711 233 signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the Git version
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234 number.
235
03eeaeae 236--suffix=.<sfx>::
917a8f89 237 Instead of using `.patch` as the suffix for generated
02783075 238 filenames, use specified suffix. A common alternative is
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239 `--suffix=.txt`. Leaving this empty will remove the `.patch`
240 suffix.
03eeaeae 241+
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242Note that the leading character does not have to be a dot; for example,
243you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
03eeaeae 244
b7df098c 245-q::
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246--quiet::
247 Do not print the names of the generated files to standard output.
248
37c22a4b 249--no-binary::
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250 Do not output contents of changes in binary files, instead
251 display a notice that those files changed. Patches generated
252 using this option cannot be applied properly, but they are
253 still useful for code review.
37c22a4b 254
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255--root::
256 Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it
257 is just a single commit (that would normally be treated as a
258 <since>). Note that root commits included in the specified
259 range are always formatted as creation patches, independently
260 of this flag.
261
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262CONFIGURATION
263-------------
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264You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,
265defaults for the subject prefix and file suffix, number patches when
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266outputting more than one patch, add "To" or "Cc:" headers, configure
267attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.
96ce6d26 268
917a8f89 269------------
96ce6d26 270[format]
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271 headers = "Organization: git-foo\n"
272 subjectprefix = CHANGE
273 suffix = .txt
274 numbered = auto
ae6c098f 275 to = <email>
fe8928e6 276 cc = <email>
0db5260b 277 attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
1d1876e9 278 signoff = true
2a4c2607 279 coverletter = auto
917a8f89 280------------
03eeaeae 281
96ce6d26 282
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283DISCUSSION
284----------
285
286The patch produced by 'git format-patch' is in UNIX mailbox format,
287with a fixed "magic" time stamp to indicate that the file is output
288from format-patch rather than a real mailbox, like so:
289
290------------
291From 8f72bad1baf19a53459661343e21d6491c3908d3 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
292From: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
293Date: Tue, 13 Jul 2010 11:42:54 -0700
294Subject: [PATCH] =?UTF-8?q?[IA64]=20Put=20ia64=20config=20files=20on=20the=20?=
295 =?UTF-8?q?Uwe=20Kleine-K=C3=B6nig=20diet?=
296MIME-Version: 1.0
297Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
298Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit
299
300arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
301(See commit c2330e286f68f1c408b4aa6515ba49d57f05beae comment)
302
303Do the same for ia64 so we can have sleek & trim looking
304...
305------------
306
307Typically it will be placed in a MUA's drafts folder, edited to add
308timely commentary that should not go in the changelog after the three
309dashes, and then sent as a message whose body, in our example, starts
310with "arch/arm config files were...". On the receiving end, readers
311can save interesting patches in a UNIX mailbox and apply them with
312linkgit:git-am[1].
313
314When a patch is part of an ongoing discussion, the patch generated by
315'git format-patch' can be tweaked to take advantage of the 'git am
316--scissors' feature. After your response to the discussion comes a
317line that consists solely of "`-- >8 --`" (scissors and perforation),
318followed by the patch with unnecessary header fields removed:
319
320------------
321...
322> So we should do such-and-such.
323
324Makes sense to me. How about this patch?
325
326-- >8 --
327Subject: [IA64] Put ia64 config files on the Uwe Kleine-König diet
328
329arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
330...
331------------
332
333When sending a patch this way, most often you are sending your own
334patch, so in addition to the "`From $SHA1 $magic_timestamp`" marker you
335should omit `From:` and `Date:` lines from the patch file. The patch
336title is likely to be different from the subject of the discussion the
337patch is in response to, so it is likely that you would want to keep
338the Subject: line, like the example above.
339
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340Checking for patch corruption
341~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
342Many mailers if not set up properly will corrupt whitespace. Here are
343two common types of corruption:
344
345* Empty context lines that do not have _any_ whitespace.
346
347* Non-empty context lines that have one extra whitespace at the
348 beginning.
349
350One way to test if your MUA is set up correctly is:
351
352* Send the patch to yourself, exactly the way you would, except
353 with To: and Cc: lines that do not contain the list and
354 maintainer address.
355
356* Save that patch to a file in UNIX mailbox format. Call it a.patch,
357 say.
358
359* Apply it:
360
361 $ git fetch <project> master:test-apply
362 $ git checkout test-apply
363 $ git reset --hard
364 $ git am a.patch
365
366If it does not apply correctly, there can be various reasons.
367
368* The patch itself does not apply cleanly. That is _bad_ but
369 does not have much to do with your MUA. You might want to rebase
370 the patch with linkgit:git-rebase[1] before regenerating it in
371 this case.
372
373* The MUA corrupted your patch; "am" would complain that
374 the patch does not apply. Look in the .git/rebase-apply/ subdirectory and
375 see what 'patch' file contains and check for the common
376 corruption patterns mentioned above.
377
378* While at it, check the 'info' and 'final-commit' files as well.
379 If what is in 'final-commit' is not exactly what you would want to
380 see in the commit log message, it is very likely that the
381 receiver would end up hand editing the log message when applying
382 your patch. Things like "Hi, this is my first patch.\n" in the
383 patch e-mail should come after the three-dash line that signals
384 the end of the commit message.
385
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386MUA-SPECIFIC HINTS
387------------------
388Here are some hints on how to successfully submit patches inline using
389various mailers.
390
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391GMail
392~~~~~
393GMail does not have any way to turn off line wrapping in the web
394interface, so it will mangle any emails that you send. You can however
395use "git send-email" and send your patches through the GMail SMTP server, or
396use any IMAP email client to connect to the google IMAP server and forward
397the emails through that.
398
399For hints on using 'git send-email' to send your patches through the
400GMail SMTP server, see the EXAMPLE section of linkgit:git-send-email[1].
401
402For hints on submission using the IMAP interface, see the EXAMPLE
403section of linkgit:git-imap-send[1].
404
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405Thunderbird
406~~~~~~~~~~~
407By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as well as flag
408them as being 'format=flowed', both of which will make the
2de9b711 409resulting email unusable by Git.
dc53151f 410
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411There are three different approaches: use an add-on to turn off line wraps,
412configure Thunderbird to not mangle patches, or use
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413an external editor to keep Thunderbird from mangling the patches.
414
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415Approach #1 (add-on)
416^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
417
418Install the Toggle Word Wrap add-on that is available from
419https://addons.mozilla.org/thunderbird/addon/toggle-word-wrap/
420It adds a menu entry "Enable Word Wrap" in the composer's "Options" menu
421that you can tick off. Now you can compose the message as you otherwise do
422(cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc), but you have to
423insert line breaks manually in any text that you type.
424
425Approach #2 (configuration)
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426^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
427Three steps:
428
4291. Configure your mail server composition as plain text:
430 Edit...Account Settings...Composition & Addressing,
431 uncheck "Compose Messages in HTML".
432
4332. Configure your general composition window to not wrap.
434+
435In Thunderbird 2:
436Edit..Preferences..Composition, wrap plain text messages at 0
437+
438In Thunderbird 3:
439Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
440"mail.wrap_long_lines".
441Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`.
442
4433. Disable the use of format=flowed:
444Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
445"mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed".
446Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`.
447
448After that is done, you should be able to compose email as you
449otherwise would (cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc),
450and the patches will not be mangled.
451
b8959605 452Approach #3 (external editor)
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453^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
454
455The following Thunderbird extensions are needed:
456AboutConfig from http://aboutconfig.mozdev.org/ and
457External Editor from http://globs.org/articles.php?lng=en&pg=8
458
4591. Prepare the patch as a text file using your method of choice.
460
4612. Before opening a compose window, use Edit->Account Settings to
462 uncheck the "Compose messages in HTML format" setting in the
463 "Composition & Addressing" panel of the account to be used to
464 send the patch.
465
4663. In the main Thunderbird window, 'before' you open the compose
467 window for the patch, use Tools->about:config to set the
468 following to the indicated values:
469+
470----------
471 mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed => false
472 mailnews.wraplength => 0
473----------
474
4754. Open a compose window and click the external editor icon.
476
4775. In the external editor window, read in the patch file and exit
478 the editor normally.
479
480Side note: it may be possible to do step 2 with
481about:config and the following settings but no one's tried yet.
482
483----------
484 mail.html_compose => false
485 mail.identity.default.compose_html => false
486 mail.identity.id?.compose_html => false
487----------
488
489There is a script in contrib/thunderbird-patch-inline which can help
490you include patches with Thunderbird in an easy way. To use it, do the
491steps above and then use the script as the external editor.
492
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493KMail
494~~~~~
495This should help you to submit patches inline using KMail.
496
4971. Prepare the patch as a text file.
498
4992. Click on New Mail.
500
5013. Go under "Options" in the Composer window and be sure that
502 "Word wrap" is not set.
503
5044. Use Message -> Insert file... and insert the patch.
505
5065. Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish to the
507 message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
508
e0d48279 509
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510EXAMPLES
511--------
512
921177f5 513* Extract commits between revisions R1 and R2, and apply them on top of
0b444cdb 514the current branch using 'git am' to cherry-pick them:
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515+
516------------
467c0197 517$ git format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git am -3 -k
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518------------
519
520* Extract all commits which are in the current branch but not in the
521origin branch:
522+
523------------
524$ git format-patch origin
525------------
526+
527For each commit a separate file is created in the current directory.
528
529* Extract all commits that lead to 'origin' since the inception of the
530project:
531+
532------------
9c67c757 533$ git format-patch --root origin
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534------------
535
536* The same as the previous one:
537+
538------------
539$ git format-patch -M -B origin
540------------
541+
542Additionally, it detects and handles renames and complete rewrites
543intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A renaming patch reduces
50710ce4 544the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review.
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545Note that non-Git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
546use it only when you know the recipient uses Git to apply your patch.
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547
548* Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format them
549as e-mailable patches:
550+
551------------
552$ git format-patch -3
553------------
28ffb898 554
56ae8df5 555SEE ALSO
28ffb898 556--------
5162e697 557linkgit:git-am[1], linkgit:git-send-email[1]
28ffb898 558
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559GIT
560---
9e1f0a85 561Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite