Git 2.6.5
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
44e1e4d6 12'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
68e4b552 13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
673151a9 25linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
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26commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27in-depth introduction.
cb22bc44 28
7687ae98 29After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
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30page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
06ab60c0 32manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
4514ad4f 33
2de9b711 34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
7687ae98 35can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
34b604af 36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
2ff3f61a 41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
06ab60c0 42unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
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43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
833e4825 46* link:v2.6.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.6.5]
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47
48* release notes for
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22f698cb 53 link:RelNotes/2.6.1.txt[2.6.1],
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54 link:RelNotes/2.6.0.txt[2.6].
55
24358560 56* link:v2.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.5.4]
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57
58* release notes for
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a17c56c0 64
a2558fb8 65* link:v2.4.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.10]
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66
67* release notes for
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78 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
79
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81
82* release notes for
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93 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
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101 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
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104
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110 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
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358 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
0a53e9dd 359
441b40d8 360* link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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361
362* release notes for
761e742d
NP
363 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
364 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
365 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
366 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
367 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
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368
369* release notes for
761e742d
NP
370 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
371 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
372 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
373 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
374 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
375 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
a95148de 376
621f1b4b 377* link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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378
379* release notes for
761e742d
NP
380 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
381 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
382 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
383 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
8104ebfe 384
efe05b01 385* link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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386
387* release notes for
761e742d
NP
388 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
389 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
390 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
391 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
392 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
393 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
394 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
ea02eef0 395
efe05b01 396* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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397
398* release notes for
761e742d
NP
399 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
400 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
401 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
402 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
403 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
404 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
405 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 406
efe05b01 407* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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408
409* release notes for
761e742d
NP
410 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
411 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
412 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
413 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
414 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
415 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
416 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
1d2375dd 417
efe05b01 418* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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419
420* release notes for
761e742d
NP
421 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
422 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
423 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
424 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
425 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
426 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
427 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
428 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 429
e708af6e 430* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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431
432* release notes for
761e742d
NP
433 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
434 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
435 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
436 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
437 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
438 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
439 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
440 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 442
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443* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
444
aba170cd 445* release notes for
761e742d
NP
446 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
447 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
449 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
450 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
451 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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452
453* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
454
455* release notes for
761e742d
NP
456 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
457 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
458 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
459 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
460 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
461 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
462 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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463
464* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
465
aba170cd 466* release notes for
761e742d
NP
467 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
468 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
469 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
470 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
471 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
472 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
473 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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474
475* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
476 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
477 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
478 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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479
480============
481
482endif::stalenotes[]
483
cb22bc44
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484OPTIONS
485-------
486--version::
2de9b711 487 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
cb22bc44
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488
489--help::
a87cd02c 490 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
0f6f195b 491 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
2de9b711 492 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
0f6f195b 493 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
45533d26
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494+
495Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 496displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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497because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
498help ...`.
cb22bc44 499
44e1e4d6
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500-C <path>::
501 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
502 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
503 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
504 <path>`.
505+
506This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
507`--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
508made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
509example the following invocations are equivalent:
510
511 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
512 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
513
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514-c <name>=<value>::
515 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
516 given will override values from configuration files.
517 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
518 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
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519+
520Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
521`foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
522config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
523foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
8b1fa778 524
62b4698e 525--exec-path[=<path>]::
2de9b711 526 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 527 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 528 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
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AE
529 the current setting and then exit.
530
89a56bfb 531--html-path::
2de9b711 532 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
239b5ed9 533 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 534
f2dd8c37 535--man-path::
239b5ed9 536 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
2de9b711 537 this version of Git and exit.
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538
539--info-path::
239b5ed9 540 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
2de9b711 541 version of Git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 542
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543-p::
544--paginate::
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545 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
546 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
547 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
548 below).
6acbcb92 549
463a849d 550--no-pager::
2de9b711 551 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
463a849d 552
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553--git-dir=<path>::
554 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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555 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
556 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 557
892c41b9 558--work-tree=<path>::
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559 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
560 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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561 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
562 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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563 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
564 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 565
d49483f0 566--namespace=<path>::
2de9b711 567 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
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568 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
569 variable.
570
6acbcb92 571--bare::
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572 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
573 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
574 directory.
575
b0fa7ab5 576--no-replace-objects::
2de9b711 577 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
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578 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
579
823ab40f 580--literal-pathspecs::
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581 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
582 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
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583 variable to `1`.
584
6fb02165 585--glob-pathspecs::
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586 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
587 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
588 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
589 magic ":(literal)"
590
6fb02165 591--noglob-pathspecs::
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592 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
593 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
594 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
595 magic ":(glob)"
9755afbd 596
6fb02165 597--icase-pathspecs::
93d93537
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598 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
599 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
9755afbd 600
23091e95
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601GIT COMMANDS
602------------
9755afbd 603
2de9b711 604We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
23091e95 605("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 606
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607High-level commands (porcelain)
608-------------------------------
609
610We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
611ancillary user utilities.
612
613Main porcelain commands
614~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 615
377e8139 616include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 617
90933efb 618Ancillary Commands
23091e95 619~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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620Manipulators:
621
377e8139 622include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 623
90933efb 624Interrogators:
204ee6a9 625
377e8139 626include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 627
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628
629Interacting with Others
630~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
631
632These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
633people via patch over e-mail.
634
635include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
636
637
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638Low-level commands (plumbing)
639-----------------------------
640
2de9b711 641Although Git includes its
b1f33d62
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642own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
643development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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644might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
645linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 646
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647The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
648to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
649than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
650primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
651on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
652end user experience.
653
654The following description divides
655the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
b1f33d62
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656the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
657compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
658repositories.
659
89bf2077 660
b1f33d62
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661Manipulation commands
662~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 663
377e8139 664include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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665
666
667Interrogation commands
668~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
669
377e8139 670include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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671
672In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
673the working tree.
674
675
676Synching repositories
677~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
678
377e8139 679include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 680
57f6ec02 681The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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682typically do not use them directly.
683
684include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
685
686
687Internal helper commands
688~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
689
690These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
691users typically do not use them directly.
692
693include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
694
b1f33d62 695
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696Configuration Mechanism
697-----------------------
698
c0179c0d
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699Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
700repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
701like this:
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702
703------------
704#
2fa090b6 705# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
5773c9f2
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706#
707
708; core variables
709[core]
710 ; Don't trust file modes
711 filemode = false
712
713; user identity
714[user]
715 name = "Junio C Hamano"
c0179c0d 716 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
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717
718------------
719
720Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
06300d97 721their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
c0179c0d 722list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
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723
724
6c84e2e0 725Identifier Terminology
2cf565c5
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726----------------------
727<object>::
2fa090b6 728 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
2cf565c5
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729
730<blob>::
2fa090b6 731 Indicates a blob object name.
2cf565c5
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732
733<tree>::
2fa090b6 734 Indicates a tree object name.
2cf565c5
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735
736<commit>::
2fa090b6 737 Indicates a commit object name.
2cf565c5
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738
739<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 740 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
6c84e2e0
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741 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
742 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
743 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 744
043d7605
TT
745<commit-ish>::
746 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
747 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
748 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
749 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
750
2cf565c5
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751<type>::
752 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 753 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
2cf565c5
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754
755<file>::
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756 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
757 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 758
c1bdacf9
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759Symbolic Identifiers
760--------------------
2de9b711 761Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 762symbolic notation:
c1bdacf9
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763
764HEAD::
0abcfbff 765 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 766
c1bdacf9 767<tag>::
2fa090b6 768 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 769 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 770
c1bdacf9 771<head>::
2fa090b6 772 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 773 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 774
d47107d8 775For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 776"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 777
c1bdacf9
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778
779File/Directory Structure
780------------------------
c1bdacf9 781
6998e4db 782Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 783
6998e4db 784Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 785
c1bdacf9 786Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 787`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 788
a1d4aa74 789
2cf565c5
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790Terminology
791-----------
6998e4db 792Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
2cf565c5
DG
793
794
795Environment Variables
796---------------------
2de9b711 797Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
2cf565c5 798
2de9b711 799The Git Repository
c1bdacf9 800~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2de9b711 801These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
c1bdacf9 802is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
f25b98e6 803Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
c1bdacf9
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804
805'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
806 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
5f3aa197
LS
807 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
808 is used.
c1bdacf9 809
136347d7
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810'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
811 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
812 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
70320541
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813 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
814 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
136347d7 815
c1bdacf9
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816'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
817 If the object storage directory is specified via this
818 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
819 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
820 directory is used.
821
822'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
2de9b711 823 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
c1bdacf9 824 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
80ba074f 825 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
2de9b711 826 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
80ba074f 827 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
c1bdacf9
DG
828
829'GIT_DIR'::
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830 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
831 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
832 for the base of the repository.
75940a00 833 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
c1bdacf9 834
892c41b9 835'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
a758a349 836 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
06ab60c0 837 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
892c41b9
ML
838 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
839
d49483f0 840'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
2de9b711 841 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
d49483f0
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842 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
843
0454dd93 844'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
7ec30aaa 845 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
3e07d268 846 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
7ec30aaa
MH
847 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
848 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
849 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
850 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
851 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
852 might be present in order to compare them with the current
853 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
854 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
855 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
856 e.g.,
857 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
0454dd93 858
cf87463e 859'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
e6405517 860 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
2de9b711 861 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
e6405517
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862 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
863 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
2de9b711 864 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
cf87463e
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865 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
866 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
867 command line.
8030e442 868
c7b3a3d2
NTND
869'GIT_COMMON_DIR'::
870 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
871 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
872 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
529fef20 873 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
1eaca7a5 874 linkgit:git-worktree[1] for
c7b3a3d2
NTND
875 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
876 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
877
2de9b711 878Git Commits
c1bdacf9
DG
879~~~~~~~~~~~
880'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
881'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
882'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
883'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
884'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 885'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 886'EMAIL'::
5162e697 887 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
c1bdacf9 888
2de9b711 889Git Diffs
c1bdacf9 890~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 891'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
fde97d8a
SE
892 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
893 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
894 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
2de9b711 895 value passed on the Git diff command line.
fde97d8a 896
d81ed1b5 897'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
fde97d8a
SE
898 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
899 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
900 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
901 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
902
903 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
904+
905where:
906
907 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
908 contents of <old|new>,
d5fa1f1a 909 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
fde97d8a 910 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
fde97d8a
SE
911+
912The file parameters can point at the user's working file
913(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
914when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
915index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
916temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
917+
918For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
919parameter, <path>.
ee7fb0b1
ZK
920+
921For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
922'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
923
924'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
925 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
926
927'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
928 The total number of paths.
2cf565c5 929
575ba9d6
ML
930other
931~~~~~
dbddb714
JN
932'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
933 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
934 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 935 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 936
c27d205a 937'GIT_PAGER'::
a7738c77 938 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
2de9b711 939 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
ab54cd6c
JN
940 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
941 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 942
36384c97
RSM
943'GIT_EDITOR'::
944 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
2de9b711 945 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
36384c97
RSM
946 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
947 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
948
d5538b41 949'GIT_SSH'::
39942766
TQ
950'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
951 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
952 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
953 when they need to connect to a remote system.
954 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
955 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
956 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
957 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
958 something other than the default SSH port.
d5538b41 959+
39942766
TQ
960`$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
961by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
962`$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
963(which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
964needed).
d5538b41
SP
965+
966Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
967personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
968for further details.
969
453842c9 970'GIT_ASKPASS'::
2de9b711 971 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
453842c9 972 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
06ab60c0 973 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
da0005b8 974 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
453842c9
KF
975 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
976
e652c0eb
JK
977'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
978 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
979 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
980
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981'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
982 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
983 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
984 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
985 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
986 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
987 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
988
06f59e9f
TT
989'GIT_FLUSH'::
990 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
0b444cdb 991 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
627a8b8d 992 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
f1ed7fea
AS
993 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
994 flushed. If this
06f59e9f
TT
995 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
996 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
2de9b711 997 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
06f59e9f
TT
998 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
999
575ba9d6 1000'GIT_TRACE'::
eb9250df
KB
1001 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
1002 command execution and external command execution.
1003+
1004If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
1005is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
1006stderr.
1007+
1008If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
1009and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
1010value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
1011trace messages into this file descriptor.
1012+
1013Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
1014(starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
1015as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
1016into it.
1017+
1018Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
1019"false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
575ba9d6 1020
b12ca963 1021'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
67dc598e 1022 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
b12ca963
NTND
1023 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
1024 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
1025 pack-related performance problems.
67dc598e 1026 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
b12ca963 1027
1dd278ce 1028'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
eb9250df
KB
1029 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1030 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1031 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
32359838 1032 starting with "PACK" (but see 'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE' below).
eb9250df
KB
1033 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1034
32359838
JK
1035'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE'::
1036 Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a
1037 given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
1038 verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost
1039 certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
1040 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack`) rather than displaying it on
1041 the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
1042+
1043Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
1044of clones and fetches.
1045
578da039
KB
1046'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1047 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1048 time of each Git command.
1049 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1050
eb9250df
KB
1051'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1052 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1053 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1054 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1055
1056'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1057 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1058 cloning of shallow repositories.
1059 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1dd278ce 1060
6dedd800 1061'GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS'::
2de9b711 1062 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
823ab40f
JK
1063 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1064 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1065 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1066 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
2de9b711 1067 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
823ab40f
JK
1068 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1069
6dedd800 1070'GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS'::
bd30c2e4
NTND
1071 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1072 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1073
6dedd800 1074'GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS'::
bd30c2e4
NTND
1075 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1076 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1077
6dedd800 1078'GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS'::
93d93537
NTND
1079 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1080 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1081
c3e2d189
JH
1082'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1083 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1084 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1085 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1086 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1087 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1088 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1089 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1090 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1091
6dedd800 1092'GIT_REF_PARANOIA'::
49672f26
JK
1093 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1094 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1095 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1096 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1097 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1098 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1099 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1100 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1101 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1102
6dedd800 1103'GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL'::
a5adaced
JK
1104 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1105 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1106 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1107 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1108 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1109 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1110 currently used by git are:
1111
1112 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1113 or local paths)
1114
1115 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1116 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1117
1118 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
1119 `git+ssh://`, etc).
1120
1121 - `rsync`: git over rsync
1122
1123 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1124 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1125 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1126
1127 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1128 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
a5adaced 1129
823ab40f 1130
8db9307c
JH
1131Discussion[[Discussion]]
1132------------------------
40dac517
BF
1133
1134More detail on the following is available from the
2de9b711 1135link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 1136user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
40dac517 1137
2de9b711 1138A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
40dac517
BF
1139subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1140things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1141of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1142contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1143as tags and branch heads.
1144
1145The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1146hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 1147directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
40dac517
BF
1148and some number of parent commits.
1149
1150The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1151"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1152represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1153parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1154
d5fa1f1a 1155All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
40dac517
BF
1156written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1157The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1158just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1159purpose.
1160
1161When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1162efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1163
1164Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
d5fa1f1a
TA
1165may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1166with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1167recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
40dac517
BF
1168tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1169`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1170
1171The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1172path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1173the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1174attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1175corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1176working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1177be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1178content stored in the index.
1179
1180The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1181for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1182unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 1183
7687ae98
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1184FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1185---------------------
1186
1187See the references in the "description" section to get started
2de9b711 1188using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
7687ae98
JH
1189for a first-time user.
1190
2de9b711 1191The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
7687ae98 1192user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
2de9b711 1193introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
7687ae98
JH
1194
1195See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1196
1197See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1198examples.
1199
1200The internals are documented in the
48a8c26c 1201link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
7687ae98
JH
1202
1203Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1204read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1205
1206
cb22bc44
AE
1207Authors
1208-------
48bb914e 1209Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
2de9b711 1210C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
405869d0 1211<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
6ecc01f2
JH
1212gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1213
1214If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
d8f708f8
JK
1215output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1216the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 1217
c97ca277
JH
1218Reporting Bugs
1219--------------
1220
1221Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1222development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1223subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1224
497c8331
CC
1225SEE ALSO
1226--------
1227linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
673151a9 1228linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 1229linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
801a011d
TR
1230linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1231linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 1232
2cf565c5
DG
1233GIT
1234---
9e1f0a85 1235Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite