rebase docs: recommend `-r` over `-p`
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-rebase.txt
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1git-rebase(1)
2=============
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3
4NAME
5----
b385085b 6git-rebase - Reapply commits on top of another base tip
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7
8SYNOPSIS
9--------
e448ff87 10[verse]
de613050 11'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [<options>] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
95c68267 12 [<upstream> [<branch>]]
de613050 13'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [<options>] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
be496621 14 --root [<branch>]
66335298 15'git rebase' --continue | --skip | --abort | --quit | --edit-todo | --show-current-patch
031321c6 16
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17DESCRIPTION
18-----------
0b444cdb 19If <branch> is specified, 'git rebase' will perform an automatic
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20`git checkout <branch>` before doing anything else. Otherwise
21it remains on the current branch.
22
15a147e6 23If <upstream> is not specified, the upstream configured in
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24branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge options will be used (see
25linkgit:git-config[1] for details) and the `--fork-point` option is
26assumed. If you are currently not on any branch or if the current
27branch does not have a configured upstream, the rebase will abort.
15a147e6 28
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29All changes made by commits in the current branch but that are not
30in <upstream> are saved to a temporary area. This is the same set
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31of commits that would be shown by `git log <upstream>..HEAD`; or by
32`git log 'fork_point'..HEAD`, if `--fork-point` is active (see the
33description on `--fork-point` below); or by `git log HEAD`, if the
34`--root` option is specified.
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35
36The current branch is reset to <upstream>, or <newbase> if the
37--onto option was supplied. This has the exact same effect as
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38`git reset --hard <upstream>` (or <newbase>). ORIG_HEAD is set
39to point at the tip of the branch before the reset.
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40
41The commits that were previously saved into the temporary area are
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42then reapplied to the current branch, one by one, in order. Note that
43any commits in HEAD which introduce the same textual changes as a commit
44in HEAD..<upstream> are omitted (i.e., a patch already accepted upstream
45with a different commit message or timestamp will be skipped).
69a60af5 46
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47It is possible that a merge failure will prevent this process from being
48completely automatic. You will have to resolve any such merge failure
cc120056 49and run `git rebase --continue`. Another option is to bypass the commit
5960bc9d 50that caused the merge failure with `git rebase --skip`. To check out the
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51original <branch> and remove the .git/rebase-apply working files, use the
52command `git rebase --abort` instead.
031321c6 53
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54Assume the following history exists and the current branch is "topic":
55
031321c6 56------------
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57 A---B---C topic
58 /
59 D---E---F---G master
031321c6 60------------
69a60af5 61
228382ae 62From this point, the result of either of the following commands:
69a60af5 63
031321c6 64
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65 git rebase master
66 git rebase master topic
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67
68would be:
69
031321c6 70------------
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71 A'--B'--C' topic
72 /
73 D---E---F---G master
031321c6 74------------
69a60af5 75
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76*NOTE:* The latter form is just a short-hand of `git checkout topic`
77followed by `git rebase master`. When rebase exits `topic` will
78remain the checked-out branch.
69a60af5 79
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80If the upstream branch already contains a change you have made (e.g.,
81because you mailed a patch which was applied upstream), then that commit
b1889c36 82will be skipped. For example, running `git rebase master` on the
e08bc7a9 83following history (in which `A'` and `A` introduce the same set of changes,
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84but have different committer information):
85
86------------
87 A---B---C topic
88 /
89 D---E---A'---F master
90------------
91
92will result in:
93
94------------
95 B'---C' topic
96 /
97 D---E---A'---F master
98------------
99
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100Here is how you would transplant a topic branch based on one
101branch to another, to pretend that you forked the topic branch
102from the latter branch, using `rebase --onto`.
69a60af5 103
e52775f4 104First let's assume your 'topic' is based on branch 'next'.
e2b850b2 105For example, a feature developed in 'topic' depends on some
e52775f4 106functionality which is found in 'next'.
69a60af5 107
031321c6 108------------
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109 o---o---o---o---o master
110 \
111 o---o---o---o---o next
112 \
113 o---o---o topic
114------------
115
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116We want to make 'topic' forked from branch 'master'; for example,
117because the functionality on which 'topic' depends was merged into the
118more stable 'master' branch. We want our tree to look like this:
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119
120------------
121 o---o---o---o---o master
122 | \
123 | o'--o'--o' topic
124 \
125 o---o---o---o---o next
031321c6 126------------
7fc9d69f 127
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128We can get this using the following command:
129
b1889c36 130 git rebase --onto master next topic
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131
132
133Another example of --onto option is to rebase part of a
134branch. If we have the following situation:
135
136------------
137 H---I---J topicB
138 /
139 E---F---G topicA
140 /
141 A---B---C---D master
142------------
143
144then the command
145
b1889c36 146 git rebase --onto master topicA topicB
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147
148would result in:
149
150------------
151 H'--I'--J' topicB
152 /
153 | E---F---G topicA
154 |/
155 A---B---C---D master
156------------
157
158This is useful when topicB does not depend on topicA.
159
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160A range of commits could also be removed with rebase. If we have
161the following situation:
162
163------------
164 E---F---G---H---I---J topicA
165------------
166
167then the command
168
b1889c36 169 git rebase --onto topicA~5 topicA~3 topicA
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170
171would result in the removal of commits F and G:
172
173------------
174 E---H'---I'---J' topicA
175------------
176
177This is useful if F and G were flawed in some way, or should not be
178part of topicA. Note that the argument to --onto and the <upstream>
179parameter can be any valid commit-ish.
180
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181In case of conflict, 'git rebase' will stop at the first problematic commit
182and leave conflict markers in the tree. You can use 'git diff' to locate
031321c6 183the markers (<<<<<<) and make edits to resolve the conflict. For each
2de9b711 184file you edit, you need to tell Git that the conflict has been resolved,
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185typically this would be done with
186
187
d7f078b8 188 git add <filename>
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189
190
191After resolving the conflict manually and updating the index with the
192desired resolution, you can continue the rebasing process with
193
194
195 git rebase --continue
8978d043 196
8978d043 197
0b444cdb 198Alternatively, you can undo the 'git rebase' with
8978d043 199
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200
201 git rebase --abort
8978d043 202
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203CONFIGURATION
204-------------
205
c7245900 206include::config/rebase.txt[]
16cf51c7 207
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208OPTIONS
209-------
c2145384 210--onto <newbase>::
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211 Starting point at which to create the new commits. If the
212 --onto option is not specified, the starting point is
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213 <upstream>. May be any valid commit, and not just an
214 existing branch name.
873c3472 215+
b9190e79 216As a special case, you may use "A\...B" as a shortcut for the
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217merge base of A and B if there is exactly one merge base. You can
218leave out at most one of A and B, in which case it defaults to HEAD.
69a60af5 219
52a22d1e 220<upstream>::
ea81fcc5 221 Upstream branch to compare against. May be any valid commit,
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222 not just an existing branch name. Defaults to the configured
223 upstream for the current branch.
7fc9d69f 224
228382ae 225<branch>::
52a22d1e 226 Working branch; defaults to HEAD.
7fc9d69f 227
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228--continue::
229 Restart the rebasing process after having resolved a merge conflict.
230
231--abort::
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232 Abort the rebase operation and reset HEAD to the original
233 branch. If <branch> was provided when the rebase operation was
234 started, then HEAD will be reset to <branch>. Otherwise HEAD
235 will be reset to where it was when the rebase operation was
236 started.
031321c6 237
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238--quit::
239 Abort the rebase operation but HEAD is not reset back to the
240 original branch. The index and working tree are also left
241 unchanged as a result.
242
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243--keep-empty::
244 Keep the commits that do not change anything from its
245 parents in the result.
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246+
247See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
90e1818f 248
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249--allow-empty-message::
250 By default, rebasing commits with an empty message will fail.
251 This option overrides that behavior, allowing commits with empty
252 messages to be rebased.
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253+
254See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
a6c612b5 255
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256--skip::
257 Restart the rebasing process by skipping the current patch.
58634dbf 258
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259--edit-todo::
260 Edit the todo list during an interactive rebase.
261
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262--show-current-patch::
263 Show the current patch in an interactive rebase or when rebase
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264 is stopped because of conflicts. This is the equivalent of
265 `git show REBASE_HEAD`.
66335298 266
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267-m::
268--merge::
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269 Use merging strategies to rebase. When the recursive (default) merge
270 strategy is used, this allows rebase to be aware of renames on the
271 upstream side.
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272+
273Note that a rebase merge works by replaying each commit from the working
274branch on top of the <upstream> branch. Because of this, when a merge
275conflict happens, the side reported as 'ours' is the so-far rebased
276series, starting with <upstream>, and 'theirs' is the working branch. In
277other words, the sides are swapped.
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278+
279See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
58634dbf 280
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281-s <strategy>::
282--strategy=<strategy>::
06f39190 283 Use the given merge strategy.
0b444cdb 284 If there is no `-s` option 'git merge-recursive' is used
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285 instead. This implies --merge.
286+
0b444cdb 287Because 'git rebase' replays each commit from the working branch
31ddd1ee 288on top of the <upstream> branch using the given strategy, using
5dacd4ab 289the 'ours' strategy simply empties all patches from the <branch>,
31ddd1ee 290which makes little sense.
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291+
292See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
58634dbf 293
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294-X <strategy-option>::
295--strategy-option=<strategy-option>::
296 Pass the <strategy-option> through to the merge strategy.
6cf378f0 297 This implies `--merge` and, if no strategy has been
93ce190c 298 specified, `-s recursive`. Note the reversal of 'ours' and
edfbbf7e 299 'theirs' as noted above for the `-m` option.
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300+
301See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
93ce190c 302
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303-S[<keyid>]::
304--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
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305 GPG-sign commits. The `keyid` argument is optional and
306 defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be
307 stuck to the option without a space.
3ee5e540 308
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309-q::
310--quiet::
311 Be quiet. Implies --no-stat.
312
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313-v::
314--verbose::
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315 Be verbose. Implies --stat.
316
317--stat::
318 Show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last rebase. The
319 diffstat is also controlled by the configuration option rebase.stat.
320
321-n::
322--no-stat::
323 Do not show a diffstat as part of the rebase process.
b758789c 324
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325--no-verify::
326 This option bypasses the pre-rebase hook. See also linkgit:githooks[5].
327
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328--verify::
329 Allows the pre-rebase hook to run, which is the default. This option can
330 be used to override --no-verify. See also linkgit:githooks[5].
331
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332-C<n>::
333 Ensure at least <n> lines of surrounding context match before
334 and after each change. When fewer lines of surrounding
335 context exist they all must match. By default no context is
336 ever ignored.
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337+
338See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
67dad687 339
983f464f 340--no-ff::
5e75d56f 341--force-rebase::
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342-f::
343 Individually replay all rebased commits instead of fast-forwarding
344 over the unchanged ones. This ensures that the entire history of
345 the rebased branch is composed of new commits.
b4995494 346+
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347You may find this helpful after reverting a topic branch merge, as this option
348recreates the topic branch with fresh commits so it can be remerged
349successfully without needing to "revert the reversion" (see the
350link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for
351details).
5e75d56f 352
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353--fork-point::
354--no-fork-point::
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355 Use reflog to find a better common ancestor between <upstream>
356 and <branch> when calculating which commits have been
357 introduced by <branch>.
ad8261d2 358+
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359When --fork-point is active, 'fork_point' will be used instead of
360<upstream> to calculate the set of commits to rebase, where
361'fork_point' is the result of `git merge-base --fork-point <upstream>
362<branch>` command (see linkgit:git-merge-base[1]). If 'fork_point'
363ends up being empty, the <upstream> will be used as a fallback.
364+
365If either <upstream> or --root is given on the command line, then the
366default is `--no-fork-point`, otherwise the default is `--fork-point`.
ad8261d2 367
86c91f91 368--ignore-whitespace::
749485f6 369--whitespace=<option>::
0b444cdb 370 These flag are passed to the 'git apply' program
5162e697 371 (see linkgit:git-apply[1]) that applies the patch.
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372+
373See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
059f446d 374
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375--committer-date-is-author-date::
376--ignore-date::
0b444cdb 377 These flags are passed to 'git am' to easily change the dates
570ccad3 378 of the rebased commits (see linkgit:git-am[1]).
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379+
380See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
570ccad3 381
9f79524a 382--signoff::
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383 Add a Signed-off-by: trailer to all the rebased commits. Note
384 that if `--interactive` is given then only commits marked to be
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385 picked, edited or reworded will have the trailer added.
386+
387See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
9f79524a 388
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389-i::
390--interactive::
1b1dce4b 391 Make a list of the commits which are about to be rebased. Let the
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392 user edit that list before rebasing. This mode can also be used to
393 split commits (see SPLITTING COMMITS below).
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394+
395The commit list format can be changed by setting the configuration option
396rebase.instructionFormat. A customized instruction format will automatically
397have the long commit hash prepended to the format.
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398+
399See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
1b1dce4b 400
8f6aed71 401-r::
7543f6f4 402--rebase-merges[=(rebase-cousins|no-rebase-cousins)]::
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403 By default, a rebase will simply drop merge commits from the todo
404 list, and put the rebased commits into a single, linear branch.
405 With `--rebase-merges`, the rebase will instead try to preserve
406 the branching structure within the commits that are to be rebased,
407 by recreating the merge commits. Any resolved merge conflicts or
408 manual amendments in these merge commits will have to be
409 resolved/re-applied manually.
410+
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411By default, or when `no-rebase-cousins` was specified, commits which do not
412have `<upstream>` as direct ancestor will keep their original branch point,
413i.e. commits that would be excluded by gitlink:git-log[1]'s
414`--ancestry-path` option will keep their original ancestry by default. If
415the `rebase-cousins` mode is turned on, such commits are instead rebased
416onto `<upstream>` (or `<onto>`, if specified).
417+
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418The `--rebase-merges` mode is similar in spirit to the deprecated
419`--preserve-merges`, but in contrast to that option works well in interactive
420rebases: commits can be reordered, inserted and dropped at will.
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421+
422It is currently only possible to recreate the merge commits using the
423`recursive` merge strategy; Different merge strategies can be used only via
424explicit `exec git merge -s <strategy> [...]` commands.
25cff9f1 425+
5dacd4ab 426See also REBASING MERGES and INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
8f6aed71 427
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428-p::
429--preserve-merges::
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430 [DEPRECATED: use `--rebase-merges` instead] Recreate merge commits
431 instead of flattening the history by replaying commits a merge commit
432 introduces. Merge conflict resolutions or manual amendments to merge
433 commits are not preserved.
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434+
435This uses the `--interactive` machinery internally, but combining it
436with the `--interactive` option explicitly is generally not a good
437idea unless you know what you are doing (see BUGS below).
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438+
439See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
cddb42d2 440
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441-x <cmd>::
442--exec <cmd>::
443 Append "exec <cmd>" after each line creating a commit in the
444 final history. <cmd> will be interpreted as one or more shell
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445 commands. Any command that fails will interrupt the rebase,
446 with exit code 1.
c2145384 447+
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448You may execute several commands by either using one instance of `--exec`
449with several commands:
450+
451 git rebase -i --exec "cmd1 && cmd2 && ..."
452+
453or by giving more than one `--exec`:
454+
455 git rebase -i --exec "cmd1" --exec "cmd2" --exec ...
456+
457If `--autosquash` is used, "exec" lines will not be appended for
458the intermediate commits, and will only appear at the end of each
459squash/fixup series.
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460+
461This uses the `--interactive` machinery internally, but it can be run
462without an explicit `--interactive`.
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463+
464See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
f09c9b8c 465
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466--root::
467 Rebase all commits reachable from <branch>, instead of
468 limiting them with an <upstream>. This allows you to rebase
df5df20c 469 the root commit(s) on a branch. When used with --onto, it
be496621 470 will skip changes already contained in <newbase> (instead of
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471 <upstream>) whereas without --onto it will operate on every change.
472 When used together with both --onto and --preserve-merges,
473 'all' root commits will be rewritten to have <newbase> as parent
be496621 474 instead.
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475+
476See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
be496621 477
f59baa50 478--autosquash::
dd1e5b31 479--no-autosquash::
f59baa50 480 When the commit log message begins with "squash! ..." (or
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481 "fixup! ..."), and there is already a commit in the todo list that
482 matches the same `...`, automatically modify the todo list of rebase
483 -i so that the commit marked for squashing comes right after the
484 commit to be modified, and change the action of the moved commit
485 from `pick` to `squash` (or `fixup`). A commit matches the `...` if
486 the commit subject matches, or if the `...` refers to the commit's
487 hash. As a fall-back, partial matches of the commit subject work,
488 too. The recommended way to create fixup/squash commits is by using
489 the `--fixup`/`--squash` options of linkgit:git-commit[1].
f59baa50 490+
bcf9626a 491If the `--autosquash` option is enabled by default using the
da0005b8 492configuration variable `rebase.autoSquash`, this option can be
dd1e5b31 493used to override and disable this setting.
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494+
495See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
b4995494 496
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497--autostash::
498--no-autostash::
e01db917 499 Automatically create a temporary stash entry before the operation
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500 begins, and apply it after the operation ends. This means
501 that you can run rebase on a dirty worktree. However, use
502 with care: the final stash application after a successful
503 rebase might result in non-trivial conflicts.
504
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505--reschedule-failed-exec::
506--no-reschedule-failed-exec::
507 Automatically reschedule `exec` commands that failed. This only makes
508 sense in interactive mode (or when an `--exec` option was provided).
509
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510INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS
511--------------------
512
68aa495b 513The following options:
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514
515 * --committer-date-is-author-date
516 * --ignore-date
517 * --whitespace
518 * --ignore-whitespace
519 * -C
520
68aa495b 521are incompatible with the following options:
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522
523 * --merge
524 * --strategy
525 * --strategy-option
526 * --allow-empty-message
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527 * --[no-]autosquash
528 * --rebase-merges
529 * --preserve-merges
530 * --interactive
531 * --exec
532 * --keep-empty
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533 * --edit-todo
534 * --root when used in combination with --onto
535
68aa495b 536In addition, the following pairs of options are incompatible:
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537
538 * --preserve-merges and --interactive
539 * --preserve-merges and --signoff
540 * --preserve-merges and --rebase-merges
541 * --rebase-merges and --strategy
542 * --rebase-merges and --strategy-option
543
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544BEHAVIORAL DIFFERENCES
545-----------------------
546
6fcbad87 547There are some subtle differences how the backends behave.
0661e49a 548
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549Empty commits
550~~~~~~~~~~~~~
0661e49a 551
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552The am backend drops any "empty" commits, regardless of whether the
553commit started empty (had no changes relative to its parent to
554start with) or ended empty (all changes were already applied
555upstream in other commits).
0661e49a 556
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557The interactive backend drops commits by default that
558started empty and halts if it hits a commit that ended up empty.
559The `--keep-empty` option exists for the interactive backend to allow
560it to keep commits that started empty.
0661e49a 561
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562Directory rename detection
563~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
564
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565Directory rename heuristics are enabled in the merge and interactive
566backends. Due to the lack of accurate tree information, directory
567rename detection is disabled in the am backend.
f59baa50 568
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569include::merge-strategies.txt[]
570
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571NOTES
572-----
90d1c08e 573
0b444cdb 574You should understand the implications of using 'git rebase' on a
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575repository that you share. See also RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE
576below.
031321c6 577
467c0197 578When the git-rebase command is run, it will first execute a "pre-rebase"
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579hook if one exists. You can use this hook to do sanity checks and
580reject the rebase if it isn't appropriate. Please see the template
581pre-rebase hook script for an example.
582
702088af 583Upon completion, <branch> will be the current branch.
031321c6 584
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585INTERACTIVE MODE
586----------------
587
588Rebasing interactively means that you have a chance to edit the commits
589which are rebased. You can reorder the commits, and you can
590remove them (weeding out bad or otherwise unwanted patches).
591
592The interactive mode is meant for this type of workflow:
593
5941. have a wonderful idea
5952. hack on the code
5963. prepare a series for submission
5974. submit
598
599where point 2. consists of several instances of
600
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601a) regular use
602
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603 1. finish something worthy of a commit
604 2. commit
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605
606b) independent fixup
607
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608 1. realize that something does not work
609 2. fix that
610 3. commit it
611
612Sometimes the thing fixed in b.2. cannot be amended to the not-quite
613perfect commit it fixes, because that commit is buried deeply in a
614patch series. That is exactly what interactive rebase is for: use it
615after plenty of "a"s and "b"s, by rearranging and editing
616commits, and squashing multiple commits into one.
617
618Start it with the last commit you want to retain as-is:
619
620 git rebase -i <after-this-commit>
621
622An editor will be fired up with all the commits in your current branch
623(ignoring merge commits), which come after the given commit. You can
624reorder the commits in this list to your heart's content, and you can
625remove them. The list looks more or less like this:
626
627-------------------------------------------
628pick deadbee The oneline of this commit
629pick fa1afe1 The oneline of the next commit
630...
631-------------------------------------------
632
0b444cdb 633The oneline descriptions are purely for your pleasure; 'git rebase' will
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634not look at them but at the commit names ("deadbee" and "fa1afe1" in this
635example), so do not delete or edit the names.
636
637By replacing the command "pick" with the command "edit", you can tell
0b444cdb 638'git rebase' to stop after applying that commit, so that you can edit
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639the files and/or the commit message, amend the commit, and continue
640rebasing.
641
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642To interrupt the rebase (just like an "edit" command would do, but without
643cherry-picking any commit first), use the "break" command.
644
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645If you just want to edit the commit message for a commit, replace the
646command "pick" with the command "reword".
647
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648To drop a commit, replace the command "pick" with "drop", or just
649delete the matching line.
650
1b1dce4b 651If you want to fold two or more commits into one, replace the command
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652"pick" for the second and subsequent commits with "squash" or "fixup".
653If the commits had different authors, the folded commit will be
654attributed to the author of the first commit. The suggested commit
655message for the folded commit is the concatenation of the commit
656messages of the first commit and of those with the "squash" command,
657but omits the commit messages of commits with the "fixup" command.
1b1dce4b 658
0b444cdb 659'git rebase' will stop when "pick" has been replaced with "edit" or
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660when a command fails due to merge errors. When you are done editing
661and/or resolving conflicts you can continue with `git rebase --continue`.
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662
663For example, if you want to reorder the last 5 commits, such that what
664was HEAD~4 becomes the new HEAD. To achieve that, you would call
0b444cdb 665'git rebase' like this:
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666
667----------------------
668$ git rebase -i HEAD~5
669----------------------
670
671And move the first patch to the end of the list.
672
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673You might want to recreate merge commits, e.g. if you have a history
674like this:
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675
676------------------
677 X
678 \
679 A---M---B
680 /
681---o---O---P---Q
682------------------
683
684Suppose you want to rebase the side branch starting at "A" to "Q". Make
685sure that the current HEAD is "B", and call
686
687-----------------------------
7948b49a 688$ git rebase -i -r --onto Q O
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689-----------------------------
690
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691Reordering and editing commits usually creates untested intermediate
692steps. You may want to check that your history editing did not break
693anything by running a test, or at least recompiling at intermediate
694points in history by using the "exec" command (shortcut "x"). You may
695do so by creating a todo list like this one:
696
697-------------------------------------------
698pick deadbee Implement feature XXX
699fixup f1a5c00 Fix to feature XXX
700exec make
701pick c0ffeee The oneline of the next commit
702edit deadbab The oneline of the commit after
703exec cd subdir; make test
704...
705-------------------------------------------
706
707The interactive rebase will stop when a command fails (i.e. exits with
708non-0 status) to give you an opportunity to fix the problem. You can
709continue with `git rebase --continue`.
710
711The "exec" command launches the command in a shell (the one specified
712in `$SHELL`, or the default shell if `$SHELL` is not set), so you can
713use shell features (like "cd", ">", ";" ...). The command is run from
714the root of the working tree.
f0fd889d 715
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716----------------------------------
717$ git rebase -i --exec "make test"
718----------------------------------
719
720This command lets you check that intermediate commits are compilable.
721The todo list becomes like that:
722
723--------------------
724pick 5928aea one
725exec make test
726pick 04d0fda two
727exec make test
728pick ba46169 three
729exec make test
730pick f4593f9 four
731exec make test
732--------------------
733
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734SPLITTING COMMITS
735-----------------
736
737In interactive mode, you can mark commits with the action "edit". However,
0b444cdb 738this does not necessarily mean that 'git rebase' expects the result of this
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739edit to be exactly one commit. Indeed, you can undo the commit, or you can
740add other commits. This can be used to split a commit into two:
741
483bc4f0 742- Start an interactive rebase with `git rebase -i <commit>^`, where
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743 <commit> is the commit you want to split. In fact, any commit range
744 will do, as long as it contains that commit.
745
746- Mark the commit you want to split with the action "edit".
747
483bc4f0 748- When it comes to editing that commit, execute `git reset HEAD^`. The
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749 effect is that the HEAD is rewound by one, and the index follows suit.
750 However, the working tree stays the same.
751
752- Now add the changes to the index that you want to have in the first
483bc4f0 753 commit. You can use `git add` (possibly interactively) or
0b444cdb 754 'git gui' (or both) to do that.
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755
756- Commit the now-current index with whatever commit message is appropriate
757 now.
758
759- Repeat the last two steps until your working tree is clean.
760
483bc4f0 761- Continue the rebase with `git rebase --continue`.
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762
763If you are not absolutely sure that the intermediate revisions are
764consistent (they compile, pass the testsuite, etc.) you should use
0b444cdb 765'git stash' to stash away the not-yet-committed changes
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766after each commit, test, and amend the commit if fixes are necessary.
767
768
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769RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE
770-------------------------------
771
772Rebasing (or any other form of rewriting) a branch that others have
773based work on is a bad idea: anyone downstream of it is forced to
774manually fix their history. This section explains how to do the fix
775from the downstream's point of view. The real fix, however, would be
776to avoid rebasing the upstream in the first place.
777
778To illustrate, suppose you are in a situation where someone develops a
779'subsystem' branch, and you are working on a 'topic' that is dependent
780on this 'subsystem'. You might end up with a history like the
781following:
782
783------------
01826066 784 o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
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785 \
786 o---o---o---o---o subsystem
787 \
788 *---*---* topic
789------------
790
791If 'subsystem' is rebased against 'master', the following happens:
792
793------------
794 o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
795 \ \
796 o---o---o---o---o o'--o'--o'--o'--o' subsystem
797 \
798 *---*---* topic
799------------
800
801If you now continue development as usual, and eventually merge 'topic'
802to 'subsystem', the commits from 'subsystem' will remain duplicated forever:
803
804------------
805 o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
806 \ \
807 o---o---o---o---o o'--o'--o'--o'--o'--M subsystem
808 \ /
809 *---*---*-..........-*--* topic
810------------
811
812Such duplicates are generally frowned upon because they clutter up
813history, making it harder to follow. To clean things up, you need to
814transplant the commits on 'topic' to the new 'subsystem' tip, i.e.,
815rebase 'topic'. This becomes a ripple effect: anyone downstream from
816'topic' is forced to rebase too, and so on!
817
818There are two kinds of fixes, discussed in the following subsections:
819
820Easy case: The changes are literally the same.::
821
822 This happens if the 'subsystem' rebase was a simple rebase and
823 had no conflicts.
824
825Hard case: The changes are not the same.::
826
827 This happens if the 'subsystem' rebase had conflicts, or used
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828 `--interactive` to omit, edit, squash, or fixup commits; or
829 if the upstream used one of `commit --amend`, `reset`, or
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830 `filter-branch`.
831
832
833The easy case
834~~~~~~~~~~~~~
835
836Only works if the changes (patch IDs based on the diff contents) on
837'subsystem' are literally the same before and after the rebase
838'subsystem' did.
839
0b444cdb 840In that case, the fix is easy because 'git rebase' knows to skip
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841changes that are already present in the new upstream. So if you say
842(assuming you're on 'topic')
843------------
844 $ git rebase subsystem
845------------
846you will end up with the fixed history
847------------
848 o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
849 \
850 o'--o'--o'--o'--o' subsystem
851 \
852 *---*---* topic
853------------
854
855
856The hard case
857~~~~~~~~~~~~~
858
859Things get more complicated if the 'subsystem' changes do not exactly
860correspond to the ones before the rebase.
861
862NOTE: While an "easy case recovery" sometimes appears to be successful
863 even in the hard case, it may have unintended consequences. For
864 example, a commit that was removed via `git rebase
6cf378f0 865 --interactive` will be **resurrected**!
90d1c08e 866
0b444cdb 867The idea is to manually tell 'git rebase' "where the old 'subsystem'
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868ended and your 'topic' began", that is, what the old merge-base
869between them was. You will have to find a way to name the last commit
870of the old 'subsystem', for example:
871
0b444cdb 872* With the 'subsystem' reflog: after 'git fetch', the old tip of
6cf378f0 873 'subsystem' is at `subsystem@{1}`. Subsequent fetches will
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874 increase the number. (See linkgit:git-reflog[1].)
875
876* Relative to the tip of 'topic': knowing that your 'topic' has three
877 commits, the old tip of 'subsystem' must be `topic~3`.
878
879You can then transplant the old `subsystem..topic` to the new tip by
880saying (for the reflog case, and assuming you are on 'topic' already):
881------------
882 $ git rebase --onto subsystem subsystem@{1}
883------------
884
885The ripple effect of a "hard case" recovery is especially bad:
886'everyone' downstream from 'topic' will now have to perform a "hard
887case" recovery too!
888
25cff9f1 889REBASING MERGES
81d395cc 890---------------
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891
892The interactive rebase command was originally designed to handle
893individual patch series. As such, it makes sense to exclude merge
894commits from the todo list, as the developer may have merged the
895then-current `master` while working on the branch, only to rebase
896all the commits onto `master` eventually (skipping the merge
897commits).
898
899However, there are legitimate reasons why a developer may want to
900recreate merge commits: to keep the branch structure (or "commit
901topology") when working on multiple, inter-related branches.
902
903In the following example, the developer works on a topic branch that
904refactors the way buttons are defined, and on another topic branch
905that uses that refactoring to implement a "Report a bug" button. The
906output of `git log --graph --format=%s -5` may look like this:
907
908------------
909* Merge branch 'report-a-bug'
910|\
911| * Add the feedback button
912* | Merge branch 'refactor-button'
913|\ \
914| |/
915| * Use the Button class for all buttons
916| * Extract a generic Button class from the DownloadButton one
917------------
918
919The developer might want to rebase those commits to a newer `master`
920while keeping the branch topology, for example when the first topic
921branch is expected to be integrated into `master` much earlier than the
922second one, say, to resolve merge conflicts with changes to the
923DownloadButton class that made it into `master`.
924
925This rebase can be performed using the `--rebase-merges` option.
926It will generate a todo list looking like this:
927
928------------
929label onto
930
931# Branch: refactor-button
932reset onto
933pick 123456 Extract a generic Button class from the DownloadButton one
934pick 654321 Use the Button class for all buttons
935label refactor-button
936
937# Branch: report-a-bug
938reset refactor-button # Use the Button class for all buttons
939pick abcdef Add the feedback button
940label report-a-bug
941
942reset onto
943merge -C a1b2c3 refactor-button # Merge 'refactor-button'
944merge -C 6f5e4d report-a-bug # Merge 'report-a-bug'
945------------
946
947In contrast to a regular interactive rebase, there are `label`, `reset`
948and `merge` commands in addition to `pick` ones.
949
950The `label` command associates a label with the current HEAD when that
951command is executed. These labels are created as worktree-local refs
952(`refs/rewritten/<label>`) that will be deleted when the rebase
953finishes. That way, rebase operations in multiple worktrees linked to
954the same repository do not interfere with one another. If the `label`
955command fails, it is rescheduled immediately, with a helpful message how
956to proceed.
957
958The `reset` command resets the HEAD, index and worktree to the specified
ad0b8f95 959revision. It is similar to an `exec git reset --hard <label>`, but
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960refuses to overwrite untracked files. If the `reset` command fails, it is
961rescheduled immediately, with a helpful message how to edit the todo list
962(this typically happens when a `reset` command was inserted into the todo
963list manually and contains a typo).
964
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965The `merge` command will merge the specified revision(s) into whatever
966is HEAD at that time. With `-C <original-commit>`, the commit message of
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967the specified merge commit will be used. When the `-C` is changed to
968a lower-case `-c`, the message will be opened in an editor after a
969successful merge so that the user can edit the message.
970
971If a `merge` command fails for any reason other than merge conflicts (i.e.
972when the merge operation did not even start), it is rescheduled immediately.
973
974At this time, the `merge` command will *always* use the `recursive`
caafecfc 975merge strategy for regular merges, and `octopus` for octopus merges,
57e9dcaa 976with no way to choose a different one. To work around
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977this, an `exec` command can be used to call `git merge` explicitly,
978using the fact that the labels are worktree-local refs (the ref
979`refs/rewritten/onto` would correspond to the label `onto`, for example).
980
981Note: the first command (`label onto`) labels the revision onto which
982the commits are rebased; The name `onto` is just a convention, as a nod
983to the `--onto` option.
984
985It is also possible to introduce completely new merge commits from scratch
986by adding a command of the form `merge <merge-head>`. This form will
987generate a tentative commit message and always open an editor to let the
988user edit it. This can be useful e.g. when a topic branch turns out to
989address more than a single concern and wants to be split into two or
990even more topic branches. Consider this todo list:
991
992------------
993pick 192837 Switch from GNU Makefiles to CMake
994pick 5a6c7e Document the switch to CMake
995pick 918273 Fix detection of OpenSSL in CMake
996pick afbecd http: add support for TLS v1.3
997pick fdbaec Fix detection of cURL in CMake on Windows
998------------
999
1000The one commit in this list that is not related to CMake may very well
1001have been motivated by working on fixing all those bugs introduced by
1002switching to CMake, but it addresses a different concern. To split this
1003branch into two topic branches, the todo list could be edited like this:
1004
1005------------
1006label onto
1007
1008pick afbecd http: add support for TLS v1.3
1009label tlsv1.3
1010
1011reset onto
1012pick 192837 Switch from GNU Makefiles to CMake
1013pick 918273 Fix detection of OpenSSL in CMake
1014pick fdbaec Fix detection of cURL in CMake on Windows
1015pick 5a6c7e Document the switch to CMake
1016label cmake
1017
1018reset onto
1019merge tlsv1.3
1020merge cmake
1021------------
1022
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1023BUGS
1024----
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1025The todo list presented by the deprecated `--preserve-merges --interactive`
1026does not represent the topology of the revision graph (use `--rebase-merges`
1027instead). Editing commits and rewording their commit messages should work
1028fine, but attempts to reorder commits tend to produce counterintuitive results.
1029Use `--rebase-merges` in such scenarios instead.
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1030
1031For example, an attempt to rearrange
1032------------
10331 --- 2 --- 3 --- 4 --- 5
1034------------
1035to
1036------------
10371 --- 2 --- 4 --- 3 --- 5
1038------------
1039by moving the "pick 4" line will result in the following history:
1040------------
1041 3
1042 /
10431 --- 2 --- 4 --- 5
1044------------
1045
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1046GIT
1047---
9e1f0a85 1048Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite