git-format-patch.txt: document --no-notes option
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-format-patch.txt
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1git-format-patch(1)
2===================
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-format-patch - Prepare patches for e-mail submission
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
353ce815 11[verse]
50710ce4 12'git format-patch' [-k] [(-o|--output-directory) <dir> | --stdout]
f693b7e9 13 [--no-thread | --thread[=<style>]]
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14 [(--attach|--inline)[=<boundary>] | --no-attach]
15 [-s | --signoff]
6622d9c7 16 [--signature=<signature> | --no-signature]
7022650f 17 [--signature-file=<file>]
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18 [-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
19 [--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
20 [--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
21 [--ignore-if-in-upstream]
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22 [--rfc] [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix]
23 [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
ae6c098f 24 [--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
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25 [--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet]
26 [--no-notes | --notes[=<ref>]]
126facf8 27 [--interdiff=<previous>]
8631bf1c 28 [--range-diff=<previous> [--creation-factor=<percent>]]
738e88a2 29 [--progress]
50710ce4 30 [<common diff options>]
8a1d076e 31 [ <since> | <revision range> ]
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32
33DESCRIPTION
34-----------
2052d146 35
8a1d076e 36Prepare each commit with its patch in
2052d146 37one file per commit, formatted to resemble UNIX mailbox format.
2052d146 38The output of this command is convenient for e-mail submission or
0b444cdb 39for use with 'git am'.
35ef3a4c 40
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41There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
42
431. A single commit, <since>, specifies that the commits leading
44 to the tip of the current branch that are not in the history
45 that leads to the <since> to be output.
46
472. Generic <revision range> expression (see "SPECIFYING
9d83e382 48 REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7]) means the
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49 commits in the specified range.
50
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51The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
52apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
9e9f132f 53history up until <commit>, use the `--root` option: `git format-patch
6cf378f0 54--root <commit>`. If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
dce5ef14 55can do this with `git format-patch -1 <commit>`.
8a1d076e 56
e6ff0f42 57By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the
2052d146 58first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
dce5ef14 59the filename. With the `--numbered-files` option, the output file names
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60will only be numbers, without the first line of the commit appended.
61The names of the output files are printed to standard
dce5ef14 62output, unless the `--stdout` option is specified.
66f04f38 63
dce5ef14 64If `-o` is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise
bc6bf2d7 65they are created in the current working directory. The default path
ae9f6311 66can be set with the `format.outputDirectory` configuration option.
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67The `-o` option takes precedence over `format.outputDirectory`.
68To store patches in the current working directory even when
69`format.outputDirectory` points elsewhere, use `-o .`.
35ef3a4c 70
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71By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] " followed by
72the concatenation of lines from the commit message up to the first blank
73line (see the DISCUSSION section of linkgit:git-commit[1]).
74
75When multiple patches are output, the subject prefix will instead be
76"[PATCH n/m] ". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use `-n`.
77To omit patch numbers from the subject, use `-N`.
35ef3a4c 78
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79If given `--thread`, `git-format-patch` will generate `In-Reply-To` and
80`References` headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
81as replies to the first mail; this also generates a `Message-Id` header to
cc35de84 82reference.
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83
84OPTIONS
85-------
c1a95fa6 86:git-format-patch: 1
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87include::diff-options.txt[]
88
ed5f07a6 89-<n>::
2c642ed8 90 Prepare patches from the topmost <n> commits.
ed5f07a6 91
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92-o <dir>::
93--output-directory <dir>::
35ef3a4c 94 Use <dir> to store the resulting files, instead of the
efd02016 95 current working directory.
35ef3a4c 96
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97-n::
98--numbered::
a567fdcb 99 Name output in '[PATCH n/m]' format, even with a single patch.
35ef3a4c 100
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101-N::
102--no-numbered::
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103 Name output in '[PATCH]' format.
104
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105--start-number <n>::
106 Start numbering the patches at <n> instead of 1.
107
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108--numbered-files::
109 Output file names will be a simple number sequence
110 without the default first line of the commit appended.
e6ff0f42 111
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112-k::
113--keep-subject::
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114 Do not strip/add '[PATCH]' from the first line of the
115 commit log message.
116
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117-s::
118--signoff::
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119 Add `Signed-off-by:` line to the commit message, using
120 the committer identity of yourself.
b2c150d3 121 See the signoff option in linkgit:git-commit[1] for more information.
6f855371 122
54ba6013 123--stdout::
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124 Print all commits to the standard output in mbox format,
125 instead of creating a file for each one.
7fc9d69f 126
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127--attach[=<boundary>]::
128 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
129 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 130 second part, with `Content-Disposition: attachment`.
c112f689 131
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132--no-attach::
133 Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the
134 configuration setting.
135
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136--inline[=<boundary>]::
137 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
138 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 139 second part, with `Content-Disposition: inline`.
a15a44ef 140
30984ed2 141--thread[=<style>]::
f693b7e9 142--no-thread::
dce5ef14 143 Controls addition of `In-Reply-To` and `References` headers to
f693b7e9 144 make the second and subsequent mails appear as replies to the
dce5ef14 145 first. Also controls generation of the `Message-Id` header to
f693b7e9 146 reference.
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147+
148The optional <style> argument can be either `shallow` or `deep`.
fd1ff306 149'shallow' threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the
30984ed2 150series, where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
6cf378f0 151`--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order. 'deep'
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152threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
153+
ae9f6311 154The default is `--no-thread`, unless the `format.thread` configuration
dce5ef14 155is set. If `--thread` is specified without a style, it defaults to the
ae9f6311 156style specified by `format.thread` if any, or else `shallow`.
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157+
158Beware that the default for 'git send-email' is to thread emails
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159itself. If you want `git format-patch` to take care of threading, you
160will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
28ffb898 161
da56645d 162--in-reply-to=Message-Id::
dce5ef14 163 Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
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164 reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
165 provide a new patch series.
166
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167--ignore-if-in-upstream::
168 Do not include a patch that matches a commit in
169 <until>..<since>. This will examine all patches reachable
170 from <since> but not from <until> and compare them with the
171 patches being generated, and any patch that matches is
172 ignored.
173
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174--subject-prefix=<Subject-Prefix>::
175 Instead of the standard '[PATCH]' prefix in the subject
176 line, instead use '[<Subject-Prefix>]'. This
177 allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
dce5ef14 178 combined with the `--numbered` option.
2d9e4a47 179
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180--rfc::
181 Alias for `--subject-prefix="RFC PATCH"`. RFC means "Request For
182 Comments"; use this when sending an experimental patch for
183 discussion rather than application.
184
7952ea66 185-v <n>::
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186--reroll-count=<n>::
187 Mark the series as the <n>-th iteration of the topic. The
d614f075 188 output filenames have `v<n>` prepended to them, and the
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189 subject prefix ("PATCH" by default, but configurable via the
190 `--subject-prefix` option) has ` v<n>` appended to it. E.g.
191 `--reroll-count=4` may produce `v4-0001-add-makefile.patch`
192 file that has "Subject: [PATCH v4 1/20] Add makefile" in it.
193
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194--to=<email>::
195 Add a `To:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
196 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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197 The negated form `--no-to` discards all `To:` headers added so
198 far (from config or command line).
ae6c098f 199
736cc67d 200--cc=<email>::
dce5ef14 201 Add a `Cc:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
736cc67d 202 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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203 The negated form `--no-cc` discards all `Cc:` headers added so
204 far (from config or command line).
736cc67d 205
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206--from::
207--from=<ident>::
208 Use `ident` in the `From:` header of each commit email. If the
209 author ident of the commit is not textually identical to the
210 provided `ident`, place a `From:` header in the body of the
211 message with the original author. If no `ident` is given, use
212 the committer ident.
213+
214Note that this option is only useful if you are actually sending the
215emails and want to identify yourself as the sender, but retain the
216original author (and `git am` will correctly pick up the in-body
217header). Note also that `git send-email` already handles this
218transformation for you, and this option should not be used if you are
219feeding the result to `git send-email`.
220
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221--add-header=<header>::
222 Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in addition
223 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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224 For example, `--add-header="Organization: git-foo"`.
225 The negated form `--no-add-header` discards *all* (`To:`,
226 `Cc:`, and custom) headers added so far from config or command
227 line.
d7d9c2d0 228
2a4c2607 229--[no-]cover-letter::
f4912391 230 In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
561d2b79 231 containing the branch description, shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can
f4912391 232 fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
a5a27c79 233
126facf8 234--interdiff=<previous>::
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235 As a reviewer aid, insert an interdiff into the cover letter,
236 or as commentary of the lone patch of a 1-patch series, showing
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237 the differences between the previous version of the patch series and
238 the series currently being formatted. `previous` is a single revision
239 naming the tip of the previous series which shares a common base with
240 the series being formatted (for example `git format-patch
241 --cover-letter --interdiff=feature/v1 -3 feature/v2`).
242
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243--range-diff=<previous>::
244 As a reviewer aid, insert a range-diff (see linkgit:git-range-diff[1])
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245 into the cover letter, or as commentary of the lone patch of a
246 1-patch series, showing the differences between the previous
31e2617a 247 version of the patch series and the series currently being formatted.
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248 `previous` can be a single revision naming the tip of the previous
249 series if it shares a common base with the series being formatted (for
31e2617a 250 example `git format-patch --cover-letter --range-diff=feature/v1 -3
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251 feature/v2`), or a revision range if the two versions of the series are
252 disjoint (for example `git format-patch --cover-letter
253 --range-diff=feature/v1~3..feature/v1 -3 feature/v2`).
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254+
255Note that diff options passed to the command affect how the primary
256product of `format-patch` is generated, and they are not passed to
257the underlying `range-diff` machinery used to generate the cover-letter
258material (this may change in the future).
31e2617a 259
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260--creation-factor=<percent>::
261 Used with `--range-diff`, tweak the heuristic which matches up commits
262 between the previous and current series of patches by adjusting the
263 creation/deletion cost fudge factor. See linkgit:git-range-diff[1])
264 for details.
265
e422c0cf 266--notes[=<ref>]::
83d9db78 267--no-notes::
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268 Append the notes (see linkgit:git-notes[1]) for the commit
269 after the three-dash line.
270+
271The expected use case of this is to write supporting explanation for
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272the commit that does not belong to the commit log message proper,
273and include it with the patch submission. While one can simply write
274these explanations after `format-patch` has run but before sending,
2de9b711 275keeping them as Git notes allows them to be maintained between versions
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276of the patch series (but see the discussion of the `notes.rewrite`
277configuration options in linkgit:git-notes[1] to use this workflow).
e422c0cf 278
2c7ee986 279--[no-]signature=<signature>::
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280 Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the signature
281 is separated from the body by a line with '-- ' on it. If the
2de9b711 282 signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the Git version
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283 number.
284
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285--signature-file=<file>::
286 Works just like --signature except the signature is read from a file.
287
03eeaeae 288--suffix=.<sfx>::
917a8f89 289 Instead of using `.patch` as the suffix for generated
02783075 290 filenames, use specified suffix. A common alternative is
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291 `--suffix=.txt`. Leaving this empty will remove the `.patch`
292 suffix.
03eeaeae 293+
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294Note that the leading character does not have to be a dot; for example,
295you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
03eeaeae 296
b7df098c 297-q::
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298--quiet::
299 Do not print the names of the generated files to standard output.
300
37c22a4b 301--no-binary::
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302 Do not output contents of changes in binary files, instead
303 display a notice that those files changed. Patches generated
304 using this option cannot be applied properly, but they are
305 still useful for code review.
37c22a4b 306
3a30aa17 307--zero-commit::
308 Output an all-zero hash in each patch's From header instead
309 of the hash of the commit.
310
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311--base=<commit>::
312 Record the base tree information to identify the state the
313 patch series applies to. See the BASE TREE INFORMATION section
314 below for details.
315
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316--root::
317 Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it
318 is just a single commit (that would normally be treated as a
319 <since>). Note that root commits included in the specified
320 range are always formatted as creation patches, independently
321 of this flag.
322
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323--progress::
324 Show progress reports on stderr as patches are generated.
325
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326CONFIGURATION
327-------------
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328You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,
329defaults for the subject prefix and file suffix, number patches when
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330outputting more than one patch, add "To" or "Cc:" headers, configure
331attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.
96ce6d26 332
917a8f89 333------------
96ce6d26 334[format]
7f9d77f2 335 headers = "Organization: git-foo\n"
da0005b8 336 subjectPrefix = CHANGE
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337 suffix = .txt
338 numbered = auto
ae6c098f 339 to = <email>
fe8928e6 340 cc = <email>
0db5260b 341 attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
da0005b8 342 signOff = true
2a4c2607 343 coverletter = auto
917a8f89 344------------
03eeaeae 345
96ce6d26 346
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347DISCUSSION
348----------
349
350The patch produced by 'git format-patch' is in UNIX mailbox format,
351with a fixed "magic" time stamp to indicate that the file is output
352from format-patch rather than a real mailbox, like so:
353
354------------
355From 8f72bad1baf19a53459661343e21d6491c3908d3 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
356From: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
357Date: Tue, 13 Jul 2010 11:42:54 -0700
358Subject: [PATCH] =?UTF-8?q?[IA64]=20Put=20ia64=20config=20files=20on=20the=20?=
359 =?UTF-8?q?Uwe=20Kleine-K=C3=B6nig=20diet?=
360MIME-Version: 1.0
361Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
362Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit
363
364arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
365(See commit c2330e286f68f1c408b4aa6515ba49d57f05beae comment)
366
367Do the same for ia64 so we can have sleek & trim looking
368...
369------------
370
371Typically it will be placed in a MUA's drafts folder, edited to add
372timely commentary that should not go in the changelog after the three
373dashes, and then sent as a message whose body, in our example, starts
374with "arch/arm config files were...". On the receiving end, readers
375can save interesting patches in a UNIX mailbox and apply them with
376linkgit:git-am[1].
377
378When a patch is part of an ongoing discussion, the patch generated by
379'git format-patch' can be tweaked to take advantage of the 'git am
380--scissors' feature. After your response to the discussion comes a
381line that consists solely of "`-- >8 --`" (scissors and perforation),
382followed by the patch with unnecessary header fields removed:
383
384------------
385...
386> So we should do such-and-such.
387
388Makes sense to me. How about this patch?
389
390-- >8 --
391Subject: [IA64] Put ia64 config files on the Uwe Kleine-König diet
392
393arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
394...
395------------
396
397When sending a patch this way, most often you are sending your own
398patch, so in addition to the "`From $SHA1 $magic_timestamp`" marker you
399should omit `From:` and `Date:` lines from the patch file. The patch
400title is likely to be different from the subject of the discussion the
401patch is in response to, so it is likely that you would want to keep
402the Subject: line, like the example above.
403
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404Checking for patch corruption
405~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
406Many mailers if not set up properly will corrupt whitespace. Here are
407two common types of corruption:
408
409* Empty context lines that do not have _any_ whitespace.
410
411* Non-empty context lines that have one extra whitespace at the
412 beginning.
413
414One way to test if your MUA is set up correctly is:
415
416* Send the patch to yourself, exactly the way you would, except
417 with To: and Cc: lines that do not contain the list and
418 maintainer address.
419
420* Save that patch to a file in UNIX mailbox format. Call it a.patch,
421 say.
422
423* Apply it:
424
425 $ git fetch <project> master:test-apply
426 $ git checkout test-apply
427 $ git reset --hard
428 $ git am a.patch
429
430If it does not apply correctly, there can be various reasons.
431
432* The patch itself does not apply cleanly. That is _bad_ but
433 does not have much to do with your MUA. You might want to rebase
434 the patch with linkgit:git-rebase[1] before regenerating it in
435 this case.
436
437* The MUA corrupted your patch; "am" would complain that
438 the patch does not apply. Look in the .git/rebase-apply/ subdirectory and
439 see what 'patch' file contains and check for the common
440 corruption patterns mentioned above.
441
442* While at it, check the 'info' and 'final-commit' files as well.
443 If what is in 'final-commit' is not exactly what you would want to
444 see in the commit log message, it is very likely that the
445 receiver would end up hand editing the log message when applying
446 your patch. Things like "Hi, this is my first patch.\n" in the
447 patch e-mail should come after the three-dash line that signals
448 the end of the commit message.
449
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450MUA-SPECIFIC HINTS
451------------------
452Here are some hints on how to successfully submit patches inline using
453various mailers.
454
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455GMail
456~~~~~
457GMail does not have any way to turn off line wrapping in the web
458interface, so it will mangle any emails that you send. You can however
459use "git send-email" and send your patches through the GMail SMTP server, or
460use any IMAP email client to connect to the google IMAP server and forward
461the emails through that.
462
463For hints on using 'git send-email' to send your patches through the
464GMail SMTP server, see the EXAMPLE section of linkgit:git-send-email[1].
465
466For hints on submission using the IMAP interface, see the EXAMPLE
467section of linkgit:git-imap-send[1].
468
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469Thunderbird
470~~~~~~~~~~~
471By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as well as flag
472them as being 'format=flowed', both of which will make the
2de9b711 473resulting email unusable by Git.
dc53151f 474
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475There are three different approaches: use an add-on to turn off line wraps,
476configure Thunderbird to not mangle patches, or use
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477an external editor to keep Thunderbird from mangling the patches.
478
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479Approach #1 (add-on)
480^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
481
482Install the Toggle Word Wrap add-on that is available from
483https://addons.mozilla.org/thunderbird/addon/toggle-word-wrap/
484It adds a menu entry "Enable Word Wrap" in the composer's "Options" menu
485that you can tick off. Now you can compose the message as you otherwise do
486(cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc), but you have to
487insert line breaks manually in any text that you type.
488
489Approach #2 (configuration)
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490^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
491Three steps:
492
4931. Configure your mail server composition as plain text:
494 Edit...Account Settings...Composition & Addressing,
495 uncheck "Compose Messages in HTML".
496
4972. Configure your general composition window to not wrap.
498+
499In Thunderbird 2:
500Edit..Preferences..Composition, wrap plain text messages at 0
501+
502In Thunderbird 3:
503Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
504"mail.wrap_long_lines".
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505Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`. Also, search for
506"mailnews.wraplength" and set the value to 0.
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507
5083. Disable the use of format=flowed:
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509 Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
510 "mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed".
511 Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`.
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512
513After that is done, you should be able to compose email as you
514otherwise would (cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc),
515and the patches will not be mangled.
516
b8959605 517Approach #3 (external editor)
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518^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
519
520The following Thunderbird extensions are needed:
521AboutConfig from http://aboutconfig.mozdev.org/ and
522External Editor from http://globs.org/articles.php?lng=en&pg=8
523
5241. Prepare the patch as a text file using your method of choice.
525
5262. Before opening a compose window, use Edit->Account Settings to
527 uncheck the "Compose messages in HTML format" setting in the
528 "Composition & Addressing" panel of the account to be used to
529 send the patch.
530
5313. In the main Thunderbird window, 'before' you open the compose
532 window for the patch, use Tools->about:config to set the
533 following to the indicated values:
534+
535----------
536 mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed => false
537 mailnews.wraplength => 0
538----------
539
5404. Open a compose window and click the external editor icon.
541
5425. In the external editor window, read in the patch file and exit
543 the editor normally.
544
545Side note: it may be possible to do step 2 with
546about:config and the following settings but no one's tried yet.
547
548----------
549 mail.html_compose => false
550 mail.identity.default.compose_html => false
551 mail.identity.id?.compose_html => false
552----------
553
554There is a script in contrib/thunderbird-patch-inline which can help
555you include patches with Thunderbird in an easy way. To use it, do the
556steps above and then use the script as the external editor.
557
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558KMail
559~~~~~
560This should help you to submit patches inline using KMail.
561
5621. Prepare the patch as a text file.
563
5642. Click on New Mail.
565
5663. Go under "Options" in the Composer window and be sure that
567 "Word wrap" is not set.
568
5694. Use Message -> Insert file... and insert the patch.
570
5715. Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish to the
572 message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
573
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574BASE TREE INFORMATION
575---------------------
576
577The base tree information block is used for maintainers or third party
578testers to know the exact state the patch series applies to. It consists
579of the 'base commit', which is a well-known commit that is part of the
580stable part of the project history everybody else works off of, and zero
581or more 'prerequisite patches', which are well-known patches in flight
582that is not yet part of the 'base commit' that need to be applied on top
583of 'base commit' in topological order before the patches can be applied.
584
585The 'base commit' is shown as "base-commit: " followed by the 40-hex of
586the commit object name. A 'prerequisite patch' is shown as
587"prerequisite-patch-id: " followed by the 40-hex 'patch id', which can
588be obtained by passing the patch through the `git patch-id --stable`
589command.
590
591Imagine that on top of the public commit P, you applied well-known
592patches X, Y and Z from somebody else, and then built your three-patch
593series A, B, C, the history would be like:
594
595................................................
596---P---X---Y---Z---A---B---C
597................................................
598
599With `git format-patch --base=P -3 C` (or variants thereof, e.g. with
7ba1ceef 600`--cover-letter` or using `Z..C` instead of `-3 C` to specify the
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601range), the base tree information block is shown at the end of the
602first message the command outputs (either the first patch, or the
603cover letter), like this:
604
605------------
606base-commit: P
607prerequisite-patch-id: X
608prerequisite-patch-id: Y
609prerequisite-patch-id: Z
610------------
611
612For non-linear topology, such as
613
614................................................
615---P---X---A---M---C
616 \ /
617 Y---Z---B
618................................................
619
620You can also use `git format-patch --base=P -3 C` to generate patches
621for A, B and C, and the identifiers for P, X, Y, Z are appended at the
622end of the first message.
e0d48279 623
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624If set `--base=auto` in cmdline, it will track base commit automatically,
625the base commit will be the merge base of tip commit of the remote-tracking
626branch and revision-range specified in cmdline.
627For a local branch, you need to track a remote branch by `git branch
628--set-upstream-to` before using this option.
629
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630EXAMPLES
631--------
632
921177f5 633* Extract commits between revisions R1 and R2, and apply them on top of
ba170517 634 the current branch using 'git am' to cherry-pick them:
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635+
636------------
467c0197 637$ git format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git am -3 -k
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638------------
639
640* Extract all commits which are in the current branch but not in the
ba170517 641 origin branch:
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642+
643------------
644$ git format-patch origin
645------------
646+
647For each commit a separate file is created in the current directory.
648
649* Extract all commits that lead to 'origin' since the inception of the
ba170517 650 project:
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651+
652------------
9c67c757 653$ git format-patch --root origin
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654------------
655
656* The same as the previous one:
657+
658------------
659$ git format-patch -M -B origin
660------------
661+
662Additionally, it detects and handles renames and complete rewrites
663intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A renaming patch reduces
50710ce4 664the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review.
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665Note that non-Git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
666use it only when you know the recipient uses Git to apply your patch.
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667
668* Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format them
ba170517 669 as e-mailable patches:
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670+
671------------
672$ git format-patch -3
673------------
28ffb898 674
56ae8df5 675SEE ALSO
28ffb898 676--------
5162e697 677linkgit:git-am[1], linkgit:git-send-email[1]
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679GIT
680---
9e1f0a85 681Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite