Merge branch 'ja/i18n-fix'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-format-patch.txt
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1git-format-patch(1)
2===================
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-format-patch - Prepare patches for e-mail submission
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
353ce815 11[verse]
50710ce4 12'git format-patch' [-k] [(-o|--output-directory) <dir> | --stdout]
f693b7e9 13 [--no-thread | --thread[=<style>]]
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14 [(--attach|--inline)[=<boundary>] | --no-attach]
15 [-s | --signoff]
6622d9c7 16 [--signature=<signature> | --no-signature]
7022650f 17 [--signature-file=<file>]
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18 [-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
19 [--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
20 [--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
21 [--ignore-if-in-upstream]
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22 [--rfc] [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix]
23 [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
ae6c098f 24 [--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
2a4c2607 25 [--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
126facf8 26 [--interdiff=<previous>]
8631bf1c 27 [--range-diff=<previous> [--creation-factor=<percent>]]
738e88a2 28 [--progress]
50710ce4 29 [<common diff options>]
8a1d076e 30 [ <since> | <revision range> ]
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31
32DESCRIPTION
33-----------
2052d146 34
8a1d076e 35Prepare each commit with its patch in
2052d146 36one file per commit, formatted to resemble UNIX mailbox format.
2052d146 37The output of this command is convenient for e-mail submission or
0b444cdb 38for use with 'git am'.
35ef3a4c 39
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40There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
41
421. A single commit, <since>, specifies that the commits leading
43 to the tip of the current branch that are not in the history
44 that leads to the <since> to be output.
45
462. Generic <revision range> expression (see "SPECIFYING
9d83e382 47 REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7]) means the
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48 commits in the specified range.
49
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50The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
51apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
9e9f132f 52history up until <commit>, use the `--root` option: `git format-patch
6cf378f0 53--root <commit>`. If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
dce5ef14 54can do this with `git format-patch -1 <commit>`.
8a1d076e 55
e6ff0f42 56By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the
2052d146 57first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
dce5ef14 58the filename. With the `--numbered-files` option, the output file names
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59will only be numbers, without the first line of the commit appended.
60The names of the output files are printed to standard
dce5ef14 61output, unless the `--stdout` option is specified.
66f04f38 62
dce5ef14 63If `-o` is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise
bc6bf2d7 64they are created in the current working directory. The default path
ae9f6311 65can be set with the `format.outputDirectory` configuration option.
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66The `-o` option takes precedence over `format.outputDirectory`.
67To store patches in the current working directory even when
68`format.outputDirectory` points elsewhere, use `-o .`.
35ef3a4c 69
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70By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] " followed by
71the concatenation of lines from the commit message up to the first blank
72line (see the DISCUSSION section of linkgit:git-commit[1]).
73
74When multiple patches are output, the subject prefix will instead be
75"[PATCH n/m] ". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use `-n`.
76To omit patch numbers from the subject, use `-N`.
35ef3a4c 77
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78If given `--thread`, `git-format-patch` will generate `In-Reply-To` and
79`References` headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
80as replies to the first mail; this also generates a `Message-Id` header to
cc35de84 81reference.
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82
83OPTIONS
84-------
c1a95fa6 85:git-format-patch: 1
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86include::diff-options.txt[]
87
ed5f07a6 88-<n>::
2c642ed8 89 Prepare patches from the topmost <n> commits.
ed5f07a6 90
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91-o <dir>::
92--output-directory <dir>::
35ef3a4c 93 Use <dir> to store the resulting files, instead of the
efd02016 94 current working directory.
35ef3a4c 95
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96-n::
97--numbered::
a567fdcb 98 Name output in '[PATCH n/m]' format, even with a single patch.
35ef3a4c 99
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100-N::
101--no-numbered::
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102 Name output in '[PATCH]' format.
103
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104--start-number <n>::
105 Start numbering the patches at <n> instead of 1.
106
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107--numbered-files::
108 Output file names will be a simple number sequence
109 without the default first line of the commit appended.
e6ff0f42 110
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111-k::
112--keep-subject::
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113 Do not strip/add '[PATCH]' from the first line of the
114 commit log message.
115
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116-s::
117--signoff::
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118 Add `Signed-off-by:` line to the commit message, using
119 the committer identity of yourself.
b2c150d3 120 See the signoff option in linkgit:git-commit[1] for more information.
6f855371 121
54ba6013 122--stdout::
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123 Print all commits to the standard output in mbox format,
124 instead of creating a file for each one.
7fc9d69f 125
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126--attach[=<boundary>]::
127 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
128 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 129 second part, with `Content-Disposition: attachment`.
c112f689 130
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131--no-attach::
132 Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the
133 configuration setting.
134
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135--inline[=<boundary>]::
136 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
137 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 138 second part, with `Content-Disposition: inline`.
a15a44ef 139
30984ed2 140--thread[=<style>]::
f693b7e9 141--no-thread::
dce5ef14 142 Controls addition of `In-Reply-To` and `References` headers to
f693b7e9 143 make the second and subsequent mails appear as replies to the
dce5ef14 144 first. Also controls generation of the `Message-Id` header to
f693b7e9 145 reference.
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146+
147The optional <style> argument can be either `shallow` or `deep`.
fd1ff306 148'shallow' threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the
30984ed2 149series, where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
6cf378f0 150`--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order. 'deep'
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151threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
152+
ae9f6311 153The default is `--no-thread`, unless the `format.thread` configuration
dce5ef14 154is set. If `--thread` is specified without a style, it defaults to the
ae9f6311 155style specified by `format.thread` if any, or else `shallow`.
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156+
157Beware that the default for 'git send-email' is to thread emails
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158itself. If you want `git format-patch` to take care of threading, you
159will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
28ffb898 160
da56645d 161--in-reply-to=Message-Id::
dce5ef14 162 Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
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163 reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
164 provide a new patch series.
165
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166--ignore-if-in-upstream::
167 Do not include a patch that matches a commit in
168 <until>..<since>. This will examine all patches reachable
169 from <since> but not from <until> and compare them with the
170 patches being generated, and any patch that matches is
171 ignored.
172
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173--subject-prefix=<Subject-Prefix>::
174 Instead of the standard '[PATCH]' prefix in the subject
175 line, instead use '[<Subject-Prefix>]'. This
176 allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
dce5ef14 177 combined with the `--numbered` option.
2d9e4a47 178
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179--rfc::
180 Alias for `--subject-prefix="RFC PATCH"`. RFC means "Request For
181 Comments"; use this when sending an experimental patch for
182 discussion rather than application.
183
7952ea66 184-v <n>::
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185--reroll-count=<n>::
186 Mark the series as the <n>-th iteration of the topic. The
d614f075 187 output filenames have `v<n>` prepended to them, and the
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188 subject prefix ("PATCH" by default, but configurable via the
189 `--subject-prefix` option) has ` v<n>` appended to it. E.g.
190 `--reroll-count=4` may produce `v4-0001-add-makefile.patch`
191 file that has "Subject: [PATCH v4 1/20] Add makefile" in it.
192
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193--to=<email>::
194 Add a `To:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
195 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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196 The negated form `--no-to` discards all `To:` headers added so
197 far (from config or command line).
ae6c098f 198
736cc67d 199--cc=<email>::
dce5ef14 200 Add a `Cc:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
736cc67d 201 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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202 The negated form `--no-cc` discards all `Cc:` headers added so
203 far (from config or command line).
736cc67d 204
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205--from::
206--from=<ident>::
207 Use `ident` in the `From:` header of each commit email. If the
208 author ident of the commit is not textually identical to the
209 provided `ident`, place a `From:` header in the body of the
210 message with the original author. If no `ident` is given, use
211 the committer ident.
212+
213Note that this option is only useful if you are actually sending the
214emails and want to identify yourself as the sender, but retain the
215original author (and `git am` will correctly pick up the in-body
216header). Note also that `git send-email` already handles this
217transformation for you, and this option should not be used if you are
218feeding the result to `git send-email`.
219
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220--add-header=<header>::
221 Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in addition
222 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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223 For example, `--add-header="Organization: git-foo"`.
224 The negated form `--no-add-header` discards *all* (`To:`,
225 `Cc:`, and custom) headers added so far from config or command
226 line.
d7d9c2d0 227
2a4c2607 228--[no-]cover-letter::
f4912391 229 In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
561d2b79 230 containing the branch description, shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can
f4912391 231 fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
a5a27c79 232
126facf8 233--interdiff=<previous>::
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234 As a reviewer aid, insert an interdiff into the cover letter,
235 or as commentary of the lone patch of a 1-patch series, showing
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236 the differences between the previous version of the patch series and
237 the series currently being formatted. `previous` is a single revision
238 naming the tip of the previous series which shares a common base with
239 the series being formatted (for example `git format-patch
240 --cover-letter --interdiff=feature/v1 -3 feature/v2`).
241
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242--range-diff=<previous>::
243 As a reviewer aid, insert a range-diff (see linkgit:git-range-diff[1])
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244 into the cover letter, or as commentary of the lone patch of a
245 1-patch series, showing the differences between the previous
31e2617a 246 version of the patch series and the series currently being formatted.
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247 `previous` can be a single revision naming the tip of the previous
248 series if it shares a common base with the series being formatted (for
31e2617a 249 example `git format-patch --cover-letter --range-diff=feature/v1 -3
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250 feature/v2`), or a revision range if the two versions of the series are
251 disjoint (for example `git format-patch --cover-letter
252 --range-diff=feature/v1~3..feature/v1 -3 feature/v2`).
31e2617a 253
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254--creation-factor=<percent>::
255 Used with `--range-diff`, tweak the heuristic which matches up commits
256 between the previous and current series of patches by adjusting the
257 creation/deletion cost fudge factor. See linkgit:git-range-diff[1])
258 for details.
259
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260--notes[=<ref>]::
261 Append the notes (see linkgit:git-notes[1]) for the commit
262 after the three-dash line.
263+
264The expected use case of this is to write supporting explanation for
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265the commit that does not belong to the commit log message proper,
266and include it with the patch submission. While one can simply write
267these explanations after `format-patch` has run but before sending,
2de9b711 268keeping them as Git notes allows them to be maintained between versions
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269of the patch series (but see the discussion of the `notes.rewrite`
270configuration options in linkgit:git-notes[1] to use this workflow).
e422c0cf 271
2c7ee986 272--[no-]signature=<signature>::
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273 Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the signature
274 is separated from the body by a line with '-- ' on it. If the
2de9b711 275 signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the Git version
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276 number.
277
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278--signature-file=<file>::
279 Works just like --signature except the signature is read from a file.
280
03eeaeae 281--suffix=.<sfx>::
917a8f89 282 Instead of using `.patch` as the suffix for generated
02783075 283 filenames, use specified suffix. A common alternative is
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284 `--suffix=.txt`. Leaving this empty will remove the `.patch`
285 suffix.
03eeaeae 286+
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287Note that the leading character does not have to be a dot; for example,
288you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
03eeaeae 289
b7df098c 290-q::
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291--quiet::
292 Do not print the names of the generated files to standard output.
293
37c22a4b 294--no-binary::
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295 Do not output contents of changes in binary files, instead
296 display a notice that those files changed. Patches generated
297 using this option cannot be applied properly, but they are
298 still useful for code review.
37c22a4b 299
3a30aa17 300--zero-commit::
301 Output an all-zero hash in each patch's From header instead
302 of the hash of the commit.
303
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304--base=<commit>::
305 Record the base tree information to identify the state the
306 patch series applies to. See the BASE TREE INFORMATION section
307 below for details.
308
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309--root::
310 Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it
311 is just a single commit (that would normally be treated as a
312 <since>). Note that root commits included in the specified
313 range are always formatted as creation patches, independently
314 of this flag.
315
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316--progress::
317 Show progress reports on stderr as patches are generated.
318
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319CONFIGURATION
320-------------
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321You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,
322defaults for the subject prefix and file suffix, number patches when
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323outputting more than one patch, add "To" or "Cc:" headers, configure
324attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.
96ce6d26 325
917a8f89 326------------
96ce6d26 327[format]
7f9d77f2 328 headers = "Organization: git-foo\n"
da0005b8 329 subjectPrefix = CHANGE
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330 suffix = .txt
331 numbered = auto
ae6c098f 332 to = <email>
fe8928e6 333 cc = <email>
0db5260b 334 attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
da0005b8 335 signOff = true
2a4c2607 336 coverletter = auto
917a8f89 337------------
03eeaeae 338
96ce6d26 339
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340DISCUSSION
341----------
342
343The patch produced by 'git format-patch' is in UNIX mailbox format,
344with a fixed "magic" time stamp to indicate that the file is output
345from format-patch rather than a real mailbox, like so:
346
347------------
348From 8f72bad1baf19a53459661343e21d6491c3908d3 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
349From: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
350Date: Tue, 13 Jul 2010 11:42:54 -0700
351Subject: [PATCH] =?UTF-8?q?[IA64]=20Put=20ia64=20config=20files=20on=20the=20?=
352 =?UTF-8?q?Uwe=20Kleine-K=C3=B6nig=20diet?=
353MIME-Version: 1.0
354Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
355Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit
356
357arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
358(See commit c2330e286f68f1c408b4aa6515ba49d57f05beae comment)
359
360Do the same for ia64 so we can have sleek & trim looking
361...
362------------
363
364Typically it will be placed in a MUA's drafts folder, edited to add
365timely commentary that should not go in the changelog after the three
366dashes, and then sent as a message whose body, in our example, starts
367with "arch/arm config files were...". On the receiving end, readers
368can save interesting patches in a UNIX mailbox and apply them with
369linkgit:git-am[1].
370
371When a patch is part of an ongoing discussion, the patch generated by
372'git format-patch' can be tweaked to take advantage of the 'git am
373--scissors' feature. After your response to the discussion comes a
374line that consists solely of "`-- >8 --`" (scissors and perforation),
375followed by the patch with unnecessary header fields removed:
376
377------------
378...
379> So we should do such-and-such.
380
381Makes sense to me. How about this patch?
382
383-- >8 --
384Subject: [IA64] Put ia64 config files on the Uwe Kleine-König diet
385
386arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
387...
388------------
389
390When sending a patch this way, most often you are sending your own
391patch, so in addition to the "`From $SHA1 $magic_timestamp`" marker you
392should omit `From:` and `Date:` lines from the patch file. The patch
393title is likely to be different from the subject of the discussion the
394patch is in response to, so it is likely that you would want to keep
395the Subject: line, like the example above.
396
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397Checking for patch corruption
398~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
399Many mailers if not set up properly will corrupt whitespace. Here are
400two common types of corruption:
401
402* Empty context lines that do not have _any_ whitespace.
403
404* Non-empty context lines that have one extra whitespace at the
405 beginning.
406
407One way to test if your MUA is set up correctly is:
408
409* Send the patch to yourself, exactly the way you would, except
410 with To: and Cc: lines that do not contain the list and
411 maintainer address.
412
413* Save that patch to a file in UNIX mailbox format. Call it a.patch,
414 say.
415
416* Apply it:
417
418 $ git fetch <project> master:test-apply
419 $ git checkout test-apply
420 $ git reset --hard
421 $ git am a.patch
422
423If it does not apply correctly, there can be various reasons.
424
425* The patch itself does not apply cleanly. That is _bad_ but
426 does not have much to do with your MUA. You might want to rebase
427 the patch with linkgit:git-rebase[1] before regenerating it in
428 this case.
429
430* The MUA corrupted your patch; "am" would complain that
431 the patch does not apply. Look in the .git/rebase-apply/ subdirectory and
432 see what 'patch' file contains and check for the common
433 corruption patterns mentioned above.
434
435* While at it, check the 'info' and 'final-commit' files as well.
436 If what is in 'final-commit' is not exactly what you would want to
437 see in the commit log message, it is very likely that the
438 receiver would end up hand editing the log message when applying
439 your patch. Things like "Hi, this is my first patch.\n" in the
440 patch e-mail should come after the three-dash line that signals
441 the end of the commit message.
442
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443MUA-SPECIFIC HINTS
444------------------
445Here are some hints on how to successfully submit patches inline using
446various mailers.
447
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448GMail
449~~~~~
450GMail does not have any way to turn off line wrapping in the web
451interface, so it will mangle any emails that you send. You can however
452use "git send-email" and send your patches through the GMail SMTP server, or
453use any IMAP email client to connect to the google IMAP server and forward
454the emails through that.
455
456For hints on using 'git send-email' to send your patches through the
457GMail SMTP server, see the EXAMPLE section of linkgit:git-send-email[1].
458
459For hints on submission using the IMAP interface, see the EXAMPLE
460section of linkgit:git-imap-send[1].
461
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462Thunderbird
463~~~~~~~~~~~
464By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as well as flag
465them as being 'format=flowed', both of which will make the
2de9b711 466resulting email unusable by Git.
dc53151f 467
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468There are three different approaches: use an add-on to turn off line wraps,
469configure Thunderbird to not mangle patches, or use
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470an external editor to keep Thunderbird from mangling the patches.
471
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472Approach #1 (add-on)
473^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
474
475Install the Toggle Word Wrap add-on that is available from
476https://addons.mozilla.org/thunderbird/addon/toggle-word-wrap/
477It adds a menu entry "Enable Word Wrap" in the composer's "Options" menu
478that you can tick off. Now you can compose the message as you otherwise do
479(cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc), but you have to
480insert line breaks manually in any text that you type.
481
482Approach #2 (configuration)
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483^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
484Three steps:
485
4861. Configure your mail server composition as plain text:
487 Edit...Account Settings...Composition & Addressing,
488 uncheck "Compose Messages in HTML".
489
4902. Configure your general composition window to not wrap.
491+
492In Thunderbird 2:
493Edit..Preferences..Composition, wrap plain text messages at 0
494+
495In Thunderbird 3:
496Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
497"mail.wrap_long_lines".
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498Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`. Also, search for
499"mailnews.wraplength" and set the value to 0.
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500
5013. Disable the use of format=flowed:
502Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
503"mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed".
504Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`.
505
506After that is done, you should be able to compose email as you
507otherwise would (cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc),
508and the patches will not be mangled.
509
b8959605 510Approach #3 (external editor)
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511^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
512
513The following Thunderbird extensions are needed:
514AboutConfig from http://aboutconfig.mozdev.org/ and
515External Editor from http://globs.org/articles.php?lng=en&pg=8
516
5171. Prepare the patch as a text file using your method of choice.
518
5192. Before opening a compose window, use Edit->Account Settings to
520 uncheck the "Compose messages in HTML format" setting in the
521 "Composition & Addressing" panel of the account to be used to
522 send the patch.
523
5243. In the main Thunderbird window, 'before' you open the compose
525 window for the patch, use Tools->about:config to set the
526 following to the indicated values:
527+
528----------
529 mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed => false
530 mailnews.wraplength => 0
531----------
532
5334. Open a compose window and click the external editor icon.
534
5355. In the external editor window, read in the patch file and exit
536 the editor normally.
537
538Side note: it may be possible to do step 2 with
539about:config and the following settings but no one's tried yet.
540
541----------
542 mail.html_compose => false
543 mail.identity.default.compose_html => false
544 mail.identity.id?.compose_html => false
545----------
546
547There is a script in contrib/thunderbird-patch-inline which can help
548you include patches with Thunderbird in an easy way. To use it, do the
549steps above and then use the script as the external editor.
550
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551KMail
552~~~~~
553This should help you to submit patches inline using KMail.
554
5551. Prepare the patch as a text file.
556
5572. Click on New Mail.
558
5593. Go under "Options" in the Composer window and be sure that
560 "Word wrap" is not set.
561
5624. Use Message -> Insert file... and insert the patch.
563
5645. Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish to the
565 message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
566
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567BASE TREE INFORMATION
568---------------------
569
570The base tree information block is used for maintainers or third party
571testers to know the exact state the patch series applies to. It consists
572of the 'base commit', which is a well-known commit that is part of the
573stable part of the project history everybody else works off of, and zero
574or more 'prerequisite patches', which are well-known patches in flight
575that is not yet part of the 'base commit' that need to be applied on top
576of 'base commit' in topological order before the patches can be applied.
577
578The 'base commit' is shown as "base-commit: " followed by the 40-hex of
579the commit object name. A 'prerequisite patch' is shown as
580"prerequisite-patch-id: " followed by the 40-hex 'patch id', which can
581be obtained by passing the patch through the `git patch-id --stable`
582command.
583
584Imagine that on top of the public commit P, you applied well-known
585patches X, Y and Z from somebody else, and then built your three-patch
586series A, B, C, the history would be like:
587
588................................................
589---P---X---Y---Z---A---B---C
590................................................
591
592With `git format-patch --base=P -3 C` (or variants thereof, e.g. with
7ba1ceef 593`--cover-letter` or using `Z..C` instead of `-3 C` to specify the
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594range), the base tree information block is shown at the end of the
595first message the command outputs (either the first patch, or the
596cover letter), like this:
597
598------------
599base-commit: P
600prerequisite-patch-id: X
601prerequisite-patch-id: Y
602prerequisite-patch-id: Z
603------------
604
605For non-linear topology, such as
606
607................................................
608---P---X---A---M---C
609 \ /
610 Y---Z---B
611................................................
612
613You can also use `git format-patch --base=P -3 C` to generate patches
614for A, B and C, and the identifiers for P, X, Y, Z are appended at the
615end of the first message.
e0d48279 616
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617If set `--base=auto` in cmdline, it will track base commit automatically,
618the base commit will be the merge base of tip commit of the remote-tracking
619branch and revision-range specified in cmdline.
620For a local branch, you need to track a remote branch by `git branch
621--set-upstream-to` before using this option.
622
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623EXAMPLES
624--------
625
921177f5 626* Extract commits between revisions R1 and R2, and apply them on top of
0b444cdb 627the current branch using 'git am' to cherry-pick them:
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628+
629------------
467c0197 630$ git format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git am -3 -k
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631------------
632
633* Extract all commits which are in the current branch but not in the
634origin branch:
635+
636------------
637$ git format-patch origin
638------------
639+
640For each commit a separate file is created in the current directory.
641
642* Extract all commits that lead to 'origin' since the inception of the
643project:
644+
645------------
9c67c757 646$ git format-patch --root origin
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647------------
648
649* The same as the previous one:
650+
651------------
652$ git format-patch -M -B origin
653------------
654+
655Additionally, it detects and handles renames and complete rewrites
656intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A renaming patch reduces
50710ce4 657the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review.
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658Note that non-Git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
659use it only when you know the recipient uses Git to apply your patch.
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660
661* Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format them
662as e-mailable patches:
663+
664------------
665$ git format-patch -3
666------------
28ffb898 667
56ae8df5 668SEE ALSO
28ffb898 669--------
5162e697 670linkgit:git-am[1], linkgit:git-send-email[1]
28ffb898 671
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672GIT
673---
9e1f0a85 674Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite