git --bare cmd: do not unconditionally nuke GIT_DIR
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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7984eabe 1git(7)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
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12'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=GIT_EXEC_PATH]]
13 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager]
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14 [--bare] [--git-dir=GIT_DIR] [--work-tree=GIT_WORK_TREE]
15 [--help] COMMAND [ARGS]
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16
17DESCRIPTION
18-----------
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19Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
20unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
21and full access to internals.
22
23See this link:tutorial.html[tutorial] to get started, then see
24link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
25"man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
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26also want to read link:cvs-migration.html[CVS migration]. See
27link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
28introduction.
cb22bc44 29
4514ad4f 30The COMMAND is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
e0d10e1c 31as defined in the configuration file (see gitlink:git-config[1]).
4514ad4f 32
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33Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
34documentation can be viewed at
35`http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
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41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
da899deb 46* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
b6e4db6a 47
aba170cd 48* release notes for
da899deb 49 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
baafd6e7 50 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
444649e5 51 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
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52 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
53 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
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54 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
55
56* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
57
58* release notes for
59 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
60 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
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61 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
62 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
63 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
64 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
65 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
66
67* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
68
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69* release notes for
70 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
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71 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
72 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
73 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
74 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
75 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
76 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
77
78* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
79 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
80 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
81 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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82
83============
84
85endif::stalenotes[]
86
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87OPTIONS
88-------
89--version::
a87cd02c 90 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
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91
92--help::
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93 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
94 commands. If a git command is named this option will bring up
95 the man-page for that command. If the option '--all' or '-a' is
96 given then all available commands are printed.
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97
98--exec-path::
a87cd02c 99 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
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100 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
101 environment variable. If no path is given 'git' will print
102 the current setting and then exit.
103
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104-p|--paginate::
105 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER).
106
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107--no-pager::
108 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
109
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110--git-dir=<path>::
111 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
112 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable.
113
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114--work-tree=<path>::
115 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
116 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
117 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
118 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
119 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
120 variable.
121
6acbcb92 122--bare::
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123 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
124 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
125 directory.
126
9755afbd 127
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128FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
129---------------------
9755afbd 130
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131See the references above to get started using git. The following is
132probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
8db9307c 133
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134The <<Discussion,Discussion>> section below and the
135link:core-tutorial.html[Core tutorial] both provide introductions to the
136underlying git architecture.
e6fc2346 137
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138See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
139examples.
9755afbd 140
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141GIT COMMANDS
142------------
9755afbd 143
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144We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
145("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 146
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147High-level commands (porcelain)
148-------------------------------
149
150We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
151ancillary user utilities.
152
153Main porcelain commands
154~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 155
377e8139 156include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 157
90933efb 158Ancillary Commands
23091e95 159~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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160Manipulators:
161
377e8139 162include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 163
90933efb 164Interrogators:
204ee6a9 165
377e8139 166include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 167
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168
169Interacting with Others
170~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
171
172These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
173people via patch over e-mail.
174
175include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
176
177
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178Low-level commands (plumbing)
179-----------------------------
180
181Although git includes its
182own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
183development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
184might start by reading about gitlink:git-update-index[1] and
185gitlink:git-read-tree[1].
186
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187The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
188to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
189than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
190primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
191on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
192end user experience.
193
194The following description divides
195the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
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196the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
197compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
198repositories.
199
89bf2077 200
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201Manipulation commands
202~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 203
377e8139 204include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
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205
206
207Interrogation commands
208~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
209
377e8139 210include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
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211
212In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
213the working tree.
214
215
216Synching repositories
217~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
218
377e8139 219include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 220
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221The following are helper programs used by the above; end users
222typically do not use them directly.
223
224include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
225
226
227Internal helper commands
228~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
229
230These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
231users typically do not use them directly.
232
233include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
234
b1f33d62 235
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236Configuration Mechanism
237-----------------------
238
2fa090b6 239Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
5773c9f2 240is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
addf88e4 241simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
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242people. Here is an example:
243
244------------
245#
2fa090b6 246# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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247#
248
249; core variables
250[core]
251 ; Don't trust file modes
252 filemode = false
253
254; user identity
255[user]
256 name = "Junio C Hamano"
257 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
258
259------------
260
261Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
262their operation accordingly.
263
264
6c84e2e0 265Identifier Terminology
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266----------------------
267<object>::
2fa090b6 268 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
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269
270<blob>::
2fa090b6 271 Indicates a blob object name.
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272
273<tree>::
2fa090b6 274 Indicates a tree object name.
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275
276<commit>::
2fa090b6 277 Indicates a commit object name.
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278
279<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 280 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
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281 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
282 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
283 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 284
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285<commit-ish>::
286 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
287 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
288 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
289 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
290
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291<type>::
292 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 293 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
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294
295<file>::
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296 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
297 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 298
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299Symbolic Identifiers
300--------------------
90933efb 301Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 302symbolic notation:
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303
304HEAD::
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305 indicates the head of the current branch (i.e. the
306 contents of `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`).
307
c1bdacf9 308<tag>::
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309 a valid tag 'name'
310 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`).
311
c1bdacf9 312<head>::
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313 a valid head 'name'
314 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`).
315
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316For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
317"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitlink:git-rev-parse[1].
318
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319
320File/Directory Structure
321------------------------
c1bdacf9 322
a1d4aa74 323Please see link:repository-layout.html[repository layout] document.
c1bdacf9 324
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325Read link:hooks.html[hooks] for more details about each hook.
326
c1bdacf9 327Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 328`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 329
a1d4aa74 330
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331Terminology
332-----------
1bff6490 333Please see link:glossary.html[glossary] document.
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334
335
336Environment Variables
337---------------------
338Various git commands use the following environment variables:
339
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340The git Repository
341~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
342These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
343is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2fa090b6 344git so take care if using Cogito etc.
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345
346'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
347 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
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348 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
349 is used.
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350
351'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
352 If the object storage directory is specified via this
353 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
354 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
355 directory is used.
356
357'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
358 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
359 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
90933efb 360 specifies a ":" separated list of git object directories which
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361 can be used to search for git objects. New objects will not be
362 written to these directories.
363
364'GIT_DIR'::
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365 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
366 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
367 for the base of the repository.
c1bdacf9 368
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369'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
370 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
371 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
372 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
373 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
374 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
375
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376git Commits
377~~~~~~~~~~~
378'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
379'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
380'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
381'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
382'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 383'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 384'EMAIL'::
a7154e91 385 see gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]
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386
387git Diffs
388~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 389'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
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390 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
391 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
392 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
393 value passed on the git diff command line.
394
d81ed1b5 395'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
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396 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
397 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
398 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
399 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
400
401 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
402+
403where:
404
405 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
406 contents of <old|new>,
407 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
408 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
409
410+
411The file parameters can point at the user's working file
412(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
413when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
414index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
415temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
416+
417For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
418parameter, <path>.
2cf565c5 419
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420other
421~~~~~
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422'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
423 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
424 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
425 See gitlink:git-merge[1]
426
c27d205a 427'GIT_PAGER'::
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428 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
429 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
430 a pager.
c27d205a 431
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432'GIT_SSH'::
433 If this environment variable is set then gitlink:git-fetch[1]
434 and gitlink:git-push[1] will use this command instead
435 of `ssh` when they need to connect to a remote system.
436 The 'GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
437 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
438 shell command to execute on that remote system.
439+
440To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
441you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
442then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
443+
444Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
445personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
446for further details.
447
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448'GIT_FLUSH'::
449 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
450 as git-blame (in incremental mode), git-rev-list, git-log,
451 git-whatchanged, etc., will force a flush of the output stream
452 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
453 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
454 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
455 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
456 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
457
575ba9d6 458'GIT_TRACE'::
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459 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
460 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
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461 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
462 execution and external command execution.
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463 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
464 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
465 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
466 trace messages into this file descriptor.
467 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
468 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
469 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
470 into it.
575ba9d6 471
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472Discussion[[Discussion]]
473------------------------
556b6600 474include::core-intro.txt[]
6c84e2e0 475
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476Authors
477-------
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478* git's founding father is Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
479* The current git nurse is Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>.
480* The git potty was written by Andres Ericsson <ae@op5.se>.
481* General upbringing is handled by the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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482
483Documentation
484--------------
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485The documentation for git suite was started by David Greaves
486<david@dgreaves.com>, and later enhanced greatly by the
487contributors on the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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488
489GIT
490---
a7154e91 491Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite