Merge branch 'maint'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
89a56bfb 12'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=GIT_EXEC_PATH]] [--html-path]
b0fa7ab5 13 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects]
892c41b9 14 [--bare] [--git-dir=GIT_DIR] [--work-tree=GIT_WORK_TREE]
8b1fa778 15 [-c name=value]
892c41b9 16 [--help] COMMAND [ARGS]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
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25link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
26"man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
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27also want to read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]. See
28the link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
a1dc34fa 29introduction.
cb22bc44 30
4514ad4f 31The COMMAND is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
5162e697 32as defined in the configuration file (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
4514ad4f 33
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34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
35documentation can be viewed at
36`http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
37
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38ifdef::stalenotes[]
39[NOTE]
40============
26cfcfbf 41
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42You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
43unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
44branch of the `git.git` repository.
45Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 46
dd34b6be 47* link:v1.7.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.3]
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48
49* release notes for
dd34b6be 50 link:RelNotes-1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
8c67c392 51 link:RelNotes-1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
2aedccd3 52 link:RelNotes-1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
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53 link:RelNotes-1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
54
245b10ca 55* link:v1.7.1.2/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.2]
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56
57* release notes for
245b10ca 58 link:RelNotes-1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
45e9a825 59 link:RelNotes-1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
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60 link:RelNotes-1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
61
593ce2be 62* link:v1.7.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.7]
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63
64* release notes for
593ce2be 65 link:RelNotes-1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
66cfd102 66 link:RelNotes-1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
fcd42401 67 link:RelNotes-1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
2be10bb5 68 link:RelNotes-1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
0b3dcfe7 69 link:RelNotes-1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
97222d96 70 link:RelNotes-1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
c5e5f603 71 link:RelNotes-1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
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72 link:RelNotes-1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
73
4133fd25 74* link:v1.6.6.2/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.2]
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75
76* release notes for
4133fd25 77 link:RelNotes-1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
9504f3d3 78 link:RelNotes-1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
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79 link:RelNotes-1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
80
35eabd15 81* link:v1.6.5.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.8]
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82
83* release notes for
35eabd15 84 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
527b9d70 85 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
9861b644 86 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
aa031314 87 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
eefe19fb 88 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
080cbc12 89 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
6c0efa2a 90 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
b142da2a 91 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
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92 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
93
cb572206 94* link:v1.6.4.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.4]
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95
96* release notes for
cb572206 97 link:RelNotes-1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
7fb6bcff 98 link:RelNotes-1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
82c3e210 99 link:RelNotes-1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
d9b9784f 100 link:RelNotes-1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
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101 link:RelNotes-1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
102
441b40d8 103* link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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104
105* release notes for
441b40d8 106 link:RelNotes-1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
e16a4779 107 link:RelNotes-1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
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108 link:RelNotes-1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
109 link:RelNotes-1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
110 link:RelNotes-1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
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111
112* release notes for
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113 link:RelNotes-1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
114 link:RelNotes-1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
c965c029 115 link:RelNotes-1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
54a47493 116 link:RelNotes-1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
de769780 117 link:RelNotes-1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
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118 link:RelNotes-1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
119
621f1b4b 120* link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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121
122* release notes for
621f1b4b
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123 link:RelNotes-1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
124 link:RelNotes-1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
c42b1ad9 125 link:RelNotes-1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
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126 link:RelNotes-1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
127
efe05b01 128* link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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129
130* release notes for
efe05b01 131 link:RelNotes-1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
f371d3ea 132 link:RelNotes-1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
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133 link:RelNotes-1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
134 link:RelNotes-1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
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135 link:RelNotes-1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
136 link:RelNotes-1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
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137 link:RelNotes-1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
138
efe05b01 139* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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140
141* release notes for
efe05b01 142 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
781c1834 143 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
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144 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
145 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
146 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
147 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
e636106c 148 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 149
efe05b01 150* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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151
152* release notes for
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153 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
154 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
7064ca51 155 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
28bc3022 156 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
2d3922dc 157 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
66aaa2fc 158 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
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159 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
160
efe05b01 161* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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162
163* release notes for
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164 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
165 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
803d5158 166 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
ad416ed4 167 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
923d44ae 168 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
cf5c51ef 169 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
ecb879f8 170 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
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171 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
172
e708af6e 173* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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174
175* release notes for
e708af6e 176 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
b52e985a 177 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
4a44b9ea 178 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
afc05f9f 179 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
58ba4f6a 180 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
326df26d 181 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
077d6f72 182 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
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183 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
184 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 185
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186* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
187
aba170cd 188* release notes for
da899deb 189 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
baafd6e7 190 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
444649e5 191 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
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192 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
193 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
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194 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
195
196* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
197
198* release notes for
199 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
200 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
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201 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
202 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
203 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
204 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
205 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
206
207* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
208
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209* release notes for
210 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
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211 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
212 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
213 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
214 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
215 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
216 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
217
218* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
219 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
220 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
221 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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222
223============
224
225endif::stalenotes[]
226
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227OPTIONS
228-------
229--version::
a87cd02c 230 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
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231
232--help::
a87cd02c 233 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
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234 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
235 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
236 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
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237+
238Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 239displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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240because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
241help ...`.
cb22bc44 242
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243-c <name>=<value>::
244 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
245 given will override values from configuration files.
246 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
247 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
248
cb22bc44 249--exec-path::
a87cd02c 250 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 251 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 252 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
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253 the current setting and then exit.
254
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255--html-path::
256 Print the path to wherever your git HTML documentation is installed
257 and exit.
258
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259-p::
260--paginate::
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261 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
262 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
263 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
264 below).
6acbcb92 265
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266--no-pager::
267 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
268
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269--git-dir=<path>::
270 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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271 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
272 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 273
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274--work-tree=<path>::
275 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
276 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
277 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
278 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
279 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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280 variable. It can be an absolute path or relative path to
281 the directory specified by --git-dir or GIT_DIR.
282 Note: If --git-dir or GIT_DIR are specified but none of
283 --work-tree, GIT_WORK_TREE and core.worktree is specified,
284 the current working directory is regarded as the top directory
285 of your working tree.
892c41b9 286
6acbcb92 287--bare::
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288 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
289 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
290 directory.
291
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292--no-replace-objects::
293 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
294 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
295
9755afbd 296
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297FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
298---------------------
9755afbd 299
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300See the references above to get started using git. The following is
301probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
8db9307c 302
40dac517 303The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 304user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
40dac517 305introductions to the underlying git architecture.
e6fc2346 306
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307See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
308
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309See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
310examples.
9755afbd 311
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312The internals are documented in the
313link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
530e741c 314
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315GIT COMMANDS
316------------
9755afbd 317
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318We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
319("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 320
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321High-level commands (porcelain)
322-------------------------------
323
324We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
325ancillary user utilities.
326
327Main porcelain commands
328~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 329
377e8139 330include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 331
90933efb 332Ancillary Commands
23091e95 333~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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334Manipulators:
335
377e8139 336include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 337
90933efb 338Interrogators:
204ee6a9 339
377e8139 340include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 341
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342
343Interacting with Others
344~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
345
346These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
347people via patch over e-mail.
348
349include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
350
351
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352Low-level commands (plumbing)
353-----------------------------
354
355Although git includes its
356own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
357development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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358might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
359linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 360
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361The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
362to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
363than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
364primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
365on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
366end user experience.
367
368The following description divides
369the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
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370the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
371compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
372repositories.
373
89bf2077 374
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375Manipulation commands
376~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 377
377e8139 378include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
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379
380
381Interrogation commands
382~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
383
377e8139 384include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
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385
386In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
387the working tree.
388
389
390Synching repositories
391~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
392
377e8139 393include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 394
57f6ec02 395The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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396typically do not use them directly.
397
398include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
399
400
401Internal helper commands
402~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
403
404These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
405users typically do not use them directly.
406
407include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
408
b1f33d62 409
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410Configuration Mechanism
411-----------------------
412
2fa090b6 413Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
5773c9f2 414is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
addf88e4 415simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
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416people. Here is an example:
417
418------------
419#
2fa090b6 420# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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421#
422
423; core variables
424[core]
425 ; Don't trust file modes
426 filemode = false
427
428; user identity
429[user]
430 name = "Junio C Hamano"
431 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
432
433------------
434
435Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
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436their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
437list.
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438
439
6c84e2e0 440Identifier Terminology
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441----------------------
442<object>::
2fa090b6 443 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
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444
445<blob>::
2fa090b6 446 Indicates a blob object name.
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447
448<tree>::
2fa090b6 449 Indicates a tree object name.
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450
451<commit>::
2fa090b6 452 Indicates a commit object name.
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453
454<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 455 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
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456 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
457 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
458 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 459
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460<commit-ish>::
461 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
462 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
463 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
464 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
465
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466<type>::
467 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 468 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
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469
470<file>::
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471 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
472 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 473
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474Symbolic Identifiers
475--------------------
90933efb 476Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 477symbolic notation:
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478
479HEAD::
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480 indicates the head of the current branch (i.e. the
481 contents of `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`).
482
c1bdacf9 483<tag>::
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484 a valid tag 'name'
485 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`).
486
c1bdacf9 487<head>::
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488 a valid head 'name'
489 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`).
490
d47107d8 491For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
f028cdae 492"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[1].
d47107d8 493
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494
495File/Directory Structure
496------------------------
c1bdacf9 497
6998e4db 498Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 499
6998e4db 500Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 501
c1bdacf9 502Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 503`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 504
a1d4aa74 505
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506Terminology
507-----------
6998e4db 508Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
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509
510
511Environment Variables
512---------------------
513Various git commands use the following environment variables:
514
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515The git Repository
516~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
517These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
518is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2fa090b6 519git so take care if using Cogito etc.
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520
521'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
522 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
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523 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
524 is used.
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525
526'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
527 If the object storage directory is specified via this
528 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
529 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
530 directory is used.
531
532'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
533 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
534 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
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535 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
536 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
537 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
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538
539'GIT_DIR'::
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540 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
541 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
542 for the base of the repository.
c1bdacf9 543
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544'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
545 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
546 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
547 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
548 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
549 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
550
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551'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
552 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
553 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
554 up into while looking for a repository directory.
555 It will not exclude the current working directory or
556 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
557 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
558
cf87463e 559'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
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560 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
561 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
562 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
563 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
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564 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
565 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
566 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
567 command line.
8030e442 568
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569git Commits
570~~~~~~~~~~~
571'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
572'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
573'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
574'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
575'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 576'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 577'EMAIL'::
5162e697 578 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
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579
580git Diffs
581~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 582'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
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583 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
584 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
585 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
586 value passed on the git diff command line.
587
d81ed1b5 588'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
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589 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
590 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
591 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
592 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
593
594 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
595+
596where:
597
598 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
599 contents of <old|new>,
600 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
601 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
602
603+
604The file parameters can point at the user's working file
605(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
606when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
607index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
608temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
609+
610For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
611parameter, <path>.
2cf565c5 612
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613other
614~~~~~
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615'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
616 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
617 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 618 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 619
c27d205a 620'GIT_PAGER'::
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621 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
622 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
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623 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
624 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 625
d5538b41 626'GIT_SSH'::
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627 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
628 and 'git push' will use this command instead
2fd02c92 629 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
483bc4f0 630 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
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631 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
632 shell command to execute on that remote system.
633+
634To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
635you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
636then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
637+
638Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
639personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
640for further details.
641
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642'GIT_FLUSH'::
643 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
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644 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
645 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
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646 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
647 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
648 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
649 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
650 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
651
575ba9d6 652'GIT_TRACE'::
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653 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
654 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
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655 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
656 execution and external command execution.
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657 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
658 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
659 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
660 trace messages into this file descriptor.
661 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
662 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
663 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
664 into it.
575ba9d6 665
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666Discussion[[Discussion]]
667------------------------
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668
669More detail on the following is available from the
670link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 671user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
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672
673A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
674subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
675things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
676of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
677contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
678as tags and branch heads.
679
680The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
681hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 682directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
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683and some number of parent commits.
684
685The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
686"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
687represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
688parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
689
690All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
691written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
692The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
693just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
694purpose.
695
696When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
697efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
698
699Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
700may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
701with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
02ff6250 702recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
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703tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
704`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
705
706The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
707path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
708the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
709attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
710corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
711working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
712be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
713content stored in the index.
714
715The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
716for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
717unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 718
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719Authors
720-------
9755afbd 721* git's founding father is Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
947ad2e1 722* The current git nurse is Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>.
0240e21a 723* The git potty was written by Andreas Ericsson <ae@op5.se>.
9755afbd 724* General upbringing is handled by the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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725
726Documentation
727--------------
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728The documentation for git suite was started by David Greaves
729<david@dgreaves.com>, and later enhanced greatly by the
730contributors on the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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732Reporting Bugs
733--------------
734
735Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
736development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
737subscribed to the list to send a message there.
738
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739SEE ALSO
740--------
741linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
5cbef01a 742link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 743linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
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744linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
745linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 746
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747GIT
748---
9e1f0a85 749Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite