Documentation: HTTP needs update-server-info.
[git/git.git] / Documentation / everyday.txt
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1Everyday GIT With 20 Commands Or So
2===================================
3
4GIT suite has over 100 commands, and the manual page for each of
5them discusses what the command does and how it is used in
6detail, but until you know what command should be used in order
7to achieve what you want to do, you cannot tell which manual
8page to look at, and if you know that already you do not need
9the manual.
10
11Does that mean you need to know all of them before you can use
12git? Not at all. Depending on the role you play, the set of
13commands you need to know is slightly different, but in any case
14what you need to learn is far smaller than the full set of
15commands to carry out your day-to-day work. This document is to
16serve as a cheat-sheet and a set of pointers for people playing
17various roles.
18
19<<Basic Repository>> commands are needed by people who has a
20repository --- that is everybody, because every working tree of
21git is a repository.
22
23In addition, <<Individual Developer (Standalone)>> commands are
24essential for anybody who makes a commit, even for somebody who
25works alone.
26
27If you work with other people, you will need commands listed in
28<<Individual Developer (Participant)>> section as well.
29
30People who play <<Integrator>> role need to learn some more
31commands in addition to the above.
32
33<<Repository Administration>> commands are for system
34administrators who are responsible to care and feed git
35repositories to support developers.
36
37
38Basic Repository[[Basic Repository]]
39------------------------------------
40
41Everybody uses these commands to feed and care git repositories.
42
43 * gitlink:git-init-db[1] or gitlink:git-clone[1] to create a
44 new repository.
45
46 * gitlink:git-fsck-objects[1] to validate the repository.
47
48 * gitlink:git-prune[1] to garbage collect crufts in the
49 repository.
50
51 * gitlink:git-repack[1] to pack loose objects for efficiency.
52
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53Examples
54~~~~~~~~
55
01f49e34 56Check health and remove cruft.::
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57+
58------------
59$ git fsck-objects <1>
60$ git prune
61$ git count-objects <2>
62$ git repack <3>
63$ git prune <4>
64
65<1> running without "--full" is usually cheap and assures the
66repository health reasonably well.
67<2> check how many loose objects there are and how much
68diskspace is wasted by not repacking.
69<3> without "-a" repacks incrementally. repacking every 4-5MB
70of loose objects accumulation may be a good rule of thumb.
71<4> after repack, prune removes the duplicate loose objects.
72------------
73
01f49e34 74Repack a small project into single pack.::
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75+
76------------
77$ git repack -a -d <1>
78$ git prune
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79
80<1> pack all the objects reachable from the refs into one pack
81and remove unneeded other packs
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82------------
83
84
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85Individual Developer (Standalone)[[Individual Developer (Standalone)]]
86----------------------------------------------------------------------
87
88A standalone individual developer does not exchange patches with
89other poeple, and works alone in a single repository, using the
90following commands.
91
92 * gitlink:git-show-branch[1] to see where you are.
93
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94 * gitlink:git-log[1] to see what happened.
95
96 * gitlink:git-whatchanged[1] to find out where things have
97 come from.
98
99 * gitlink:git-checkout[1] and gitlink:git-branch[1] to switch
100 branches.
101
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102 * gitlink:git-add[1] and gitlink:git-update-index[1] to manage
103 the index file.
104
105 * gitlink:git-diff[1] and gitlink:git-status[1] to see what
106 you are in the middle of doing.
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107
108 * gitlink:git-commit[1] to advance the current branch.
109
110 * gitlink:git-reset[1] and gitlink:git-checkout[1] (with
111 pathname parameters) to undo changes.
112
113 * gitlink:git-pull[1] with "." as the remote to merge between
114 local branches.
115
116 * gitlink:git-rebase[1] to maintain topic branches.
117
180c4746 118 * gitlink:git-tag[1] to mark known point.
db9536c8 119
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120Examples
121~~~~~~~~
122
01f49e34 123Extract a tarball and create a working tree and a new repository to keep track of it.::
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125------------
126$ tar zxf frotz.tar.gz
127$ cd frotz
128$ git-init-db
180c4746 129$ git add . <1>
44db136c 130$ git commit -m 'import of frotz source tree.'
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131$ git tag v2.43 <2>
132
133<1> add everything under the current directory.
134<2> make a lightweight, unannotated tag.
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135------------
136
01f49e34 137Create a topic branch and develop.::
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44db136c 139------------
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140$ git checkout -b alsa-audio <1>
141$ edit/compile/test
142$ git checkout -- curses/ux_audio_oss.c <2>
143$ git add curses/ux_audio_alsa.c <3>
144$ edit/compile/test
145$ git diff <4>
146$ git commit -a -s <5>
44db136c 147$ edit/compile/test
180c4746 148$ git reset --soft HEAD^ <6>
44db136c 149$ edit/compile/test
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150$ git diff ORIG_HEAD <7>
151$ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD <8>
152$ git checkout master <9>
153$ git pull . alsa-audio <10>
154$ git log --since='3 days ago' <11>
155$ git log v2.43.. curses/ <12>
156
157<1> create a new topic branch.
158<2> revert your botched changes in "curses/ux_audio_oss.c".
159<3> you need to tell git if you added a new file; removal and
160modification will be caught if you do "commit -a" later.
161<4> to see what changes you are committing.
162<5> commit everything as you have tested, with your sign-off.
163<6> take the last commit back, keeping what is in the working tree.
164<7> look at the changes since the premature commit we took back.
165<8> redo the commit undone in the previous step, using the message
166you originally wrote.
167<9> switch to the master branch.
168<10> merge a topic branch into your master branch
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169<11> review commit logs; other forms to limit output can be
170combined and include --max-count=10 (show 10 commits), --until='2005-12-10'.
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171<12> view only the changes that touch what's in curses/
172directory, since v2.43 tag.
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173------------
174
175
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176Individual Developer (Participant)[[Individual Developer (Participant)]]
177------------------------------------------------------------------------
178
179A developer working as a participant in a group project needs to
180learn how to communicate with others, and uses these commands in
181addition to the ones needed by a standalone developer.
182
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183 * gitlink:git-clone[1] from the upstream to prime your local
184 repository.
185
186 * gitlink:git-pull[1] and gitlink:git-fetch[1] from "origin"
187 to keep up-to-date with the upstream.
db9536c8 188
01f49e34 189 * gitlink:git-push[1] to shared repository, if you adopt CVS
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190 style shared repository workflow.
191
192 * gitlink:git-format-patch[1] to prepare e-mail submission, if
193 you adopt Linux kernel-style public forum workflow.
194
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195Examples
196~~~~~~~~
197
01f49e34 198Clone the upstream and work on it. Feed changes to upstream.::
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200------------
201$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../torvalds/linux-2.6 my2.6
202$ cd my2.6
203$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a -s <1>
1e2ccd3a 204$ git format-patch origin <2>
44db136c 205$ git pull <3>
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206$ git whatchanged -p ORIG_HEAD.. arch/i386 include/asm-i386 <4>
207$ git pull git://git.kernel.org/pub/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git ALL <5>
208$ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD <6>
209$ git prune <7>
01f49e34 210$ git fetch --tags <8>
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211
212<1> repeat as needed.
213<2> extract patches from your branch for e-mail submission.
214<3> "pull" fetches from "origin" by default and merges.
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215<4> look at the changes since last time we checked, only in the
216area we are interested in.
217<5> fetch from a specific branch from a specific repository and and merge.
218<6> revert the pull.
219<7> garbage collect leftover objects from reverted pull.
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220<8> from time to time, obtain official tags from the "origin"
221and store them under .git/refs/tags/.
222------------
223
224
225Push into another repository.::
226+
227------------
228satellite$ git clone mothership:frotz/.git frotz <1>
229satellite$ cd frotz
230satellite$ cat .git/remotes/origin <2>
231URL: mothership:frotz/.git
232Pull: master:origin
233satellite$ echo 'Push: master:satellite' >>.git/remotes/origin <3>
234satellite$ edit/compile/test/commit
235satellite$ git push origin <4>
236
237mothership$ cd frotz
238mothership$ git checkout master
239mothership$ git pull . satellite <5>
240
241<1> mothership machine has a frotz repository under your home
242directory; clone from it to start a repository on the satellite
243machine.
244<2> clone creates this file by default. It arranges "git pull"
245to fetch and store the master branch head of mothership machine
246to local "origin" branch.
247<3> arrange "git push" to push local "master" branch to
248"satellite" branch of the mothership machine.
249<4> push will stash our work away on "satellite" branch on the
250mothership machine. You could use this as a back-up method.
251<5> on mothership machine, merge the work done on the satellite
252machine into the master branch.
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253------------
254
01f49e34 255Branch off of a specific tag.::
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257------------
258$ git checkout -b private2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
259$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a
260$ git checkout master
261$ git format-patch -k -m --stdout v2.6.14..private2.6.14 |
262 git am -3 -k <2>
180c4746 263
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264<1> create a private branch based on a well known (but somewhat behind)
265tag.
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266<2> forward port all changes in private2.6.14 branch to master branch
267without a formal "merging".
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268------------
269
270
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271Integrator[[Integrator]]
272------------------------
273
274A fairly central person acting as the integrator in a group
275project receives changes made by others, reviews and integrates
276them and publishes the result for others to use, using these
277commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.
278
279 * gitlink:git-am[1] to apply patches e-mailed in from your
280 contributors.
281
282 * gitlink:git-pull[1] to merge from your trusted lieutenants.
283
284 * gitlink:git-format-patch[1] to prepare and send suggested
285 alternative to contributors.
286
287 * gitlink:git-revert[1] to undo botched commits.
288
289 * gitlink:git-push[1] to publish the bleeding edge.
290
291
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292Examples
293~~~~~~~~
294
01f49e34 295My typical GIT day.::
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297------------
298$ git status <1>
299$ git show-branch <2>
300$ mailx <3>
301& s 2 3 4 5 ./+to-apply
302& s 7 8 ./+hold-linus
303& q
304$ git checkout master
305$ git am -3 -i -s -u ./+to-apply <4>
306$ compile/test
307$ git checkout -b hold/linus && git am -3 -i -s -u ./+hold-linus <5>
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308$ git checkout topic/one && git rebase master <6>
309$ git checkout pu && git reset --hard master <7>
310$ git pull . topic/one topic/two && git pull . hold/linus <8>
180c4746 311$ git checkout maint
01f49e34 312$ git cherry-pick master~4 <9>
180c4746 313$ compile/test
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314$ git tag -s -m 'GIT 0.99.9x' v0.99.9x <10>
315$ git fetch ko && git show-branch master maint 'tags/ko-*' <11>
316$ git push ko <12>
1e2ccd3a 317$ git push ko v0.99.9x <13>
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318
319<1> see what I was in the middle of doing, if any.
320<2> see what topic branches I have and think about how ready
321they are.
322<3> read mails, save ones that are applicable, and save others
323that are not quite ready.
324<4> apply them, interactively, with my sign-offs.
325<5> create topic branch as needed and apply, again with my
326sign-offs.
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327<6> rebase internal topic branch that has not been merged to the
328master, nor exposed as a part of a stable branch.
329<7> restart "pu" every time from the master.
330<8> and bundle topic branches still cooking.
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331<9> backport a critical fix.
332<10> create a signed tag.
333<11> make sure I did not accidentally rewound master beyond what I
334already pushed out. "ko" shorthand points at the repository I have
335at kernel.org, and looks like this:
336$ cat .git/remotes/ko
337URL: kernel.org:/pub/scm/git/git.git
338Pull: master:refs/tags/ko-master
339Pull: maint:refs/tags/ko-maint
340Push: master
341Push: +pu
342Push: maint
343<12> push out the bleeding edge.
344<13> push the tag out, too.
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345------------
346
347
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348Repository Administration[[Repository Administration]]
349------------------------------------------------------
350
351A repository administrator uses the following tools to set up
352and maintain access to the repository by developers.
353
354 * gitlink:git-daemon[1] to allow anonymous download from
355 repository.
356
357 * gitlink:git-shell[1] can be used as a 'restricted login shell'
358 for shared central repository users.
359
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360 * link:howto/update-hook-example.txt[update hook howto] has a
361 good example of managing a shared central repository.
db9536c8 362
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363
364Examples
365~~~~~~~~
366
01f49e34 367Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from inetd.::
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368+
369------------
370$ grep git /etc/inet.conf
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371git stream tcp nowait nobody \
372 /usr/bin/git-daemon git-daemon --inetd --syslog --export-all /pub/scm
1e2ccd3a 373------------
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374+
375The actual configuration line should be on one line.
1e2ccd3a 376
01f49e34 377Give push/pull only access to developers.::
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378+
379------------
01f49e34 380$ grep git /etc/passwd <1>
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381alice:x:1000:1000::/home/alice:/usr/bin/git-shell
382bob:x:1001:1001::/home/bob:/usr/bin/git-shell
383cindy:x:1002:1002::/home/cindy:/usr/bin/git-shell
384david:x:1003:1003::/home/david:/usr/bin/git-shell
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385$ grep git /etc/shells <2>
386/usr/bin/git-shell
387
388<1> log-in shell is set to /usr/bin/git-shell, which does not
389allow anything but "git push" and "git pull". The users should
390get an ssh access to the machine.
391<2> in many distributions /etc/shells needs to list what is used
392as the login shell.
393------------
394
395CVS-style shared repository.::
396+
397------------
398$ grep git /etc/group <1>
399git:x:9418:alice,bob,cindy,david
400$ cd /home/devo.git
401$ ls -l <2>
402 lrwxrwxrwx 1 david git 17 Dec 4 22:40 HEAD -> refs/heads/master
403 drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 branches
404 -rw-rw-r-- 1 david git 84 Dec 4 22:40 config
405 -rw-rw-r-- 1 david git 58 Dec 4 22:40 description
406 drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 hooks
407 -rw-rw-r-- 1 david git 37504 Dec 4 22:40 index
408 drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 info
409 drwxrwsr-x 4 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 objects
410 drwxrwsr-x 4 david git 4096 Nov 7 14:58 refs
411 drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 remotes
412$ ls -l hooks/update <3>
413 -r-xr-xr-x 1 david git 3536 Dec 4 22:40 update
414$ cat info/allowed-users <4>
415refs/heads/master alice\|cindy
416refs/heads/doc-update bob
417refs/tags/v[0-9]* david
418
419<1> place the developers into the same git group.
420<2> and make the shared repository writable by the group.
421<3> use update-hook example by Carl from Documentation/howto/
422for branch policy control.
423<4> alice and cindy can push into master, only bob can push into doc-update.
424david is the release manager and is the only person who can
425create and push version tags.
1e2ccd3a 426------------
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427
428HTTP server to support dumb protocol transfer.::
429+
430------------
431dev$ git update-server-info <1>
432dev$ ftp user@isp.example.com <2>
433ftp> cp -r .git /home/user/myproject.git
434
435<1> make sure your info/refs and objects/info/packs are up-to-date
436<2> upload to public HTTP server hosted by your ISP.
437------------