Git 1.7.7
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
f2dd8c37 12'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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13 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
14 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
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15 [-c <name>=<value>]
16 [--help] <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
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25link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
26"man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
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27also want to read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]. See
28the link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
a1dc34fa 29introduction.
cb22bc44 30
62b4698e 31The '<command>' is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
5162e697 32as defined in the configuration file (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
4514ad4f 33
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34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
35documentation can be viewed at
36`http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
37
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38ifdef::stalenotes[]
39[NOTE]
40============
26cfcfbf 41
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42You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
43unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
44branch of the `git.git` repository.
45Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 46
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47* link:v1.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7]
48
49* release notes for
50 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
51
63205264 52* link:v1.7.6.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.4]
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53
54* release notes for
63205264 55 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
740a8fc2 56 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
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57 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
58 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
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59 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
60
e5af0de2 61* link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
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62
63* release notes for
e5af0de2 64 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
3c3e0b3c 65 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
3d5ae435 66 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
2f312e88 67 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
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68 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
69
6ceb270c 70* link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
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71
72* release notes for
6ceb270c 73 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
6be05591 74 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
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75 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
76 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
9971d6d5 77 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
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78 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
79
685e9d91 80* link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
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81
82* release notes for
685e9d91 83 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
15368e18 84 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
ed94cc76 85 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
8a904385 86 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
92c1e717 87 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
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88 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
89
1b974346 90* link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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91
92* release notes for
1b974346 93 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
ed94cc76 94 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
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95 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
96 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
97 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
98 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
64fdc08d 99
1b974346 100* link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
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101
102* release notes for
1b974346 103 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
ed94cc76 104 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
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105 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
106 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
107 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
d599e048 108
1b974346 109* link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
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110
111* release notes for
1b974346 112 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
ed94cc76 113 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
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114 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
115 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
116 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
117 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
118 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
119 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
120 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
121 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
e923eaeb 122
1b974346 123* link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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124
125* release notes for
1b974346 126 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
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127 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
128 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
129 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
902f2353 130
1b974346 131* link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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132
133* release notes for
1b974346 134 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
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135 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
136 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
137 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
138 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
139 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
140 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
141 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
142 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
143 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
78d553b7 144
1b974346 145* link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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146
147* release notes for
1b974346 148 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
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149 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
150 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
151 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
152 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
153 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
0a53e9dd 154
441b40d8 155* link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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156
157* release notes for
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158 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
159 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
160 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
161 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
162 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
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163
164* release notes for
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165 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
166 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
167 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
168 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
169 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
170 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
a95148de 171
621f1b4b 172* link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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173
174* release notes for
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175 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
176 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
177 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
178 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
8104ebfe 179
efe05b01 180* link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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181
182* release notes for
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183 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
184 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
185 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
186 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
187 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
188 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
189 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
ea02eef0 190
efe05b01 191* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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192
193* release notes for
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194 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
195 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
196 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
197 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
198 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
199 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
200 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 201
efe05b01 202* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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203
204* release notes for
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205 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
206 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
207 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
208 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
209 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
210 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
211 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
1d2375dd 212
efe05b01 213* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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214
215* release notes for
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216 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
217 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
218 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
219 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
220 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
221 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
222 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
223 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 224
e708af6e 225* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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226
227* release notes for
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228 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
229 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
230 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
231 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
232 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
233 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
234 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
235 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
236 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 237
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238* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
239
aba170cd 240* release notes for
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241 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
242 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
243 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
244 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
245 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
246 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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247
248* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
249
250* release notes for
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251 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
252 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
253 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
254 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
255 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
256 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
257 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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258
259* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
260
aba170cd 261* release notes for
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262 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
263 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
264 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
265 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
266 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
267 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
268 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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269
270* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
271 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
272 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
273 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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274
275============
276
277endif::stalenotes[]
278
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279OPTIONS
280-------
281--version::
a87cd02c 282 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
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283
284--help::
a87cd02c 285 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
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286 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
287 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
288 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
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289+
290Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 291displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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292because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
293help ...`.
cb22bc44 294
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295-c <name>=<value>::
296 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
297 given will override values from configuration files.
298 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
299 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
300
62b4698e 301--exec-path[=<path>]::
a87cd02c 302 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 303 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 304 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
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305 the current setting and then exit.
306
89a56bfb 307--html-path::
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308 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
309 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 310
f2dd8c37 311--man-path::
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312 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
313 this version of git and exit.
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314
315--info-path::
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316 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
317 version of git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 318
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319-p::
320--paginate::
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321 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
322 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
323 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
324 below).
6acbcb92 325
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326--no-pager::
327 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
328
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329--git-dir=<path>::
330 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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331 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
332 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 333
892c41b9 334--work-tree=<path>::
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335 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
336 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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337 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
338 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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339 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
340 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 341
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342--namespace=<path>::
343 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
344 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
345 variable.
346
6acbcb92 347--bare::
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348 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
349 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
350 directory.
351
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352--no-replace-objects::
353 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
354 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
355
9755afbd 356
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357FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
358---------------------
9755afbd 359
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360See the references above to get started using git. The following is
361probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
8db9307c 362
40dac517 363The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 364user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
40dac517 365introductions to the underlying git architecture.
e6fc2346 366
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367See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
368
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369See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
370examples.
9755afbd 371
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372The internals are documented in the
373link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
530e741c 374
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375GIT COMMANDS
376------------
9755afbd 377
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378We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
379("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 380
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381High-level commands (porcelain)
382-------------------------------
383
384We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
385ancillary user utilities.
386
387Main porcelain commands
388~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 389
377e8139 390include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 391
90933efb 392Ancillary Commands
23091e95 393~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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394Manipulators:
395
377e8139 396include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 397
90933efb 398Interrogators:
204ee6a9 399
377e8139 400include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 401
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402
403Interacting with Others
404~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
405
406These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
407people via patch over e-mail.
408
409include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
410
411
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412Low-level commands (plumbing)
413-----------------------------
414
415Although git includes its
416own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
417development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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418might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
419linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 420
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421The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
422to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
423than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
424primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
425on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
426end user experience.
427
428The following description divides
429the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
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430the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
431compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
432repositories.
433
89bf2077 434
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435Manipulation commands
436~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 437
377e8139 438include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
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439
440
441Interrogation commands
442~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
443
377e8139 444include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
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445
446In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
447the working tree.
448
449
450Synching repositories
451~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
452
377e8139 453include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 454
57f6ec02 455The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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456typically do not use them directly.
457
458include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
459
460
461Internal helper commands
462~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
463
464These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
465users typically do not use them directly.
466
467include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
468
b1f33d62 469
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470Configuration Mechanism
471-----------------------
472
2fa090b6 473Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
5773c9f2 474is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
addf88e4 475simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
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476people. Here is an example:
477
478------------
479#
2fa090b6 480# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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481#
482
483; core variables
484[core]
485 ; Don't trust file modes
486 filemode = false
487
488; user identity
489[user]
490 name = "Junio C Hamano"
491 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
492
493------------
494
495Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
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496their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
497list.
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498
499
6c84e2e0 500Identifier Terminology
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501----------------------
502<object>::
2fa090b6 503 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
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504
505<blob>::
2fa090b6 506 Indicates a blob object name.
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507
508<tree>::
2fa090b6 509 Indicates a tree object name.
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510
511<commit>::
2fa090b6 512 Indicates a commit object name.
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513
514<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 515 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
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516 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
517 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
518 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 519
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520<commit-ish>::
521 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
522 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
523 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
524 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
525
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526<type>::
527 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 528 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
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529
530<file>::
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531 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
532 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 533
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534Symbolic Identifiers
535--------------------
90933efb 536Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 537symbolic notation:
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538
539HEAD::
0abcfbff 540 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 541
c1bdacf9 542<tag>::
2fa090b6 543 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 544 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 545
c1bdacf9 546<head>::
2fa090b6 547 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 548 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 549
d47107d8 550For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 551"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 552
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553
554File/Directory Structure
555------------------------
c1bdacf9 556
6998e4db 557Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 558
6998e4db 559Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 560
c1bdacf9 561Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 562`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 563
a1d4aa74 564
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565Terminology
566-----------
6998e4db 567Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
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568
569
570Environment Variables
571---------------------
572Various git commands use the following environment variables:
573
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574The git Repository
575~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
576These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
577is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2fa090b6 578git so take care if using Cogito etc.
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579
580'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
581 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
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582 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
583 is used.
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584
585'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
586 If the object storage directory is specified via this
587 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
588 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
589 directory is used.
590
591'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
592 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
593 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
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594 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
595 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
596 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
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597
598'GIT_DIR'::
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599 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
600 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
601 for the base of the repository.
c1bdacf9 602
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603'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
604 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
605 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
606 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
607 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
608 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
609
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610'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
611 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
612 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
613
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614'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
615 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
616 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
617 up into while looking for a repository directory.
618 It will not exclude the current working directory or
619 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
620 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
621
cf87463e 622'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
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623 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
624 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
625 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
626 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
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627 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
628 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
629 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
630 command line.
8030e442 631
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632git Commits
633~~~~~~~~~~~
634'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
635'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
636'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
637'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
638'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 639'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 640'EMAIL'::
5162e697 641 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
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642
643git Diffs
644~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 645'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
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646 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
647 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
648 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
649 value passed on the git diff command line.
650
d81ed1b5 651'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
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652 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
653 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
654 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
655 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
656
657 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
658+
659where:
660
661 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
662 contents of <old|new>,
663 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
664 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
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665+
666The file parameters can point at the user's working file
667(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
668when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
669index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
670temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
671+
672For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
673parameter, <path>.
2cf565c5 674
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675other
676~~~~~
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677'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
678 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
679 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 680 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 681
c27d205a 682'GIT_PAGER'::
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683 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
684 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
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685 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
686 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 687
d5538b41 688'GIT_SSH'::
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689 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
690 and 'git push' will use this command instead
2fd02c92 691 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
483bc4f0 692 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
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693 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
694 shell command to execute on that remote system.
695+
696To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
697you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
698then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
699+
700Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
701personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
702for further details.
703
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704'GIT_ASKPASS'::
705 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
706 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
707 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
708 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
709 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
710
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711'GIT_FLUSH'::
712 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
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713 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
714 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
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715 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
716 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
717 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
718 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
719 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
720
575ba9d6 721'GIT_TRACE'::
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722 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
723 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
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724 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
725 execution and external command execution.
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726 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
727 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
728 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
729 trace messages into this file descriptor.
730 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
731 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
732 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
733 into it.
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735Discussion[[Discussion]]
736------------------------
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737
738More detail on the following is available from the
739link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 740user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
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741
742A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
743subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
744things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
745of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
746contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
747as tags and branch heads.
748
749The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
750hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 751directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
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752and some number of parent commits.
753
754The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
755"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
756represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
757parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
758
759All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
760written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
761The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
762just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
763purpose.
764
765When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
766efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
767
768Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
769may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
770with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
02ff6250 771recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
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772tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
773`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
774
775The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
776path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
777the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
778attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
779corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
780working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
781be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
782content stored in the index.
783
784The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
785for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
786unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 787
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788Authors
789-------
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790Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
791C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
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792<git@vger.kernel.org>. For a more complete list of contributors, see
793http://git-scm.com/about. If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
794output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
795the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 796
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797Reporting Bugs
798--------------
799
800Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
801development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
802subscribed to the list to send a message there.
803
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804SEE ALSO
805--------
806linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
5cbef01a 807link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 808linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
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809linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
810linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 811
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812GIT
813---
9e1f0a85 814Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite