Git 1.8.2.3
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
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12'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
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25link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
26commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27in-depth introduction.
cb22bc44 28
7687ae98 29After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
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30page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
7687ae98 32manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
4514ad4f 33
2de9b711 34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
7687ae98 35can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
34b604af 36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
2ff3f61a 41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
2de9b711 42unreleased) version of Git, that is available from 'master'
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43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
92758dd2 46* link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
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360 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
361 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
362 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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363
364============
365
366endif::stalenotes[]
367
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368OPTIONS
369-------
370--version::
2de9b711 371 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
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372
373--help::
a87cd02c 374 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
0f6f195b 375 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
2de9b711 376 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
0f6f195b 377 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
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378+
379Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 380displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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381because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
382help ...`.
cb22bc44 383
8b1fa778
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384-c <name>=<value>::
385 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
386 given will override values from configuration files.
387 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
388 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
389
62b4698e 390--exec-path[=<path>]::
2de9b711 391 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 392 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 393 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
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394 the current setting and then exit.
395
89a56bfb 396--html-path::
2de9b711 397 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
239b5ed9 398 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 399
f2dd8c37 400--man-path::
239b5ed9 401 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
2de9b711 402 this version of Git and exit.
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403
404--info-path::
239b5ed9 405 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
2de9b711 406 version of Git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 407
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408-p::
409--paginate::
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410 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
411 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
412 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
413 below).
6acbcb92 414
463a849d 415--no-pager::
2de9b711 416 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
463a849d 417
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418--git-dir=<path>::
419 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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420 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
421 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 422
892c41b9 423--work-tree=<path>::
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424 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
425 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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426 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
427 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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428 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
429 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 430
d49483f0 431--namespace=<path>::
2de9b711 432 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
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433 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
434 variable.
435
6acbcb92 436--bare::
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437 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
438 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
439 directory.
440
b0fa7ab5 441--no-replace-objects::
2de9b711 442 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
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443 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
444
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445--literal-pathspecs::
446 Treat pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. This is
447 equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
448 variable to `1`.
449
9755afbd 450
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451GIT COMMANDS
452------------
9755afbd 453
2de9b711 454We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
23091e95 455("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 456
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457High-level commands (porcelain)
458-------------------------------
459
460We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
461ancillary user utilities.
462
463Main porcelain commands
464~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 465
377e8139 466include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 467
90933efb 468Ancillary Commands
23091e95 469~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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470Manipulators:
471
377e8139 472include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 473
90933efb 474Interrogators:
204ee6a9 475
377e8139 476include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 477
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478
479Interacting with Others
480~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
481
482These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
483people via patch over e-mail.
484
485include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
486
487
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488Low-level commands (plumbing)
489-----------------------------
490
2de9b711 491Although Git includes its
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492own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
493development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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494might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
495linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 496
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497The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
498to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
499than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
500primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
501on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
502end user experience.
503
504The following description divides
505the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
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506the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
507compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
508repositories.
509
89bf2077 510
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511Manipulation commands
512~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 513
377e8139 514include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
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515
516
517Interrogation commands
518~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
519
377e8139 520include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
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521
522In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
523the working tree.
524
525
526Synching repositories
527~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
528
377e8139 529include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 530
57f6ec02 531The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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532typically do not use them directly.
533
534include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
535
536
537Internal helper commands
538~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
539
540These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
541users typically do not use them directly.
542
543include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
544
b1f33d62 545
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546Configuration Mechanism
547-----------------------
548
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549Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
550repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
551like this:
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552
553------------
554#
2fa090b6 555# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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556#
557
558; core variables
559[core]
560 ; Don't trust file modes
561 filemode = false
562
563; user identity
564[user]
565 name = "Junio C Hamano"
c0179c0d 566 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
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567
568------------
569
570Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
06300d97 571their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
c0179c0d 572list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
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573
574
6c84e2e0 575Identifier Terminology
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576----------------------
577<object>::
2fa090b6 578 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
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579
580<blob>::
2fa090b6 581 Indicates a blob object name.
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582
583<tree>::
2fa090b6 584 Indicates a tree object name.
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585
586<commit>::
2fa090b6 587 Indicates a commit object name.
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588
589<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 590 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
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591 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
592 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
593 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 594
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595<commit-ish>::
596 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
597 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
598 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
599 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
600
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601<type>::
602 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 603 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
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604
605<file>::
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606 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
607 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 608
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609Symbolic Identifiers
610--------------------
2de9b711 611Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 612symbolic notation:
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613
614HEAD::
0abcfbff 615 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 616
c1bdacf9 617<tag>::
2fa090b6 618 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 619 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 620
c1bdacf9 621<head>::
2fa090b6 622 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 623 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 624
d47107d8 625For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 626"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 627
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628
629File/Directory Structure
630------------------------
c1bdacf9 631
6998e4db 632Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 633
6998e4db 634Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 635
c1bdacf9 636Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 637`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 638
a1d4aa74 639
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640Terminology
641-----------
6998e4db 642Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
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643
644
645Environment Variables
646---------------------
2de9b711 647Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
2cf565c5 648
2de9b711 649The Git Repository
c1bdacf9 650~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2de9b711 651These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
c1bdacf9 652is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2de9b711 653Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
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654
655'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
656 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
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657 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
658 is used.
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659
660'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
661 If the object storage directory is specified via this
662 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
663 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
664 directory is used.
665
666'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
2de9b711 667 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
c1bdacf9 668 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
80ba074f 669 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
2de9b711 670 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
80ba074f 671 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
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672
673'GIT_DIR'::
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674 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
675 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
676 for the base of the repository.
75940a00 677 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
c1bdacf9 678
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679'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
680 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
681 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
682 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
683 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
684 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
685
d49483f0 686'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
2de9b711 687 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
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688 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
689
0454dd93 690'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
7ec30aaa 691 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
3e07d268 692 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
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693 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
694 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
695 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
696 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
697 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
698 might be present in order to compare them with the current
699 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
700 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
701 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
702 e.g.,
703 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
0454dd93 704
cf87463e 705'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
e6405517 706 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
2de9b711 707 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
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708 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
709 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
2de9b711 710 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
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711 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
712 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
713 command line.
8030e442 714
2de9b711 715Git Commits
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716~~~~~~~~~~~
717'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
718'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
719'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
720'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
721'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 722'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 723'EMAIL'::
5162e697 724 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
c1bdacf9 725
2de9b711 726Git Diffs
c1bdacf9 727~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 728'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
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729 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
730 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
731 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
2de9b711 732 value passed on the Git diff command line.
fde97d8a 733
d81ed1b5 734'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
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735 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
736 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
737 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
738 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
739
740 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
741+
742where:
743
744 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
745 contents of <old|new>,
d5fa1f1a 746 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
fde97d8a 747 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
fde97d8a
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748+
749The file parameters can point at the user's working file
750(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
751when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
752index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
753temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
754+
755For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
756parameter, <path>.
2cf565c5 757
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758other
759~~~~~
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760'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
761 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
762 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 763 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 764
c27d205a 765'GIT_PAGER'::
a7738c77 766 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
2de9b711 767 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
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768 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
769 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 770
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771'GIT_EDITOR'::
772 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
2de9b711 773 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
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774 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
775 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
776
d5538b41 777'GIT_SSH'::
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778 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
779 and 'git push' will use this command instead
2fd02c92 780 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
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781 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two or
782 four arguments: the 'username@host' (or just 'host')
783 from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
784 remote system, optionally preceded by '-p' (literally) and
785 the 'port' from the URL when it specifies something other
786 than the default SSH port.
d5538b41
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787+
788To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
789you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
790then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
791+
792Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
793personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
794for further details.
795
453842c9 796'GIT_ASKPASS'::
2de9b711 797 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
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798 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
799 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
800 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
801 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
802
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803'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
804 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
805 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
806 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
807 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
808 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
809 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
810
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811'GIT_FLUSH'::
812 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
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813 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
814 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
06f59e9f
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815 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
816 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
817 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
2de9b711 818 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
06f59e9f
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819 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
820
575ba9d6 821'GIT_TRACE'::
2886bdb1 822 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
2de9b711 823 is case insensitive), Git will print `trace:` messages on
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824 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
825 execution and external command execution.
2886bdb1 826 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
2de9b711 827 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
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828 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
829 trace messages into this file descriptor.
830 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
2de9b711 831 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
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832 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
833 into it.
575ba9d6 834
823ab40f 835GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
2de9b711 836 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
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837 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
838 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
839 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
840 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
2de9b711 841 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
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842 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
843
844
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845Discussion[[Discussion]]
846------------------------
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847
848More detail on the following is available from the
2de9b711 849link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 850user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
40dac517 851
2de9b711 852A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
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853subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
854things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
855of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
856contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
857as tags and branch heads.
858
859The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
860hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 861directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
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862and some number of parent commits.
863
864The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
865"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
866represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
867parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
868
d5fa1f1a 869All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
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870written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
871The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
872just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
873purpose.
874
875When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
876efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
877
878Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
d5fa1f1a
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879may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
880with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
881recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
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882tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
883`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
884
885The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
886path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
887the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
888attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
889corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
890working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
891be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
892content stored in the index.
893
894The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
895for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
896unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 897
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898FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
899---------------------
900
901See the references in the "description" section to get started
2de9b711 902using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
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903for a first-time user.
904
2de9b711 905The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
7687ae98 906user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
2de9b711 907introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
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908
909See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
910
911See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
912examples.
913
914The internals are documented in the
48a8c26c 915link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
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916
917Users migrating from CVS may also want to
918read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
919
920
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921Authors
922-------
48bb914e 923Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
2de9b711 924C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
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925<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
926gives you a more complete list of contributors.
927
928If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
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929output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
930the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 931
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932Reporting Bugs
933--------------
934
935Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
936development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
937subscribed to the list to send a message there.
938
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939SEE ALSO
940--------
941linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
5cbef01a 942link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 943linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
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944linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
945linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 946
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947GIT
948---
9e1f0a85 949Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite