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1Core GIT Tests
2==============
3
4This directory holds many test scripts for core GIT tools. The
5first part of this short document describes how to run the tests
6and read their output.
7
8When fixing the tools or adding enhancements, you are strongly
9encouraged to add tests in this directory to cover what you are
10trying to fix or enhance. The later part of this short document
11describes how your test scripts should be organized.
12
13
14Running Tests
15-------------
16
17The easiest way to run tests is to say "make". This runs all
18the tests.
19
20 *** t0000-basic.sh ***
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21 ok 1 - .git/objects should be empty after git init in an empty repo.
22 ok 2 - .git/objects should have 3 subdirectories.
23 ok 3 - success is reported like this
986aa7f1 24 ...
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25 ok 43 - very long name in the index handled sanely
26 # fixed 1 known breakage(s)
27 # still have 1 known breakage(s)
28 # passed all remaining 42 test(s)
29 1..43
30 *** t0001-init.sh ***
31 ok 1 - plain
32 ok 2 - plain with GIT_WORK_TREE
33 ok 3 - plain bare
34
35Since the tests all output TAP (see http://testanything.org) they can
85b0b34e 36be run with any TAP harness. Here's an example of parallel testing
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37powered by a recent version of prove(1):
38
39 $ prove --timer --jobs 15 ./t[0-9]*.sh
40 [19:17:33] ./t0005-signals.sh ................................... ok 36 ms
41 [19:17:33] ./t0022-crlf-rename.sh ............................... ok 69 ms
42 [19:17:33] ./t0024-crlf-archive.sh .............................. ok 154 ms
43 [19:17:33] ./t0004-unwritable.sh ................................ ok 289 ms
44 [19:17:33] ./t0002-gitfile.sh ................................... ok 480 ms
45 ===( 102;0 25/? 6/? 5/? 16/? 1/? 4/? 2/? 1/? 3/? 1... )===
46
47prove and other harnesses come with a lot of useful options. The
48--state option in particular is very useful:
49
50 # Repeat until no more failures
51 $ prove -j 15 --state=failed,save ./t[0-9]*.sh
986aa7f1 52
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53You can give DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove on the make command (or define it
54in config.mak) to cause "make test" to run tests under prove.
55GIT_PROVE_OPTS can be used to pass additional options, e.g.
56
57 $ make DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove GIT_PROVE_OPTS='--timer --jobs 16' test
58
5099b99d 59You can also run each test individually from command line, like this:
986aa7f1 60
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61 $ sh ./t3010-ls-files-killed-modified.sh
62 ok 1 - git update-index --add to add various paths.
63 ok 2 - git ls-files -k to show killed files.
64 ok 3 - validate git ls-files -k output.
65 ok 4 - git ls-files -m to show modified files.
66 ok 5 - validate git ls-files -m output.
67 # passed all 5 test(s)
68 1..5
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69
70You can pass --verbose (or -v), --debug (or -d), and --immediate
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71(or -i) command line argument to the test, or by setting GIT_TEST_OPTS
72appropriately before running "make".
986aa7f1 73
5e3b4fce 74-v::
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75--verbose::
76 This makes the test more verbose. Specifically, the
77 command being run and their output if any are also
78 output.
79
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80--verbose-only=<pattern>::
81 Like --verbose, but the effect is limited to tests with
82 numbers matching <pattern>. The number matched against is
83 simply the running count of the test within the file.
84
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85-x::
86 Turn on shell tracing (i.e., `set -x`) during the tests
94201a2b 87 themselves. Implies `--verbose`.
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88 Ignored in test scripts that set the variable 'test_untraceable'
89 to a non-empty value, unless it's run with a Bash version
90 supporting BASH_XTRACEFD, i.e. v4.1 or later.
a136f6d8 91
5e3b4fce 92-d::
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93--debug::
94 This may help the person who is developing a new test.
95 It causes the command defined with test_debug to run.
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96 The "trash" directory (used to store all temporary data
97 during testing) is not deleted even if there are no
98 failed tests so that you can inspect its contents after
99 the test finished.
986aa7f1 100
5e3b4fce 101-i::
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102--immediate::
103 This causes the test to immediately exit upon the first
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104 failed test. Cleanup commands requested with
105 test_when_finished are not executed if the test failed,
106 in order to keep the state for inspection by the tester
107 to diagnose the bug.
986aa7f1 108
5e3b4fce 109-l::
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110--long-tests::
111 This causes additional long-running tests to be run (where
112 available), for more exhaustive testing.
113
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114-r::
115--run=<test-selector>::
116 Run only the subset of tests indicated by
117 <test-selector>. See section "Skipping Tests" below for
118 <test-selector> syntax.
119
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120--valgrind=<tool>::
121 Execute all Git binaries under valgrind tool <tool> and exit
122 with status 126 on errors (just like regular tests, this will
123 only stop the test script when running under -i).
986aa7f1 124
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125 Since it makes no sense to run the tests with --valgrind and
126 not see any output, this option implies --verbose. For
127 convenience, it also implies --tee.
128
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129 <tool> defaults to 'memcheck', just like valgrind itself.
130 Other particularly useful choices include 'helgrind' and
131 'drd', but you may use any tool recognized by your valgrind
132 installation.
133
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134 As a special case, <tool> can be 'memcheck-fast', which uses
135 memcheck but disables --track-origins. Use this if you are
136 running tests in bulk, to see if there are _any_ memory
137 issues.
138
952af351 139 Note that memcheck is run with the option --leak-check=no,
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140 as the git process is short-lived and some errors are not
141 interesting. In order to run a single command under the same
142 conditions manually, you should set GIT_VALGRIND to point to
143 the 't/valgrind/' directory and use the commands under
144 't/valgrind/bin/'.
145
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146--valgrind-only=<pattern>::
147 Like --valgrind, but the effect is limited to tests with
148 numbers matching <pattern>. The number matched against is
149 simply the running count of the test within the file.
150
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151--tee::
152 In addition to printing the test output to the terminal,
153 write it to files named 't/test-results/$TEST_NAME.out'.
154 As the names depend on the tests' file names, it is safe to
155 run the tests with this option in parallel.
156
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157--verbose-log::
158 Write verbose output to the same logfile as `--tee`, but do
159 _not_ write it to stdout. Unlike `--tee --verbose`, this option
160 is safe to use when stdout is being consumed by a TAP parser
161 like `prove`. Implies `--tee` and `--verbose`.
162
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163--with-dashes::
164 By default tests are run without dashed forms of
165 commands (like git-commit) in the PATH (it only uses
166 wrappers from ../bin-wrappers). Use this option to include
167 the build directory (..) in the PATH, which contains all
168 the dashed forms of commands. This option is currently
169 implied by other options like --valgrind and
170 GIT_TEST_INSTALLED.
171
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172--root=<directory>::
173 Create "trash" directories used to store all temporary data during
174 testing under <directory>, instead of the t/ directory.
175 Using this option with a RAM-based filesystem (such as tmpfs)
176 can massively speed up the test suite.
177
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178--chain-lint::
179--no-chain-lint::
180 If --chain-lint is enabled, the test harness will check each
181 test to make sure that it properly "&&-chains" all commands (so
182 that a failure in the middle does not go unnoticed by the final
183 exit code of the test). This check is performed in addition to
184 running the tests themselves. You may also enable or disable
185 this feature by setting the GIT_TEST_CHAIN_LINT environment
186 variable to "1" or "0", respectively.
187
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188You can also set the GIT_TEST_INSTALLED environment variable to
189the bindir of an existing git installation to test that installation.
190You still need to have built this git sandbox, from which various
191test-* support programs, templates, and perl libraries are used.
192If your installed git is incomplete, it will silently test parts of
193your built version instead.
194
195When using GIT_TEST_INSTALLED, you can also set GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH to
196override the location of the dashed-form subcommands (what
197GIT_EXEC_PATH would be used for during normal operation).
198GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH defaults to `$GIT_TEST_INSTALLED/git --exec-path`.
199
200
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201Skipping Tests
202--------------
203
204In some environments, certain tests have no way of succeeding
205due to platform limitation, such as lack of 'unzip' program, or
206filesystem that do not allow arbitrary sequence of non-NUL bytes
207as pathnames.
208
209You should be able to say something like
210
211 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS=t9200.8 sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh
212
213and even:
214
215 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS='t[0-4]??? t91?? t9200.8' make
216
217to omit such tests. The value of the environment variable is a
218SP separated list of patterns that tells which tests to skip,
219and either can match the "t[0-9]{4}" part to skip the whole
220test, or t[0-9]{4} followed by ".$number" to say which
221particular test to skip.
222
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223For an individual test suite --run could be used to specify that
224only some tests should be run or that some tests should be
225excluded from a run.
226
227The argument for --run is a list of individual test numbers or
228ranges with an optional negation prefix that define what tests in
229a test suite to include in the run. A range is two numbers
230separated with a dash and matches a range of tests with both ends
231been included. You may omit the first or the second number to
232mean "from the first test" or "up to the very last test"
233respectively.
234
235Optional prefix of '!' means that the test or a range of tests
236should be excluded from the run.
237
238If --run starts with an unprefixed number or range the initial
239set of tests to run is empty. If the first item starts with '!'
240all the tests are added to the initial set. After initial set is
241determined every test number or range is added or excluded from
242the set one by one, from left to right.
243
244Individual numbers or ranges could be separated either by a space
245or a comma.
246
247For example, to run only tests up to a specific test (21), one
248could do this:
249
250 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='1-21'
251
252or this:
253
254 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='-21'
255
256Common case is to run several setup tests (1, 2, 3) and then a
257specific test (21) that relies on that setup:
258
259 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='1 2 3 21'
260
261or:
262
263 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run=1,2,3,21
264
265or:
266
267 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='-3 21'
268
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269As noted above, the test set is built by going through the items
270from left to right, so this:
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271
272 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='1-4 !3'
273
01e4be6c 274will run tests 1, 2, and 4. Items that come later have higher
2e3a16b2 275precedence. It means that this:
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276
277 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='!3 1-4'
278
279would just run tests from 1 to 4, including 3.
280
281You may use negation with ranges. The following will run all
282test in the test suite except from 7 up to 11:
283
284 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='!7-11'
285
286Some tests in a test suite rely on the previous tests performing
287certain actions, specifically some tests are designated as
288"setup" test, so you cannot _arbitrarily_ disable one test and
289expect the rest to function correctly.
290
291--run is mostly useful when you want to focus on a specific test
292and know what setup is needed for it. Or when you want to run
293everything up to a certain test.
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294
295
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296Running tests with special setups
297---------------------------------
298
299The whole test suite could be run to test some special features
300that cannot be easily covered by a few specific test cases. These
301could be enabled by running the test suite with correct GIT_TEST_
302environment set.
303
304GIT_TEST_SPLIT_INDEX=<boolean> forces split-index mode on the whole
305test suite. Accept any boolean values that are accepted by git-config.
306
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307GIT_TEST_FULL_IN_PACK_ARRAY=<boolean> exercises the uncommon
308pack-objects code path where there are more than 1024 packs even if
309the actual number of packs in repository is below this limit. Accept
310any boolean values that are accepted by git-config.
311
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312GIT_TEST_OE_SIZE=<n> exercises the uncommon pack-objects code path
313where we do not cache object size in memory and read it from existing
314packs on demand. This normally only happens when the object size is
315over 2GB. This variable forces the code path on any object larger than
316<n> bytes.
317
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318GIT_TEST_OE_DELTA_SIZE=<n> exercises the uncomon pack-objects code
319path where deltas larger than this limit require extra memory
320allocation for bookkeeping.
321
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322GIT_TEST_COMMIT_GRAPH=<boolean>, when true, forces the commit-graph to
323be written after every 'git commit' command, and overrides the
324'core.commitGraph' setting to true.
325
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326Naming Tests
327------------
328
329The test files are named as:
330
331 tNNNN-commandname-details.sh
332
333where N is a decimal digit.
334
335First digit tells the family:
336
337 0 - the absolute basics and global stuff
338 1 - the basic commands concerning database
339 2 - the basic commands concerning the working tree
340 3 - the other basic commands (e.g. ls-files)
341 4 - the diff commands
342 5 - the pull and exporting commands
343 6 - the revision tree commands (even e.g. merge-base)
8f4a9b62 344 7 - the porcelainish commands concerning the working tree
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345 8 - the porcelainish commands concerning forensics
346 9 - the git tools
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347
348Second digit tells the particular command we are testing.
349
350Third digit (optionally) tells the particular switch or group of switches
351we are testing.
352
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353If you create files under t/ directory (i.e. here) that is not
354the top-level test script, never name the file to match the above
355pattern. The Makefile here considers all such files as the
63d32945 356top-level test script and tries to run all of them. Care is
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357especially needed if you are creating a common test library
358file, similar to test-lib.sh, because such a library file may
359not be suitable for standalone execution.
360
f50c9f76 361
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362Writing Tests
363-------------
364
365The test script is written as a shell script. It should start
51b7a525 366with the standard "#!/bin/sh", and an
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367assignment to variable 'test_description', like this:
368
369 #!/bin/sh
986aa7f1 370
14cd1ff3 371 test_description='xxx test (option --frotz)
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372
373 This test registers the following structure in the cache
374 and tries to run git-ls-files with option --frotz.'
375
f50c9f76 376
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377Source 'test-lib.sh'
378--------------------
379
380After assigning test_description, the test script should source
381test-lib.sh like this:
382
383 . ./test-lib.sh
384
385This test harness library does the following things:
386
387 - If the script is invoked with command line argument --help
388 (or -h), it shows the test_description and exits.
389
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390 - Creates an empty test directory with an empty .git/objects database
391 and chdir(2) into it. This directory is 't/trash
392 directory.$test_name_without_dotsh', with t/ subject to change by
393 the --root option documented above.
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394
395 - Defines standard test helper functions for your scripts to
396 use. These functions are designed to make all scripts behave
397 consistently when command line arguments --verbose (or -v),
398 --debug (or -d), and --immediate (or -i) is given.
399
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400Do's, don'ts & things to keep in mind
401-------------------------------------
402
6fd45295 403Here are a few examples of things you probably should and shouldn't do
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404when writing tests.
405
406Do:
407
6fd45295 408 - Put all code inside test_expect_success and other assertions.
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409
410 Even code that isn't a test per se, but merely some setup code
6fd45295 411 should be inside a test assertion.
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412
413 - Chain your test assertions
414
415 Write test code like this:
416
417 git merge foo &&
418 git push bar &&
419 test ...
420
421 Instead of:
422
423 git merge hla
424 git push gh
425 test ...
426
427 That way all of the commands in your tests will succeed or fail. If
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428 you must ignore the return value of something, consider using a
429 helper function (e.g. use sane_unset instead of unset, in order
430 to avoid unportable return value for unsetting a variable that was
431 already unset), or prepending the command with test_might_fail or
432 test_must_fail.
20873f45 433
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434 - Check the test coverage for your tests. See the "Test coverage"
435 below.
436
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437 Don't blindly follow test coverage metrics; if a new function you added
438 doesn't have any coverage, then you're probably doing something wrong,
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439 but having 100% coverage doesn't necessarily mean that you tested
440 everything.
441
442 Tests that are likely to smoke out future regressions are better
443 than tests that just inflate the coverage metrics.
444
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445 - When a test checks for an absolute path that a git command generated,
446 construct the expected value using $(pwd) rather than $PWD,
447 $TEST_DIRECTORY, or $TRASH_DIRECTORY. It makes a difference on
448 Windows, where the shell (MSYS bash) mangles absolute path names.
449 For details, see the commit message of 4114156ae9.
450
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451Don't:
452
453 - exit() within a <script> part.
454
455 The harness will catch this as a programming error of the test.
456 Use test_done instead if you need to stop the tests early (see
457 "Skipping tests" below).
458
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459 - use '! git cmd' when you want to make sure the git command exits
460 with failure in a controlled way by calling "die()". Instead,
461 use 'test_must_fail git cmd'. This will signal a failure if git
462 dies in an unexpected way (e.g. segfault).
463
f445500e 464 On the other hand, don't use test_must_fail for running regular
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465 platform commands; just use '! cmd'. We are not in the business
466 of verifying that the world given to us sanely works.
f445500e 467
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468 - use perl without spelling it as "$PERL_PATH". This is to help our
469 friends on Windows where the platform Perl often adds CR before
470 the end of line, and they bundle Git with a version of Perl that
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471 does not do so, whose path is specified with $PERL_PATH. Note that we
472 provide a "perl" function which uses $PERL_PATH under the hood, so
473 you do not need to worry when simply running perl in the test scripts
474 (but you do, for example, on a shebang line or in a sub script
475 created via "write_script").
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476
477 - use sh without spelling it as "$SHELL_PATH", when the script can
478 be misinterpreted by broken platform shell (e.g. Solaris).
479
480 - chdir around in tests. It is not sufficient to chdir to
481 somewhere and then chdir back to the original location later in
482 the test, as any intermediate step can fail and abort the test,
483 causing the next test to start in an unexpected directory. Do so
484 inside a subshell if necessary.
485
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486 - save and verify the standard error of compound commands, i.e. group
487 commands, subshells, and shell functions (except test helper
488 functions like 'test_must_fail') like this:
489
490 ( cd dir && git cmd ) 2>error &&
491 test_cmp expect error
492
493 When running the test with '-x' tracing, then the trace of commands
494 executed in the compound command will be included in standard error
495 as well, quite possibly throwing off the subsequent checks examining
496 the output. Instead, save only the relevant git command's standard
497 error:
498
499 ( cd dir && git cmd 2>../error ) &&
500 test_cmp expect error
501
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502 - Break the TAP output
503
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504 The raw output from your test may be interpreted by a TAP harness. TAP
505 harnesses will ignore everything they don't know about, but don't step
506 on their toes in these areas:
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507
508 - Don't print lines like "$x..$y" where $x and $y are integers.
509
510 - Don't print lines that begin with "ok" or "not ok".
511
6fd45295 512 TAP harnesses expect a line that begins with either "ok" and "not
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513 ok" to signal a test passed or failed (and our harness already
514 produces such lines), so your script shouldn't emit such lines to
515 their output.
516
517 You can glean some further possible issues from the TAP grammar
c1d44cee 518 (see https://metacpan.org/pod/TAP::Parser::Grammar#TAP-GRAMMAR)
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519 but the best indication is to just run the tests with prove(1),
520 it'll complain if anything is amiss.
521
522Keep in mind:
523
57f82f4f 524 - Inside the <script> part, the standard output and standard error
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525 streams are discarded, and the test harness only reports "ok" or
526 "not ok" to the end user running the tests. Under --verbose, they
527 are shown to help debugging the tests.
528
529
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530Skipping tests
531--------------
532
681186ae 533If you need to skip tests you should do so by using the three-arg form
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534of the test_* functions (see the "Test harness library" section
535below), e.g.:
536
ad78585e 537 test_expect_success PERL 'I need Perl' '
a0e0ec9f 538 perl -e "hlagh() if unf_unf()"
ad78585e 539 '
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540
541The advantage of skipping tests like this is that platforms that don't
542have the PERL and other optional dependencies get an indication of how
543many tests they're missing.
544
545If the test code is too hairy for that (i.e. does a lot of setup work
546outside test assertions) you can also skip all remaining tests by
547setting skip_all and immediately call test_done:
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548
549 if ! test_have_prereq PERL
550 then
551 skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
552 test_done
553 fi
14cd1ff3 554
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555The string you give to skip_all will be used as an explanation for why
556the test was skipped.
557
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558End with test_done
559------------------
560
561Your script will be a sequence of tests, using helper functions
562from the test harness library. At the end of the script, call
563'test_done'.
564
565
566Test harness library
567--------------------
568
569There are a handful helper functions defined in the test harness
570library for your script to use.
571
9a897893 572 - test_expect_success [<prereq>] <message> <script>
986aa7f1 573
72942a61 574 Usually takes two strings as parameters, and evaluates the
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575 <script>. If it yields success, test is considered
576 successful. <message> should state what it is testing.
577
578 Example:
579
580 test_expect_success \
581 'git-write-tree should be able to write an empty tree.' \
582 'tree=$(git-write-tree)'
583
9a897893 584 If you supply three parameters the first will be taken to be a
72942a61 585 prerequisite; see the test_set_prereq and test_have_prereq
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586 documentation below:
587
588 test_expect_success TTY 'git --paginate rev-list uses a pager' \
589 ' ... '
590
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591 You can also supply a comma-separated list of prerequisites, in the
592 rare case where your test depends on more than one:
593
594 test_expect_success PERL,PYTHON 'yo dawg' \
595 ' test $(perl -E 'print eval "1 +" . qx[python -c "print 2"]') == "4" '
596
9a897893 597 - test_expect_failure [<prereq>] <message> <script>
986aa7f1 598
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599 This is NOT the opposite of test_expect_success, but is used
600 to mark a test that demonstrates a known breakage. Unlike
601 the usual test_expect_success tests, which say "ok" on
602 success and "FAIL" on failure, this will say "FIXED" on
603 success and "still broken" on failure. Failures from these
604 tests won't cause -i (immediate) to stop.
986aa7f1 605
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606 Like test_expect_success this function can optionally use a three
607 argument invocation with a prerequisite as the first argument.
608
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609 - test_debug <script>
610
611 This takes a single argument, <script>, and evaluates it only
612 when the test script is started with --debug command line
613 argument. This is primarily meant for use during the
614 development of a new test script.
615
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616 - debug <git-command>
617
618 Run a git command inside a debugger. This is primarily meant for
619 use when debugging a failing test script.
620
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621 - test_done
622
623 Your test script must have test_done at the end. Its purpose
624 is to summarize successes and failures in the test script and
625 exit with an appropriate error code.
626
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627 - test_tick
628
629 Make commit and tag names consistent by setting the author and
63d32945 630 committer times to defined state. Subsequent calls will
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631 advance the times by a fixed amount.
632
633 - test_commit <message> [<filename> [<contents>]]
634
635 Creates a commit with the given message, committing the given
636 file with the given contents (default for both is to reuse the
637 message string), and adds a tag (again reusing the message
638 string as name). Calls test_tick to make the SHA-1s
639 reproducible.
640
641 - test_merge <message> <commit-or-tag>
642
643 Merges the given rev using the given message. Like test_commit,
644 creates a tag and calls test_tick before committing.
986aa7f1 645
72942a61 646 - test_set_prereq <prereq>
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647
648 Set a test prerequisite to be used later with test_have_prereq. The
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649 test-lib will set some prerequisites for you, see the
650 "Prerequisites" section below for a full list of these.
651
652 Others you can set yourself and use later with either
653 test_have_prereq directly, or the three argument invocation of
654 test_expect_success and test_expect_failure.
9a897893 655
72942a61 656 - test_have_prereq <prereq>
9a897893 657
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658 Check if we have a prerequisite previously set with test_set_prereq.
659 The most common way to use this explicitly (as opposed to the
660 implicit use when an argument is passed to test_expect_*) is to skip
661 all the tests at the start of the test script if we don't have some
662 essential prerequisite:
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663
664 if ! test_have_prereq PERL
665 then
666 skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
667 test_done
668 fi
669
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670 - test_external [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>
671
672 Execute a <script> with an <external> interpreter (like perl). This
673 was added for tests like t9700-perl-git.sh which do most of their
674 work in an external test script.
675
676 test_external \
677 'GitwebCache::*FileCache*' \
a0e0ec9f 678 perl "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9503/test_cache_interface.pl
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679
680 If the test is outputting its own TAP you should set the
681 test_external_has_tap variable somewhere before calling the first
682 test_external* function. See t9700-perl-git.sh for an example.
683
684 # The external test will outputs its own plan
685 test_external_has_tap=1
686
687 - test_external_without_stderr [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>
688
689 Like test_external but fail if there's any output on stderr,
690 instead of checking the exit code.
691
692 test_external_without_stderr \
693 'Perl API' \
a0e0ec9f 694 perl "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9700/test.pl
2fac6a4b 695
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696 - test_expect_code <exit-code> <command>
697
698 Run a command and ensure that it exits with the given exit code.
699 For example:
700
701 test_expect_success 'Merge with d/f conflicts' '
702 test_expect_code 1 git merge "merge msg" B master
703 '
704
12e31a6b 705 - test_must_fail [<options>] <git-command>
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706
707 Run a git command and ensure it fails in a controlled way. Use
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708 this instead of "! <git-command>". When git-command dies due to a
709 segfault, test_must_fail diagnoses it as an error; "! <git-command>"
710 treats it as just another expected failure, which would let such a
711 bug go unnoticed.
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713 Accepts the following options:
714
715 ok=<signal-name>[,<...>]:
716 Don't treat an exit caused by the given signal as error.
717 Multiple signals can be specified as a comma separated list.
718 Currently recognized signal names are: sigpipe, success.
719 (Don't use 'success', use 'test_might_fail' instead.)
720
721 - test_might_fail [<options>] <git-command>
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722
723 Similar to test_must_fail, but tolerate success, too. Use this
724 instead of "<git-command> || :" to catch failures due to segv.
725
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726 Accepts the same options as test_must_fail.
727
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728 - test_cmp <expected> <actual>
729
730 Check whether the content of the <actual> file matches the
731 <expected> file. This behaves like "cmp" but produces more
732 helpful output when the test is run with "-v" option.
733
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734 - test_cmp_rev <expected> <actual>
735
736 Check whether the <expected> rev points to the same commit as the
737 <actual> rev.
738
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739 - test_line_count (= | -lt | -ge | ...) <length> <file>
740
741 Check whether a file has the length it is expected to.
742
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743 - test_path_is_file <path> [<diagnosis>]
744 test_path_is_dir <path> [<diagnosis>]
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745 test_path_is_missing <path> [<diagnosis>]
746
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747 Check if the named path is a file, if the named path is a
748 directory, or if the named path does not exist, respectively,
749 and fail otherwise, showing the <diagnosis> text.
2caf20c5 750
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751 - test_when_finished <script>
752
753 Prepend <script> to a list of commands to run to clean up
754 at the end of the current test. If some clean-up command
755 fails, the test will not pass.
756
757 Example:
758
759 test_expect_success 'branch pointing to non-commit' '
760 git rev-parse HEAD^{tree} >.git/refs/heads/invalid &&
761 test_when_finished "git update-ref -d refs/heads/invalid" &&
762 ...
763 '
764
bb98b01e 765 - test_write_lines <lines>
ac9afcc3 766
bb98b01e 767 Write <lines> on standard output, one line per argument.
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768 Useful to prepare multi-line files in a compact form.
769
770 Example:
771
bb98b01e 772 test_write_lines a b c d e f g >foo
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773
774 Is a more compact equivalent of:
775 cat >foo <<-EOF
776 a
777 b
778 c
779 d
780 e
781 f
782 g
783 EOF
784
785
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786 - test_pause
787
788 This command is useful for writing and debugging tests and must be
789 removed before submitting. It halts the execution of the test and
790 spawns a shell in the trash directory. Exit the shell to continue
791 the test. Example:
792
793 test_expect_success 'test' '
794 git do-something >actual &&
795 test_pause &&
796 test_cmp expected actual
797 '
798
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799 - test_ln_s_add <path1> <path2>
800
801 This function helps systems whose filesystem does not support symbolic
802 links. Use it to add a symbolic link entry to the index when it is not
803 important that the file system entry is a symbolic link, i.e., instead
804 of the sequence
805
806 ln -s foo bar &&
807 git add bar
808
809 Sometimes it is possible to split a test in a part that does not need
810 the symbolic link in the file system and a part that does; then only
811 the latter part need be protected by a SYMLINKS prerequisite (see below).
812
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813Prerequisites
814-------------
815
816These are the prerequisites that the test library predefines with
817test_have_prereq.
818
819See the prereq argument to the test_* functions in the "Test harness
820library" section above and the "test_have_prereq" function for how to
821use these, and "test_set_prereq" for how to define your own.
822
f8fc0ee3 823 - PYTHON
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825 Git wasn't compiled with NO_PYTHON=YesPlease. Wrap any tests that
826 need Python with this.
827
828 - PERL
829
830 Git wasn't compiled with NO_PERL=YesPlease.
831
832 Even without the PERL prerequisite, tests can assume there is a
833 usable perl interpreter at $PERL_PATH, though it need not be
834 particularly modern.
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835
836 - POSIXPERM
837
838 The filesystem supports POSIX style permission bits.
839
840 - BSLASHPSPEC
841
842 Backslashes in pathspec are not directory separators. This is not
843 set on Windows. See 6fd1106a for details.
844
845 - EXECKEEPSPID
846
847 The process retains the same pid across exec(2). See fb9a2bea for
848 details.
849
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850 - PIPE
851
852 The filesystem we're on supports creation of FIFOs (named pipes)
853 via mkfifo(1).
854
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855 - SYMLINKS
856
857 The filesystem we're on supports symbolic links. E.g. a FAT
858 filesystem doesn't support these. See 704a3143 for details.
2fac6a4b 859
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860 - SANITY
861
862 Test is not run by root user, and an attempt to write to an
863 unwritable file is expected to fail correctly.
2fac6a4b 864
3eb585c1 865 - PCRE
8f852ce6 866
3eb585c1 867 Git was compiled with support for PCRE. Wrap any tests
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MK
868 that use git-grep --perl-regexp or git-grep -P in these.
869
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870 - LIBPCRE1
871
872 Git was compiled with PCRE v1 support via
873 USE_LIBPCRE1=YesPlease. Wrap any PCRE using tests that for some
874 reason need v1 of the PCRE library instead of v2 in these.
875
876 - LIBPCRE2
877
878 Git was compiled with PCRE v2 support via
879 USE_LIBPCRE2=YesPlease. Wrap any PCRE using tests that for some
880 reason need v2 of the PCRE library instead of v1 in these.
881
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882 - CASE_INSENSITIVE_FS
883
884 Test is run on a case insensitive file system.
885
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886 - UTF8_NFD_TO_NFC
887
888 Test is run on a filesystem which converts decomposed utf-8 (nfd)
889 to precomposed utf-8 (nfc).
890
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891 - PTHREADS
892
893 Git wasn't compiled with NO_PTHREADS=YesPlease.
894
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895Tips for Writing Tests
896----------------------
897
898As with any programming projects, existing programs are the best
899source of the information. However, do _not_ emulate
900t0000-basic.sh when writing your tests. The test is special in
901that it tries to validate the very core of GIT. For example, it
902knows that there will be 256 subdirectories under .git/objects/,
903and it knows that the object ID of an empty tree is a certain
90440-byte string. This is deliberately done so in t0000-basic.sh
905because the things the very basic core test tries to achieve is
906to serve as a basis for people who are changing the GIT internal
907drastically. For these people, after making certain changes,
908not seeing failures from the basic test _is_ a failure. And
909such drastic changes to the core GIT that even changes these
910otherwise supposedly stable object IDs should be accompanied by
911an update to t0000-basic.sh.
912
913However, other tests that simply rely on basic parts of the core
914GIT working properly should not have that level of intimate
915knowledge of the core GIT internals. If all the test scripts
916hardcoded the object IDs like t0000-basic.sh does, that defeats
917the purpose of t0000-basic.sh, which is to isolate that level of
918validation in one place. Your test also ends up needing
919updating when such a change to the internal happens, so do _not_
920do it and leave the low level of validation to t0000-basic.sh.
d15e9ebc 921
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922Test coverage
923-------------
924
925You can use the coverage tests to find code paths that are not being
926used or properly exercised yet.
927
928To do that, run the coverage target at the top-level (not in the t/
929directory):
930
931 make coverage
932
933That'll compile Git with GCC's coverage arguments, and generate a test
934report with gcov after the tests finish. Running the coverage tests
935can take a while, since running the tests in parallel is incompatible
936with GCC's coverage mode.
937
938After the tests have run you can generate a list of untested
939functions:
940
941 make coverage-untested-functions
942
943You can also generate a detailed per-file HTML report using the
944Devel::Cover module. To install it do:
945
946 # On Debian or Ubuntu:
947 sudo aptitude install libdevel-cover-perl
948
949 # From the CPAN with cpanminus
950 curl -L http://cpanmin.us | perl - --sudo --self-upgrade
951 cpanm --sudo Devel::Cover
952
953Then, at the top-level:
954
955 make cover_db_html
956
957That'll generate a detailed cover report in the "cover_db_html"
958directory, which you can then copy to a webserver, or inspect locally
959in a browser.