Merge branch 'lf/bundle-verify-list-prereqs' into maint-1.8.1
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
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12'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
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25link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
26commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27in-depth introduction.
cb22bc44 28
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29After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30page to learn what commands git offers. You can learn more about
31individual git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
4514ad4f 33
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34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git documentation
35can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
34b604af 36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
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41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
e6363a49 46* link:v1.8.1.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.5]
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318* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
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339* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
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349
350* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
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352 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
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354
355============
356
357endif::stalenotes[]
358
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359OPTIONS
360-------
361--version::
a87cd02c 362 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
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363
364--help::
a87cd02c 365 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
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366 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
367 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
368 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
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369+
370Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 371displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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372because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
373help ...`.
cb22bc44 374
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375-c <name>=<value>::
376 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
377 given will override values from configuration files.
378 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
379 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
380
62b4698e 381--exec-path[=<path>]::
a87cd02c 382 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 383 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 384 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
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385 the current setting and then exit.
386
89a56bfb 387--html-path::
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388 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
389 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 390
f2dd8c37 391--man-path::
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392 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
393 this version of git and exit.
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394
395--info-path::
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396 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
397 version of git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 398
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399-p::
400--paginate::
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401 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
402 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
403 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
404 below).
6acbcb92 405
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406--no-pager::
407 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
408
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409--git-dir=<path>::
410 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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411 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
412 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 413
892c41b9 414--work-tree=<path>::
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415 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
416 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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417 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
418 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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419 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
420 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 421
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422--namespace=<path>::
423 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
424 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
425 variable.
426
6acbcb92 427--bare::
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428 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
429 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
430 directory.
431
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432--no-replace-objects::
433 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
434 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
435
9755afbd 436
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437GIT COMMANDS
438------------
9755afbd 439
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440We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
441("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 442
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443High-level commands (porcelain)
444-------------------------------
445
446We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
447ancillary user utilities.
448
449Main porcelain commands
450~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 451
377e8139 452include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 453
90933efb 454Ancillary Commands
23091e95 455~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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456Manipulators:
457
377e8139 458include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 459
90933efb 460Interrogators:
204ee6a9 461
377e8139 462include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 463
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464
465Interacting with Others
466~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
467
468These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
469people via patch over e-mail.
470
471include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
472
473
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474Low-level commands (plumbing)
475-----------------------------
476
477Although git includes its
478own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
479development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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480might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
481linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 482
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483The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
484to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
485than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
486primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
487on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
488end user experience.
489
490The following description divides
491the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
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492the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
493compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
494repositories.
495
89bf2077 496
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497Manipulation commands
498~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 499
377e8139 500include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
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501
502
503Interrogation commands
504~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
505
377e8139 506include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
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507
508In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
509the working tree.
510
511
512Synching repositories
513~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
514
377e8139 515include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 516
57f6ec02 517The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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518typically do not use them directly.
519
520include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
521
522
523Internal helper commands
524~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
525
526These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
527users typically do not use them directly.
528
529include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
530
b1f33d62 531
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532Configuration Mechanism
533-----------------------
534
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535Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
536repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
537like this:
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538
539------------
540#
2fa090b6 541# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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542#
543
544; core variables
545[core]
546 ; Don't trust file modes
547 filemode = false
548
549; user identity
550[user]
551 name = "Junio C Hamano"
c0179c0d 552 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
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553
554------------
555
556Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
06300d97 557their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
c0179c0d 558list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
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559
560
6c84e2e0 561Identifier Terminology
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562----------------------
563<object>::
2fa090b6 564 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
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565
566<blob>::
2fa090b6 567 Indicates a blob object name.
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568
569<tree>::
2fa090b6 570 Indicates a tree object name.
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571
572<commit>::
2fa090b6 573 Indicates a commit object name.
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574
575<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 576 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
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577 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
578 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
579 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 580
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581<commit-ish>::
582 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
583 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
584 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
585 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
586
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587<type>::
588 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 589 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
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590
591<file>::
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592 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
593 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 594
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595Symbolic Identifiers
596--------------------
90933efb 597Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 598symbolic notation:
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599
600HEAD::
0abcfbff 601 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 602
c1bdacf9 603<tag>::
2fa090b6 604 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 605 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 606
c1bdacf9 607<head>::
2fa090b6 608 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 609 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 610
d47107d8 611For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 612"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 613
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614
615File/Directory Structure
616------------------------
c1bdacf9 617
6998e4db 618Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 619
6998e4db 620Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 621
c1bdacf9 622Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 623`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 624
a1d4aa74 625
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626Terminology
627-----------
6998e4db 628Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
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629
630
631Environment Variables
632---------------------
633Various git commands use the following environment variables:
634
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635The git Repository
636~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
637These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
638is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2fa090b6 639git so take care if using Cogito etc.
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640
641'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
642 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
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643 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
644 is used.
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645
646'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
647 If the object storage directory is specified via this
648 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
649 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
650 directory is used.
651
652'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
653 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
654 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
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655 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
656 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
657 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
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658
659'GIT_DIR'::
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660 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
661 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
662 for the base of the repository.
75940a00 663 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
c1bdacf9 664
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665'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
666 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
667 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
668 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
669 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
670 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
671
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672'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
673 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
674 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
675
0454dd93 676'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
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677 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
678 set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir up
679 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
680 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
681 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
682 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
683 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
684 might be present in order to compare them with the current
685 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
686 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
687 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
688 e.g.,
689 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
0454dd93 690
cf87463e 691'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
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692 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
693 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
694 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
695 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
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696 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
697 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
698 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
699 command line.
8030e442 700
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701git Commits
702~~~~~~~~~~~
703'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
704'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
705'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
706'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
707'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 708'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 709'EMAIL'::
5162e697 710 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
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711
712git Diffs
713~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 714'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
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715 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
716 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
717 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
718 value passed on the git diff command line.
719
d81ed1b5 720'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
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721 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
722 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
723 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
724 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
725
726 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
727+
728where:
729
730 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
731 contents of <old|new>,
732 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
733 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
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734+
735The file parameters can point at the user's working file
736(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
737when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
738index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
739temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
740+
741For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
742parameter, <path>.
2cf565c5 743
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744other
745~~~~~
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746'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
747 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
748 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 749 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 750
c27d205a 751'GIT_PAGER'::
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752 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
753 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
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754 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
755 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 756
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757'GIT_EDITOR'::
758 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
b4ab1980 759 It is used by several git commands when, on interactive mode,
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760 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
761 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
762
d5538b41 763'GIT_SSH'::
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764 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
765 and 'git push' will use this command instead
2fd02c92 766 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
483bc4f0 767 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
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768 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
769 shell command to execute on that remote system.
770+
771To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
772you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
773then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
774+
775Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
776personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
777for further details.
778
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779'GIT_ASKPASS'::
780 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
781 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
782 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
783 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
784 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
785
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786'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
787 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
788 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
789 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
790 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
791 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
792 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
793
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794'GIT_FLUSH'::
795 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
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796 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
797 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
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798 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
799 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
800 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
801 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
802 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
803
575ba9d6 804'GIT_TRACE'::
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805 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
806 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
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807 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
808 execution and external command execution.
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809 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
810 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
811 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
812 trace messages into this file descriptor.
813 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
814 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
815 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
816 into it.
575ba9d6 817
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818Discussion[[Discussion]]
819------------------------
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820
821More detail on the following is available from the
822link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 823user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
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824
825A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
826subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
827things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
828of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
829contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
830as tags and branch heads.
831
832The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
833hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 834directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
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835and some number of parent commits.
836
837The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
838"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
839represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
840parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
841
842All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
843written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
844The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
845just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
846purpose.
847
848When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
849efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
850
851Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
852may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
853with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
02ff6250 854recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
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855tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
856`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
857
858The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
859path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
860the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
861attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
862corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
863working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
864be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
865content stored in the index.
866
867The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
868for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
869unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 870
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871FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
872---------------------
873
874See the references in the "description" section to get started
875using git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
876for a first-time user.
877
878The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
879user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
880introductions to the underlying git architecture.
881
882See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
883
884See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
885examples.
886
887The internals are documented in the
888link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
889
890Users migrating from CVS may also want to
891read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
892
893
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894Authors
895-------
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896Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
897C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
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898<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
899gives you a more complete list of contributors.
900
901If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
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902output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
903the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 904
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905Reporting Bugs
906--------------
907
908Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
909development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
910subscribed to the list to send a message there.
911
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912SEE ALSO
913--------
914linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
5cbef01a 915link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 916linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
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917linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
918linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 919
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920GIT
921---
9e1f0a85 922Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite