[PATCH] Add update-server-info.
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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7984eabe 1git(7)
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6c84e2e0 3May 2005
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4
5NAME
6----
7git - the stupid content tracker
8
9
10SYNOPSIS
11--------
12'git-<command>' <args>
13
14DESCRIPTION
15-----------
16
17This is reference information for the core git commands.
18
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19The Discussion section below contains much useful definition and
20clarification info - read that first. And of the commands, I suggest
21reading link:git-update-cache.html[git-update-cache] and
22link:git-read-tree.html[git-read-tree] first - I wish I had!
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23
24David Greaves <david@dgreaves.com>
2508/05/05
26
27Updated by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> on 2005-05-05 to
28reflect recent changes.
29
30Commands Overview
31-----------------
32The git commands can helpfully be split into those that manipulate
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33the repository, the cache and the working fileset, those that
34interrogate and compare them, and those that moves objects and
35references between repositories.
2cf565c5 36
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37There are also some ancilliary programs that can be viewed as useful
38aids for using the core commands but which are unlikely to be used by
39SCMs layered over git.
40
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41Manipulation commands
42~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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43link:git-checkout-cache.html[git-checkout-cache]::
44 Copy files from the cache to the working directory
45
46link:git-commit-tree.html[git-commit-tree]::
47 Creates a new commit object
48
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49link:git-init-db.html[git-init-db]::
50 Creates an empty git object database
51
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52link:git-merge-base.html[git-merge-base]::
53 Finds as good a common ancestor as possible for a merge
54
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55link:git-mktag.html[git-mktag]::
56 Creates a tag object
57
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58link:git-read-tree.html[git-read-tree]::
59 Reads tree information into the directory cache
60
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61link:git-update-cache.html[git-update-cache]::
62 Modifies the index or directory cache
63
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64link:git-hash-object.html[git-hash-object]::
65 Computes the object ID from a file.
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66
67link:git-write-tree.html[git-write-tree]::
68 Creates a tree from the current cache
69
70Interrogation commands
71~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
72link:git-cat-file.html[git-cat-file]::
73 Provide content or type information for repository objects
74
75link:git-check-files.html[git-check-files]::
76 Verify a list of files are up-to-date
77
78link:git-diff-cache.html[git-diff-cache]::
79 Compares content and mode of blobs between the cache and repository
80
81link:git-diff-files.html[git-diff-files]::
82 Compares files in the working tree and the cache
83
84link:git-diff-tree.html[git-diff-tree]::
85 Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects
86
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87link:git-export.html[git-export]::
88 Exports each commit and a diff against each of its parents
89
90link:git-fsck-cache.html[git-fsck-cache]::
91 Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database
92
93link:git-ls-files.html[git-ls-files]::
94 Information about files in the cache/working directory
95
96link:git-ls-tree.html[git-ls-tree]::
97 Displays a tree object in human readable form
98
99link:git-merge-cache.html[git-merge-cache]::
100 Runs a merge for files needing merging
101
102link:git-rev-list.html[git-rev-list]::
103 Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order
104
105link:git-rev-tree.html[git-rev-tree]::
106 Provides the revision tree for one or more commits
107
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108link:git-tar-tree.html[git-tar-tree]::
109 Creates a tar archive of the files in the named tree
110
111link:git-unpack-file.html[git-unpack-file]::
112 Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents
113
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114link:git-var.html[git-var]::
115 Displays a git logical variable
116
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117link:git-verify-pack.html[git-verify-pack]::
118 Validates packed GIT archive files
119
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120The interrogate commands may create files - and you can force them to
121touch the working file set - but in general they don't
122
123
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124Synching repositories
125~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
126
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127link:git-clone-script.html[git-clone-script]::
128 Clones a repository into the current repository (user interface)
129
130link:git-clone-pack.html[git-clone-pack]::
131 Clones a repository into the current repository (engine
132 for ssh and local transport)
133
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134link:git-fetch-script.html[git-fetch-script]::
135 Download from a remote repository via various protocols
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136 (user interface).
137
0c04094b 138link:git-pull-script.html[git-pull-script]::
508e67ab 139 Fetch from and merge with a remote repository via
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140 various protocols (user interface).
141
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142link:git-http-pull.html[git-http-pull]::
143 Downloads a remote GIT repository via HTTP
144
145link:git-local-pull.html[git-local-pull]::
146 Duplicates another GIT repository on a local system
147
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148link:git-ssh-pull.html[git-ssh-pull]::
149 Pulls from a remote repository over ssh connection
150
151link:git-send-pack.html[git-send-pack]::
152 Pushes to a remote repository, intelligently.
153
154link:git-receive-pack.html[git-receive-pack]::
155 Invoked by 'git-send-pack' to receive what is pushed to it.
156
157link:git-clone-pack.html[git-clone-pack]::
158 Clones from a remote repository.
159
160link:git-fetch-pack.html[git-fetch-pack]::
161 Updates from a remote repository.
162
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163link:git-peek-remote.html[git-peek-remote]::
164 Lists references on a remote repository using upload-pack protocol.
165
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166link:git-upload-pack.html[git-upload-pack]::
167 Invoked by 'git-clone-pack' and 'git-fetch-pack' to push
168 what are asked for.
169
170
171Ancilliary Commands
172-------------------
173Manipulators:
174
175link:git-apply-patch-script.html[git-apply-patch-script]::
176 Sample script to apply the diffs from git-diff-*
177
178link:git-convert-cache.html[git-convert-cache]::
179 Converts old-style GIT repository
180
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181link:git-merge-one-file-script.html[git-merge-one-file-script]::
182 The standard helper program to use with "git-merge-cache"
183
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184link:git-prune-script.html[git-prune-script]::
185 Prunes all unreachable objects from the object database
186
187link:git-resolve-script.html[git-resolve-script]::
188 Script used to merge two trees
189
190link:git-tag-script.html[git-tag-script]::
191 An example script to create a tag object signed with GPG
192
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193
194Interogators:
195
99665af5 196link:git-diff-helper.html[git-diff-helper]::
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197 Generates patch format output for git-diff-*
198
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199link:git-ssh-push.html[git-ssh-push]::
200 Helper "server-side" program used by git-ssh-pull
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201
202
203
6c84e2e0 204Identifier Terminology
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205----------------------
206<object>::
6c84e2e0 207 Indicates the sha1 identifier for any type of object
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208
209<blob>::
210 Indicates a blob object sha1 identifier
211
212<tree>::
213 Indicates a tree object sha1 identifier
214
215<commit>::
216 Indicates a commit object sha1 identifier
217
218<tree-ish>::
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219 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object sha1 identifier. A
220 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
221 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
222 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
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223
224<type>::
225 Indicates that an object type is required.
226 Currently one of: blob/tree/commit/tag
227
228<file>::
229 Indicates a filename - always relative to the root of
230 the tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.
231
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232Symbolic Identifiers
233--------------------
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234Any git comand accepting any <object> can also use the following
235symbolic notation:
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236
237HEAD::
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238 indicates the head of the repository (ie the contents of
239 `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`)
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240<tag>::
241 a valid tag 'name'+
242 (ie the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`)
243<head>::
244 a valid head 'name'+
245 (ie the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`)
246<snap>::
247 a valid snapshot 'name'+
248 (ie the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/snap/<snap>`)
249
250
251File/Directory Structure
252------------------------
253The git-core manipulates the following areas in the directory:
254
255 .git/ The base (overridden with $GIT_DIR)
256 objects/ The object base (overridden with $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY)
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257 ??/ 'First 2 chars of object' directories.
258 pack/ Packed archives.
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259
260 refs/ Directories containing symbolic names for objects
261 (each file contains the hex SHA1 + newline)
262 heads/ Commits which are heads of various sorts
263 tags/ Tags, by the tag name (or some local renaming of it)
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264 */ Any other subdirectory of refs/ can be used to store
265 files similar to what are under refs/heads/.
266 HEAD Symlink to refs/heads/<current-branch-name>
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267
268Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
269GIT_DIR.
270
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271Terminology
272-----------
6c84e2e0 273Each line contains terms which you may see used interchangeably
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274
275 object database, .git directory
276 directory cache, index
277 id, sha1, sha1-id, sha1 hash
278 type, tag
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279
280
281Environment Variables
282---------------------
283Various git commands use the following environment variables:
284
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285The git Repository
286~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
287These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
288is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
289git so take care if using Cogito etc
290
291'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
292 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
293 cache/index file. If not specified, the default of
294 `$GIT_DIR/index` is used.
295
296'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
297 If the object storage directory is specified via this
298 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
299 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
300 directory is used.
301
302'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
303 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
304 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
305 specifies a ":" seperated list of git object directories which
306 can be used to search for git objects. New objects will not be
307 written to these directories.
308
309'GIT_DIR'::
310 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it specifies
311 a path to use instead of `./.git` for the base of the
312 repository.
313
314git Commits
315~~~~~~~~~~~
316'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
317'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
318'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
319'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
320'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
321 see link:git-commit-tree.html[git-commit-tree]
322
323git Diffs
324~~~~~~~~~
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325'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
326'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
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327 see the "generating patches" section in :
328 link:git-diff-cache.html[git-diff-cache];
329 link:git-diff-files.html[git-diff-files];
330 link:git-diff-tree.html[git-diff-tree]
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332Discussion
333----------
334include::../README[]
335
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336Author
337------
6c84e2e0 338Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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339
340Documentation
341--------------
342Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
343
344GIT
345---
346Part of the link:git.html[git] suite
347