Git 1.7.9
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
f2dd8c37 12'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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13 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
14 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
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15 [-c <name>=<value>]
16 [--help] <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
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25link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
26"man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
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27also want to read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]. See
28the link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
a1dc34fa 29introduction.
cb22bc44 30
62b4698e 31The '<command>' is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
5162e697 32as defined in the configuration file (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
4514ad4f 33
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34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
35documentation can be viewed at
36`http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
37
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38ifdef::stalenotes[]
39[NOTE]
40============
26cfcfbf 41
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42You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
43unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
44branch of the `git.git` repository.
45Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 46
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47* link:v1.7.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9]
48
49* release notes for
50 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
51
c572f491 52* link:v1.7.8.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.4]
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53
54* release notes for
c572f491 55 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
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56 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
57 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
58 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
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59 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
60
c572f491 61* link:v1.7.7.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.6]
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62
63* release notes for
c572f491 64 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
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65 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
66 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
67 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
68 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
f7d958df 69 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
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70 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
71
15b7898c 72* link:v1.7.6.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.5]
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73
74* release notes for
15b7898c 75 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
63205264 76 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
740a8fc2 77 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
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78 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
79 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
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80 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
81
e5af0de2 82* link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
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83
84* release notes for
e5af0de2 85 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
3c3e0b3c 86 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
3d5ae435 87 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
2f312e88 88 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
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89 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
90
6ceb270c 91* link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
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92
93* release notes for
6ceb270c 94 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
6be05591 95 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
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96 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
97 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
9971d6d5 98 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
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99 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
100
685e9d91 101* link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
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102
103* release notes for
685e9d91 104 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
15368e18 105 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
ed94cc76 106 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
8a904385 107 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
92c1e717 108 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
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109 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
110
1b974346 111* link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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112
113* release notes for
1b974346 114 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
ed94cc76 115 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
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116 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
117 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
118 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
119 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
64fdc08d 120
1b974346 121* link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
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122
123* release notes for
1b974346 124 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
ed94cc76 125 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
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126 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
127 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
128 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
d599e048 129
1b974346 130* link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
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131
132* release notes for
1b974346 133 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
ed94cc76 134 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
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135 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
136 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
137 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
138 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
139 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
140 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
141 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
142 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
e923eaeb 143
1b974346 144* link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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145
146* release notes for
1b974346 147 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
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148 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
149 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
150 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
902f2353 151
1b974346 152* link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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153
154* release notes for
1b974346 155 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
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156 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
157 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
158 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
159 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
160 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
161 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
162 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
163 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
164 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
78d553b7 165
1b974346 166* link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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167
168* release notes for
1b974346 169 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
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170 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
171 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
172 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
173 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
174 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
0a53e9dd 175
441b40d8 176* link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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177
178* release notes for
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179 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
180 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
181 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
182 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
183 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
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184
185* release notes for
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186 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
187 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
188 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
189 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
190 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
191 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
a95148de 192
621f1b4b 193* link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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194
195* release notes for
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196 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
197 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
198 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
199 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
8104ebfe 200
efe05b01 201* link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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202
203* release notes for
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204 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
205 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
206 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
207 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
208 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
209 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
210 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
ea02eef0 211
efe05b01 212* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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213
214* release notes for
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215 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
216 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
217 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
218 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
219 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
220 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
221 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 222
efe05b01 223* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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224
225* release notes for
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226 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
227 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
228 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
229 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
230 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
231 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
232 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
1d2375dd 233
efe05b01 234* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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235
236* release notes for
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237 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
238 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
239 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
240 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
241 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
242 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
243 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
244 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 245
e708af6e 246* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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247
248* release notes for
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249 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
250 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
251 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
252 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
253 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
254 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
255 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
256 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
257 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 258
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259* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
260
aba170cd 261* release notes for
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262 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
263 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
264 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
265 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
266 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
267 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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268
269* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
270
271* release notes for
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272 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
273 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
274 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
275 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
276 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
277 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
278 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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279
280* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
281
aba170cd 282* release notes for
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283 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
284 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
285 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
286 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
287 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
288 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
289 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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290
291* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
292 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
293 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
294 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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295
296============
297
298endif::stalenotes[]
299
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300OPTIONS
301-------
302--version::
a87cd02c 303 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
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304
305--help::
a87cd02c 306 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
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307 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
308 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
309 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
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310+
311Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 312displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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313because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
314help ...`.
cb22bc44 315
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316-c <name>=<value>::
317 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
318 given will override values from configuration files.
319 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
320 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
321
62b4698e 322--exec-path[=<path>]::
a87cd02c 323 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 324 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 325 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
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326 the current setting and then exit.
327
89a56bfb 328--html-path::
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329 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
330 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 331
f2dd8c37 332--man-path::
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333 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
334 this version of git and exit.
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335
336--info-path::
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337 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
338 version of git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 339
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340-p::
341--paginate::
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342 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
343 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
344 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
345 below).
6acbcb92 346
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347--no-pager::
348 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
349
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350--git-dir=<path>::
351 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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352 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
353 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 354
892c41b9 355--work-tree=<path>::
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356 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
357 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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358 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
359 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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360 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
361 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 362
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363--namespace=<path>::
364 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
365 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
366 variable.
367
6acbcb92 368--bare::
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369 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
370 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
371 directory.
372
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373--no-replace-objects::
374 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
375 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
376
9755afbd 377
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378FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
379---------------------
9755afbd 380
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381See the references above to get started using git. The following is
382probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
8db9307c 383
40dac517 384The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 385user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
40dac517 386introductions to the underlying git architecture.
e6fc2346 387
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388See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
389
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390See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
391examples.
9755afbd 392
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393The internals are documented in the
394link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
530e741c 395
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396GIT COMMANDS
397------------
9755afbd 398
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399We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
400("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 401
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402High-level commands (porcelain)
403-------------------------------
404
405We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
406ancillary user utilities.
407
408Main porcelain commands
409~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 410
377e8139 411include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 412
90933efb 413Ancillary Commands
23091e95 414~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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415Manipulators:
416
377e8139 417include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 418
90933efb 419Interrogators:
204ee6a9 420
377e8139 421include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 422
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423
424Interacting with Others
425~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
426
427These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
428people via patch over e-mail.
429
430include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
431
432
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433Low-level commands (plumbing)
434-----------------------------
435
436Although git includes its
437own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
438development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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439might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
440linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 441
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442The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
443to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
444than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
445primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
446on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
447end user experience.
448
449The following description divides
450the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
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451the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
452compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
453repositories.
454
89bf2077 455
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456Manipulation commands
457~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 458
377e8139 459include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
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460
461
462Interrogation commands
463~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
464
377e8139 465include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
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466
467In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
468the working tree.
469
470
471Synching repositories
472~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
473
377e8139 474include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 475
57f6ec02 476The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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477typically do not use them directly.
478
479include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
480
481
482Internal helper commands
483~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
484
485These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
486users typically do not use them directly.
487
488include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
489
b1f33d62 490
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491Configuration Mechanism
492-----------------------
493
2fa090b6 494Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
5773c9f2 495is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
addf88e4 496simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
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497people. Here is an example:
498
499------------
500#
2fa090b6 501# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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502#
503
504; core variables
505[core]
506 ; Don't trust file modes
507 filemode = false
508
509; user identity
510[user]
511 name = "Junio C Hamano"
512 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
513
514------------
515
516Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
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517their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
518list.
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519
520
6c84e2e0 521Identifier Terminology
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522----------------------
523<object>::
2fa090b6 524 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
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525
526<blob>::
2fa090b6 527 Indicates a blob object name.
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528
529<tree>::
2fa090b6 530 Indicates a tree object name.
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531
532<commit>::
2fa090b6 533 Indicates a commit object name.
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534
535<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 536 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
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537 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
538 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
539 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 540
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541<commit-ish>::
542 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
543 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
544 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
545 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
546
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547<type>::
548 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 549 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
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550
551<file>::
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552 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
553 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 554
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555Symbolic Identifiers
556--------------------
90933efb 557Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 558symbolic notation:
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559
560HEAD::
0abcfbff 561 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 562
c1bdacf9 563<tag>::
2fa090b6 564 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 565 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 566
c1bdacf9 567<head>::
2fa090b6 568 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 569 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 570
d47107d8 571For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 572"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 573
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574
575File/Directory Structure
576------------------------
c1bdacf9 577
6998e4db 578Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 579
6998e4db 580Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 581
c1bdacf9 582Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 583`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 584
a1d4aa74 585
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586Terminology
587-----------
6998e4db 588Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
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589
590
591Environment Variables
592---------------------
593Various git commands use the following environment variables:
594
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595The git Repository
596~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
597These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
598is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2fa090b6 599git so take care if using Cogito etc.
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600
601'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
602 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
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603 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
604 is used.
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605
606'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
607 If the object storage directory is specified via this
608 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
609 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
610 directory is used.
611
612'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
613 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
614 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
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615 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
616 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
617 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
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618
619'GIT_DIR'::
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620 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
621 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
622 for the base of the repository.
c1bdacf9 623
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624'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
625 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
626 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
627 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
628 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
629 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
630
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631'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
632 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
633 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
634
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635'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
636 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
637 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
638 up into while looking for a repository directory.
639 It will not exclude the current working directory or
640 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
641 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
642
cf87463e 643'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
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644 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
645 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
646 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
647 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
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648 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
649 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
650 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
651 command line.
8030e442 652
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653git Commits
654~~~~~~~~~~~
655'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
656'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
657'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
658'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
659'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 660'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 661'EMAIL'::
5162e697 662 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
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663
664git Diffs
665~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 666'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
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667 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
668 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
669 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
670 value passed on the git diff command line.
671
d81ed1b5 672'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
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673 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
674 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
675 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
676 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
677
678 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
679+
680where:
681
682 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
683 contents of <old|new>,
684 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
685 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
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686+
687The file parameters can point at the user's working file
688(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
689when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
690index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
691temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
692+
693For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
694parameter, <path>.
2cf565c5 695
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696other
697~~~~~
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698'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
699 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
700 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 701 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 702
c27d205a 703'GIT_PAGER'::
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704 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
705 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
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706 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
707 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 708
d5538b41 709'GIT_SSH'::
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710 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
711 and 'git push' will use this command instead
2fd02c92 712 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
483bc4f0 713 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
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714 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
715 shell command to execute on that remote system.
716+
717To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
718you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
719then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
720+
721Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
722personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
723for further details.
724
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725'GIT_ASKPASS'::
726 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
727 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
728 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
729 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
730 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
731
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732'GIT_FLUSH'::
733 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
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734 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
735 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
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736 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
737 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
738 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
739 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
740 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
741
575ba9d6 742'GIT_TRACE'::
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743 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
744 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
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745 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
746 execution and external command execution.
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747 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
748 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
749 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
750 trace messages into this file descriptor.
751 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
752 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
753 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
754 into it.
575ba9d6 755
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756Discussion[[Discussion]]
757------------------------
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758
759More detail on the following is available from the
760link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 761user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
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762
763A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
764subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
765things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
766of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
767contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
768as tags and branch heads.
769
770The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
771hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 772directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
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773and some number of parent commits.
774
775The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
776"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
777represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
778parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
779
780All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
781written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
782The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
783just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
784purpose.
785
786When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
787efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
788
789Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
790may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
791with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
02ff6250 792recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
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793tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
794`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
795
796The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
797path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
798the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
799attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
800corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
801working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
802be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
803content stored in the index.
804
805The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
806for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
807unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 808
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809Authors
810-------
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811Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
812C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
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813<git@vger.kernel.org>. For a more complete list of contributors, see
814http://git-scm.com/about. If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
815output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
816the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 817
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818Reporting Bugs
819--------------
820
821Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
822development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
823subscribed to the list to send a message there.
824
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825SEE ALSO
826--------
827linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
5cbef01a 828link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 829linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
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830linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
831linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 832
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833GIT
834---
9e1f0a85 835Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite