Documentation: add missing :: in config.txt
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
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1git-push(1)
2===========
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
97925fde 11[verse]
9f67fee2 12'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
e9fcd1e2 13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
2c9693bd 14 [<repository> <refspec>...]
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15
16DESCRIPTION
17-----------
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18
19Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
20necessary to complete the given refs.
7fc9d69f 21
cc55aaec 22You can make interesting things happen to a repository
eb0362a4 23every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
5162e697 24documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
eb0362a4 25
7fc9d69f 26
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27OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
28------------------
3598a308 29<repository>::
85a97d4e 30 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
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31 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
32 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
33 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
3598a308 34
2c9693bd 35<refspec>...::
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36 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
37 `{plus}`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
38 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
39 It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
40 in the remote repository is to be updated.
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42The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
43it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
44`HEAD` (see linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]).
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46The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
47push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
48be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
49updated.
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51The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
52on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
a75d7b54 53update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `{plus}`,
149f6ddf 54you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
a75d7b54 55fast-forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
149f6ddf 56EXAMPLES below for details.
3598a308 57+
80391846 58`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
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59+
60Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
61the remote repository.
a83619d6 62+
a75d7b54 63The special refspec `:` (or `{plus}:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
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64directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
65the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
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66already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
67if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
68nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
7fc9d69f 69
3240240f 70--all::
cc55aaec 71 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
5c633a4c 72 refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/` be pushed.
d6a73596 73
3240240f 74--mirror::
ff206748 75 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
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76 refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/` (which includes but is not
77 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
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78 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
79 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
80 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
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81 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
82 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
83 set.
ff206748 84
9f67fee2 85-n::
3240240f 86--dry-run::
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87 Do everything except actually send the updates.
88
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89--porcelain::
90 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
91 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
92 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
93
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94--delete::
95 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
96 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
97
3240240f 98--tags::
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99 All refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` are pushed, in
100 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
101 line.
102
3240240f 103--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
4fc988ef 104--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
ba020ef5 105 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
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106 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
107 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
108 a directory on the default $PATH.
109
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110-f::
111--force::
f0fff36e 112 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
64a476e6 113 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
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114 This flag disables the check. This can cause the
115 remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
7fc9d69f 116
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117--repo=<repository>::
118 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
0b444cdb 119 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
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120 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
121 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
122 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
123 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
124 the difference between these two commands
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125
126-u::
127--set-upstream::
128 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
129 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
130 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
131 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
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132+
133--------------------------
134git push public #1
135git push --repo=public #2
136--------------------------
137+
138is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
139only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
0b444cdb 140useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
dc36f265 141
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142--thin::
143--no-thin::
0b444cdb 144 These options are passed to 'git send-pack'. Thin
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145 transfer spends extra cycles to minimize the number of
146 objects to be sent and meant to be used on slower connection.
147
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148-v::
149--verbose::
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150 Run verbosely.
151
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152-q::
153--quiet::
154 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
155 unless an error occurs.
156
37ba0561 157include::urls-remotes.txt[]
eb0362a4 158
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159OUTPUT
160------
161
162The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
163section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
164locally or via ssh).
165
166The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
167representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
168
169-------------------------------
170 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
171-------------------------------
172
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173If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
174
175-------------------------------
176 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
177-------------------------------
178
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179flag::
180 A single character indicating the status of the ref. This is
181 blank for a successfully pushed ref, `!` for a ref that was
182 rejected or failed to push, and '=' for a ref that was up to
183 date and did not need pushing (note that the status of up to
184 date refs is shown only when `git push` is running verbosely).
185
186summary::
187 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
188 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
189 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
a75d7b54 190 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates). For a
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191 failed update, more details are given for the failure.
192 The string `rejected` indicates that git did not try to send the
a75d7b54 193 ref at all (typically because it is not a fast-forward). The
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194 string `remote rejected` indicates that the remote end refused
195 the update; this rejection is typically caused by a hook on the
196 remote side. The string `remote failure` indicates that the
197 remote end did not report the successful update of the ref
198 (perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
199 break in the network connection, or other transient error).
200
201from::
202 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
203 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
204 name of the local ref is omitted.
205
206to::
207 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
208 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
209
210reason::
211 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
212 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
213 failure is described.
bb9fca80 214
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215Note about fast-forwards
216------------------------
217
218When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
219point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
220fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
221
222In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
223commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
224builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
225
226In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
227suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
228a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
229leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
230
231----------------
232
233 B
234 /
235 ---X---A
236
237----------------
238
239Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
240back to the original repository you two obtained the original commit X.
241
242The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
243commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
244
245But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
246now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
247so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
248will now start building on top of B.
249
250The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
251to prevent such loss of history.
252
253If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
254the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
255history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
256by both parties, and push the result back.
257
258You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
259the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
260and B.
261
262----------------
263
264 B---C
265 / /
266 ---X---A
267
268----------------
269
270Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
271push will be accepted.
272
273Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
274with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
275create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
276A.
277
278----------------
279
280 B D
281 / /
282 ---X---A
283
284----------------
285
286Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
287accepted.
288
289There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
290rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
291pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
292A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
293commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
294forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
295you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
296(and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
297overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
298a case where you do mean to lose history.
299
300
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301Examples
302--------
303
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304git push::
305 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
306 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
307 configured for the current branch).
308
309git push origin::
310 Without additional configuration, works like
311 `git push origin :`.
312+
313The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
314configured by setting the `push` option of the remote.
315+
316For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
317use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
318the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
319`git push origin`.
320
321git push origin :::
322 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
323 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
324 description of "matching" branches.
325
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326git push origin master::
327 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
328 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
329 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
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330 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
331 created.
bb9fca80 332
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333git push origin HEAD::
334 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
335 remote.
bb9fca80 336
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337git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev::
338 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
339 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
340 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `origin` repository, then
341 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
bb9fca80 342
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343git push origin HEAD:master::
344 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
345 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
346 branch without thinking about its local name.
347
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348git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental::
349 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
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350 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
351 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
352 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
353 the ref name on its own will work.
4e560158 354
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355git push origin :experimental::
356 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
357 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
358
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359git push origin {plus}dev:master::
360 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
a75d7b54 361 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
149f6ddf 362 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
a75d7b54 363 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
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364+
365----
366 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
367 \
368 X---Y---Z dev
369----
370+
371The above command would change the origin repository to
372+
373----
374 A---B (unnamed branch)
375 /
376 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
377----
378+
379Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
380and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
381a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
382
17507832 383
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384Author
385------
59eb68aa 386Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>, later rewritten in C
25fb6290 387by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
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388
389Documentation
390--------------
391Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
392
393GIT
394---
9e1f0a85 395Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite