Git 1.7.12
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
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12'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
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25link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
26"man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
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27also want to read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]. See
28the link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
a1dc34fa 29introduction.
cb22bc44 30
62b4698e 31The '<command>' is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
5162e697 32as defined in the configuration file (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
4514ad4f 33
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34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
35documentation can be viewed at
c70c09b6 36`http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
34b604af 37
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38ifdef::stalenotes[]
39[NOTE]
40============
26cfcfbf 41
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42You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
43unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
44branch of the `git.git` repository.
45Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 46
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47* link:v1.7.12/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12]
48
49* release notes for
50 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
51
cd7c0be1 52* link:v1.7.11.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.5]
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53
54* release notes for
cd7c0be1 55 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
0e4c8822 56 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
e6dfbcf1 57 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
8d141a1d 58 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
0e64a95a 59 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
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60 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
61
785ee496 62* link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
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63
64* release notes for
785ee496 65 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
121f71f0 66 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
6a6d72b1 67 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
b6555d73 68 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
bf505158 69 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
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70 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
71
d0f1ea60 72* link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
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73
74* release notes for
d0f1ea60 75 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
cb2ed324 76 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
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a4603481 78 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
69f4e08f 79 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
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90020e3b 81 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
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82 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
83
d9f5ef7a 84* link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
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85
86* release notes for
d9f5ef7a 87 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
cb2ed324 88 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
c572f491 89 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
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90 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
91 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
92 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
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93 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
94
82588584 95* link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
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96
97* release notes for
82588584 98 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
c572f491 99 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
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100 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
101 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
102 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
103 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
f7d958df 104 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
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105 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
106
f174a258 107* link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
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108
109* release notes for
f174a258 110 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
15b7898c 111 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
63205264 112 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
740a8fc2 113 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
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114 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
115 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
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116 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
117
e5af0de2 118* link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
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119
120* release notes for
e5af0de2 121 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
3c3e0b3c 122 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
3d5ae435 123 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
2f312e88 124 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
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125 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
126
6ceb270c 127* link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
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128
129* release notes for
6ceb270c 130 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
6be05591 131 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
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132 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
133 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
9971d6d5 134 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
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135 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
136
685e9d91 137* link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
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138
139* release notes for
685e9d91 140 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
15368e18 141 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
ed94cc76 142 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
8a904385 143 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
92c1e717 144 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
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145 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
146
1b974346 147* link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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148
149* release notes for
1b974346 150 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
ed94cc76 151 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
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152 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
154 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
155 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
64fdc08d 156
1b974346 157* link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
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158
159* release notes for
1b974346 160 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
ed94cc76 161 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
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162 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
d599e048 165
1b974346 166* link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
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167
168* release notes for
1b974346 169 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
ed94cc76 170 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
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171 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
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174 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
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177 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
178 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
e923eaeb 179
1b974346 180* link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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181
182* release notes for
1b974346 183 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
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184 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
185 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
186 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
902f2353 187
1b974346 188* link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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189
190* release notes for
1b974346 191 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
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192 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
193 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
194 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
195 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
196 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
197 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
198 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
199 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
200 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
78d553b7 201
1b974346 202* link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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203
204* release notes for
1b974346 205 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
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206 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
207 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
208 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
209 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
210 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
0a53e9dd 211
441b40d8 212* link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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213
214* release notes for
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215 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
216 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
217 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
218 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
219 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
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220
221* release notes for
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222 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
223 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
224 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
225 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
226 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
227 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
a95148de 228
621f1b4b 229* link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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230
231* release notes for
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232 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
233 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
234 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
235 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
8104ebfe 236
efe05b01 237* link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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238
239* release notes for
761e742d
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240 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
241 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
242 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
243 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
244 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
245 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
246 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
ea02eef0 247
efe05b01 248* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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249
250* release notes for
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251 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
252 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
253 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
254 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
255 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
256 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
257 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 258
efe05b01 259* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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260
261* release notes for
761e742d
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262 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
263 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
264 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
265 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
266 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
267 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
268 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
1d2375dd 269
efe05b01 270* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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271
272* release notes for
761e742d
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273 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
274 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
275 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
276 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
277 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
278 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
279 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
280 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 281
e708af6e 282* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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283
284* release notes for
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285 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
286 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
287 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
288 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
289 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
290 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
291 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
292 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
293 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 294
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295* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
296
aba170cd 297* release notes for
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298 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
299 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
300 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
301 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
302 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
303 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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304
305* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
306
307* release notes for
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308 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
309 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
310 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
311 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
312 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
313 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
314 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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315
316* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
317
aba170cd 318* release notes for
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319 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
320 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
321 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
322 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
323 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
324 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
325 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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326
327* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
328 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
329 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
330 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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331
332============
333
334endif::stalenotes[]
335
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336OPTIONS
337-------
338--version::
a87cd02c 339 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
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340
341--help::
a87cd02c 342 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
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343 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
344 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
345 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
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346+
347Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 348displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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349because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
350help ...`.
cb22bc44 351
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352-c <name>=<value>::
353 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
354 given will override values from configuration files.
355 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
356 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
357
62b4698e 358--exec-path[=<path>]::
a87cd02c 359 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 360 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 361 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
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362 the current setting and then exit.
363
89a56bfb 364--html-path::
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365 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
366 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 367
f2dd8c37 368--man-path::
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369 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
370 this version of git and exit.
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371
372--info-path::
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373 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
374 version of git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 375
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376-p::
377--paginate::
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378 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
379 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
380 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
381 below).
6acbcb92 382
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383--no-pager::
384 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
385
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386--git-dir=<path>::
387 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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388 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
389 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 390
892c41b9 391--work-tree=<path>::
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392 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
393 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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394 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
395 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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396 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
397 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 398
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399--namespace=<path>::
400 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
401 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
402 variable.
403
6acbcb92 404--bare::
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405 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
406 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
407 directory.
408
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409--no-replace-objects::
410 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
411 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
412
9755afbd 413
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414FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
415---------------------
9755afbd 416
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417See the references above to get started using git. The following is
418probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
8db9307c 419
40dac517 420The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 421user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
40dac517 422introductions to the underlying git architecture.
e6fc2346 423
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424See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
425
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426See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
427examples.
9755afbd 428
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429The internals are documented in the
430link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
530e741c 431
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432GIT COMMANDS
433------------
9755afbd 434
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435We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
436("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 437
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438High-level commands (porcelain)
439-------------------------------
440
441We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
442ancillary user utilities.
443
444Main porcelain commands
445~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 446
377e8139 447include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 448
90933efb 449Ancillary Commands
23091e95 450~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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451Manipulators:
452
377e8139 453include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 454
90933efb 455Interrogators:
204ee6a9 456
377e8139 457include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 458
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459
460Interacting with Others
461~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
462
463These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
464people via patch over e-mail.
465
466include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
467
468
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469Low-level commands (plumbing)
470-----------------------------
471
472Although git includes its
473own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
474development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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475might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
476linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 477
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478The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
479to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
480than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
481primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
482on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
483end user experience.
484
485The following description divides
486the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
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487the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
488compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
489repositories.
490
89bf2077 491
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492Manipulation commands
493~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 494
377e8139 495include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
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496
497
498Interrogation commands
499~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
500
377e8139 501include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
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502
503In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
504the working tree.
505
506
507Synching repositories
508~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
509
377e8139 510include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 511
57f6ec02 512The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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513typically do not use them directly.
514
515include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
516
517
518Internal helper commands
519~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
520
521These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
522users typically do not use them directly.
523
524include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
525
b1f33d62 526
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527Configuration Mechanism
528-----------------------
529
2fa090b6 530Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
5773c9f2 531is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
addf88e4 532simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
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533people. Here is an example:
534
535------------
536#
2fa090b6 537# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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538#
539
540; core variables
541[core]
542 ; Don't trust file modes
543 filemode = false
544
545; user identity
546[user]
547 name = "Junio C Hamano"
548 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
549
550------------
551
552Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
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553their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
554list.
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555
556
6c84e2e0 557Identifier Terminology
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558----------------------
559<object>::
2fa090b6 560 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
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561
562<blob>::
2fa090b6 563 Indicates a blob object name.
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564
565<tree>::
2fa090b6 566 Indicates a tree object name.
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567
568<commit>::
2fa090b6 569 Indicates a commit object name.
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570
571<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 572 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
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573 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
574 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
575 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 576
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577<commit-ish>::
578 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
579 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
580 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
581 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
582
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583<type>::
584 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 585 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
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586
587<file>::
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588 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
589 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 590
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591Symbolic Identifiers
592--------------------
90933efb 593Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 594symbolic notation:
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595
596HEAD::
0abcfbff 597 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 598
c1bdacf9 599<tag>::
2fa090b6 600 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 601 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 602
c1bdacf9 603<head>::
2fa090b6 604 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 605 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 606
d47107d8 607For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 608"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 609
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610
611File/Directory Structure
612------------------------
c1bdacf9 613
6998e4db 614Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 615
6998e4db 616Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 617
c1bdacf9 618Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 619`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 620
a1d4aa74 621
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622Terminology
623-----------
6998e4db 624Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
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625
626
627Environment Variables
628---------------------
629Various git commands use the following environment variables:
630
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631The git Repository
632~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
633These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
634is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2fa090b6 635git so take care if using Cogito etc.
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636
637'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
638 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
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639 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
640 is used.
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641
642'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
643 If the object storage directory is specified via this
644 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
645 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
646 directory is used.
647
648'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
649 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
650 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
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651 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
652 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
653 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
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654
655'GIT_DIR'::
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656 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
657 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
658 for the base of the repository.
c1bdacf9 659
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660'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
661 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
662 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
663 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
664 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
665 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
666
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667'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
668 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
669 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
670
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671'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
672 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
673 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
674 up into while looking for a repository directory.
675 It will not exclude the current working directory or
676 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
677 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
678
cf87463e 679'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
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680 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
681 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
682 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
683 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
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684 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
685 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
686 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
687 command line.
8030e442 688
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689git Commits
690~~~~~~~~~~~
691'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
692'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
693'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
694'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
695'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 696'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 697'EMAIL'::
5162e697 698 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
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699
700git Diffs
701~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 702'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
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703 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
704 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
705 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
706 value passed on the git diff command line.
707
d81ed1b5 708'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
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709 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
710 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
711 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
712 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
713
714 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
715+
716where:
717
718 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
719 contents of <old|new>,
720 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
721 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
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722+
723The file parameters can point at the user's working file
724(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
725when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
726index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
727temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
728+
729For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
730parameter, <path>.
2cf565c5 731
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732other
733~~~~~
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734'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
735 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
736 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 737 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 738
c27d205a 739'GIT_PAGER'::
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740 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
741 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
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742 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
743 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 744
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745'GIT_EDITOR'::
746 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
b4ab1980 747 It is used by several git commands when, on interactive mode,
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748 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
749 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
750
d5538b41 751'GIT_SSH'::
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752 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
753 and 'git push' will use this command instead
2fd02c92 754 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
483bc4f0 755 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
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756 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
757 shell command to execute on that remote system.
758+
759To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
760you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
761then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
762+
763Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
764personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
765for further details.
766
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767'GIT_ASKPASS'::
768 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
769 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
770 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
771 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
772 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
773
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774'GIT_FLUSH'::
775 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
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776 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
777 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
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778 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
779 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
780 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
781 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
782 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
783
575ba9d6 784'GIT_TRACE'::
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785 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
786 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
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787 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
788 execution and external command execution.
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789 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
790 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
791 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
792 trace messages into this file descriptor.
793 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
794 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
795 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
796 into it.
575ba9d6 797
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798Discussion[[Discussion]]
799------------------------
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800
801More detail on the following is available from the
802link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 803user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
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804
805A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
806subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
807things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
808of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
809contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
810as tags and branch heads.
811
812The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
813hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 814directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
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815and some number of parent commits.
816
817The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
818"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
819represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
820parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
821
822All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
823written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
824The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
825just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
826purpose.
827
828When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
829efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
830
831Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
832may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
833with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
02ff6250 834recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
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835tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
836`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
837
838The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
839path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
840the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
841attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
842corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
843working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
844be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
845content stored in the index.
846
847The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
848for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
849unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 850
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851Authors
852-------
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853Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
854C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
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855<git@vger.kernel.org>. For a more complete list of contributors, see
856http://git-scm.com/about. If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
857output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
858the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 859
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860Reporting Bugs
861--------------
862
863Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
864development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
865subscribed to the list to send a message there.
866
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867SEE ALSO
868--------
869linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
5cbef01a 870link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 871linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
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872linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
873linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 874
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875GIT
876---
9e1f0a85 877Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite