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[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-format-patch.txt
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1git-format-patch(1)
2===================
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-format-patch - Prepare patches for e-mail submission
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
353ce815 11[verse]
50710ce4 12'git format-patch' [-k] [(-o|--output-directory) <dir> | --stdout]
f693b7e9 13 [--no-thread | --thread[=<style>]]
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14 [(--attach|--inline)[=<boundary>] | --no-attach]
15 [-s | --signoff]
6622d9c7 16 [--signature=<signature> | --no-signature]
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17 [-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
18 [--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
19 [--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
20 [--ignore-if-in-upstream]
21 [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix]
ae6c098f 22 [--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
a5a27c79 23 [--cover-letter]
50710ce4 24 [<common diff options>]
8a1d076e 25 [ <since> | <revision range> ]
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26
27DESCRIPTION
28-----------
2052d146 29
8a1d076e 30Prepare each commit with its patch in
2052d146 31one file per commit, formatted to resemble UNIX mailbox format.
2052d146 32The output of this command is convenient for e-mail submission or
0b444cdb 33for use with 'git am'.
35ef3a4c 34
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35There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
36
371. A single commit, <since>, specifies that the commits leading
38 to the tip of the current branch that are not in the history
39 that leads to the <since> to be output.
40
412. Generic <revision range> expression (see "SPECIFYING
9d83e382 42 REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7]) means the
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43 commits in the specified range.
44
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45The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
46apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
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47history up until <commit>, use the '\--root' option: `git format-patch
48\--root <commit>`. If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
49can do this with `git format-patch -1 <commit>`.
8a1d076e 50
e6ff0f42 51By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the
2052d146 52first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
dce5ef14 53the filename. With the `--numbered-files` option, the output file names
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54will only be numbers, without the first line of the commit appended.
55The names of the output files are printed to standard
dce5ef14 56output, unless the `--stdout` option is specified.
66f04f38 57
dce5ef14 58If `-o` is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise
2052d146 59they are created in the current working directory.
35ef3a4c 60
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61By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] First Line" and
62the subject when multiple patches are output is "[PATCH n/m] First
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63Line". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use `-n`. To omit
64patch numbers from the subject, use `-N`.
35ef3a4c 65
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66If given `--thread`, `git-format-patch` will generate `In-Reply-To` and
67`References` headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
68as replies to the first mail; this also generates a `Message-Id` header to
cc35de84 69reference.
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70
71OPTIONS
72-------
c1a95fa6 73:git-format-patch: 1
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74include::diff-options.txt[]
75
ed5f07a6 76-<n>::
2c642ed8 77 Prepare patches from the topmost <n> commits.
ed5f07a6 78
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79-o <dir>::
80--output-directory <dir>::
35ef3a4c 81 Use <dir> to store the resulting files, instead of the
efd02016 82 current working directory.
35ef3a4c 83
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84-n::
85--numbered::
a567fdcb 86 Name output in '[PATCH n/m]' format, even with a single patch.
35ef3a4c 87
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88-N::
89--no-numbered::
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90 Name output in '[PATCH]' format.
91
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92--start-number <n>::
93 Start numbering the patches at <n> instead of 1.
94
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95--numbered-files::
96 Output file names will be a simple number sequence
97 without the default first line of the commit appended.
e6ff0f42 98
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99-k::
100--keep-subject::
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101 Do not strip/add '[PATCH]' from the first line of the
102 commit log message.
103
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104-s::
105--signoff::
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106 Add `Signed-off-by:` line to the commit message, using
107 the committer identity of yourself.
108
54ba6013 109--stdout::
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110 Print all commits to the standard output in mbox format,
111 instead of creating a file for each one.
7fc9d69f 112
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113--attach[=<boundary>]::
114 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
115 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 116 second part, with `Content-Disposition: attachment`.
c112f689 117
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118--no-attach::
119 Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the
120 configuration setting.
121
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122--inline[=<boundary>]::
123 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
124 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 125 second part, with `Content-Disposition: inline`.
a15a44ef 126
30984ed2 127--thread[=<style>]::
f693b7e9 128--no-thread::
dce5ef14 129 Controls addition of `In-Reply-To` and `References` headers to
f693b7e9 130 make the second and subsequent mails appear as replies to the
dce5ef14 131 first. Also controls generation of the `Message-Id` header to
f693b7e9 132 reference.
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133+
134The optional <style> argument can be either `shallow` or `deep`.
fd1ff306 135'shallow' threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the
30984ed2 136series, where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
fd1ff306 137`\--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order. 'deep'
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138threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
139+
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140The default is `--no-thread`, unless the 'format.thread' configuration
141is set. If `--thread` is specified without a style, it defaults to the
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142style specified by 'format.thread' if any, or else `shallow`.
143+
144Beware that the default for 'git send-email' is to thread emails
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145itself. If you want `git format-patch` to take care of threading, you
146will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
28ffb898 147
da56645d 148--in-reply-to=Message-Id::
dce5ef14 149 Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
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150 reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
151 provide a new patch series.
152
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153--ignore-if-in-upstream::
154 Do not include a patch that matches a commit in
155 <until>..<since>. This will examine all patches reachable
156 from <since> but not from <until> and compare them with the
157 patches being generated, and any patch that matches is
158 ignored.
159
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160--subject-prefix=<Subject-Prefix>::
161 Instead of the standard '[PATCH]' prefix in the subject
162 line, instead use '[<Subject-Prefix>]'. This
163 allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
dce5ef14 164 combined with the `--numbered` option.
2d9e4a47 165
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166--to=<email>::
167 Add a `To:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
168 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
169
736cc67d 170--cc=<email>::
dce5ef14 171 Add a `Cc:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
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172 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
173
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174--add-header=<header>::
175 Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in addition
176 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
dce5ef14 177 For example, `--add-header="Organization: git-foo"`
d7d9c2d0 178
a5a27c79 179--cover-letter::
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180 In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
181 containing the shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can
182 fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
a5a27c79 183
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184--[no]-signature=<signature>::
185 Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the signature
186 is separated from the body by a line with '-- ' on it. If the
187 signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the git version
188 number.
189
03eeaeae 190--suffix=.<sfx>::
917a8f89 191 Instead of using `.patch` as the suffix for generated
02783075 192 filenames, use specified suffix. A common alternative is
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193 `--suffix=.txt`. Leaving this empty will remove the `.patch`
194 suffix.
03eeaeae 195+
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196Note that the leading character does not have to be a dot; for example,
197you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
03eeaeae 198
37c22a4b 199--no-binary::
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200 Do not output contents of changes in binary files, instead
201 display a notice that those files changed. Patches generated
202 using this option cannot be applied properly, but they are
203 still useful for code review.
37c22a4b 204
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205--root::
206 Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it
207 is just a single commit (that would normally be treated as a
208 <since>). Note that root commits included in the specified
209 range are always formatted as creation patches, independently
210 of this flag.
211
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212CONFIGURATION
213-------------
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214You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,
215defaults for the subject prefix and file suffix, number patches when
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216outputting more than one patch, add "To" or "Cc:" headers, configure
217attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.
96ce6d26 218
917a8f89 219------------
96ce6d26 220[format]
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221 headers = "Organization: git-foo\n"
222 subjectprefix = CHANGE
223 suffix = .txt
224 numbered = auto
ae6c098f 225 to = <email>
fe8928e6 226 cc = <email>
0db5260b 227 attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
1d1876e9 228 signoff = true
917a8f89 229------------
03eeaeae 230
96ce6d26 231
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232EXAMPLES
233--------
234
921177f5 235* Extract commits between revisions R1 and R2, and apply them on top of
0b444cdb 236the current branch using 'git am' to cherry-pick them:
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237+
238------------
467c0197 239$ git format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git am -3 -k
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240------------
241
242* Extract all commits which are in the current branch but not in the
243origin branch:
244+
245------------
246$ git format-patch origin
247------------
248+
249For each commit a separate file is created in the current directory.
250
251* Extract all commits that lead to 'origin' since the inception of the
252project:
253+
254------------
9c67c757 255$ git format-patch --root origin
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256------------
257
258* The same as the previous one:
259+
260------------
261$ git format-patch -M -B origin
262------------
263+
264Additionally, it detects and handles renames and complete rewrites
265intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A renaming patch reduces
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266the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review.
267Note that non-git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
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268use it only when you know the recipient uses git to apply your patch.
269
270* Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format them
271as e-mailable patches:
272+
273------------
274$ git format-patch -3
275------------
28ffb898 276
56ae8df5 277SEE ALSO
28ffb898 278--------
5162e697 279linkgit:git-am[1], linkgit:git-send-email[1]
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280
281
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282Author
283------
59eb68aa 284Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
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285
286Documentation
287--------------
288Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
289
290GIT
291---
9e1f0a85 292Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite