push: add '--prune' option
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
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1git-push(1)
2===========
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
97925fde 11[verse]
9f67fee2 12'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
6ddba5e2 13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
e3163c75 14 [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
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15
16DESCRIPTION
17-----------
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18
19Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
20necessary to complete the given refs.
7fc9d69f 21
cc55aaec 22You can make interesting things happen to a repository
eb0362a4 23every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
5162e697 24documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
eb0362a4 25
7fc9d69f 26
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27OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
28------------------
3598a308 29<repository>::
85a97d4e 30 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
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31 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
32 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
33 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
3598a308 34
2c9693bd 35<refspec>...::
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36 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
37 `{plus}`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
38 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
39 It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
40 in the remote repository is to be updated.
3598a308 41+
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42The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
43it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
9d83e382 44`HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]).
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46The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
47push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
48be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
49updated.
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51The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
52on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
a75d7b54 53update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `{plus}`,
149f6ddf 54you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
a75d7b54 55fast-forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
149f6ddf 56EXAMPLES below for details.
3598a308 57+
80391846 58`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
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59+
60Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
61the remote repository.
a83619d6 62+
a75d7b54 63The special refspec `:` (or `{plus}:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
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64directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
65the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
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66already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
67if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
68nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
7fc9d69f 69
3240240f 70--all::
cc55aaec 71 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 72 refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
d6a73596 73
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74--prune::
75 Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example
76 a remote branch `tmp` will be removed if a local branch with the same
77 name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs, e.g.
78 `git push --prune remote refs/heads/{asterisk}:refs/tmp/{asterisk}` would
79 make sure that remote `refs/tmp/foo` will be removed if `refs/heads/foo`
80 doesn't exist.
81
3240240f 82--mirror::
ff206748 83 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 84 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
73f03627 85 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
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86 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
87 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
88 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
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89 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
90 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
91 set.
ff206748 92
9f67fee2 93-n::
3240240f 94--dry-run::
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95 Do everything except actually send the updates.
96
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97--porcelain::
98 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
99 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
100 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
101
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102--delete::
103 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
104 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
105
3240240f 106--tags::
cc1b8d8b 107 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
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108 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
109 line.
110
3240240f 111--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
4fc988ef 112--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
ba020ef5 113 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
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114 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
115 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
116 a directory on the default $PATH.
117
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118-f::
119--force::
f0fff36e 120 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
64a476e6 121 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
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122 This flag disables the check. This can cause the
123 remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
7fc9d69f 124
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125--repo=<repository>::
126 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
0b444cdb 127 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
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128 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
129 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
130 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
131 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
132 the difference between these two commands
133+
134--------------------------
135git push public #1
136git push --repo=public #2
137--------------------------
138+
139is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
140only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
0b444cdb 141useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
dc36f265 142
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143-u::
144--set-upstream::
145 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
146 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
147 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
148 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
149
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150--thin::
151--no-thin::
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152 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
153 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
154 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
155 \--thin.
dc36f265 156
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157-q::
158--quiet::
159 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
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160 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
161 error stream.
989119d9 162
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163-v::
164--verbose::
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165 Run verbosely.
166
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167--progress::
168 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
169 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
170 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
171 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
989119d9 172
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173--recurse-submodules=check::
174 Check whether all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
175 pushed are available on a remote tracking branch. Otherwise the
176 push will be aborted and the command will exit with non-zero status.
177
178
37ba0561 179include::urls-remotes.txt[]
eb0362a4 180
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181OUTPUT
182------
183
184The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
185section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
186locally or via ssh).
187
188The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
189representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
190
191-------------------------------
192 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
193-------------------------------
194
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195If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
196
197-------------------------------
198 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
199-------------------------------
200
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201The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
202option is used.
203
066a5268 204flag::
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205 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
206(space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
207`{plus}`;; for a successful forced update;
208`-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
209`*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
210`!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
211`=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
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212
213summary::
214 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
215 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
216 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
b9190e79 217 `<old>\...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
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218+
219For a failed update, more details are given:
220+
221--
222rejected::
223 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
224 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
225
226remote rejected::
227 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
228 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
229 of the following safety options in effect:
230 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
231 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
232 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
233 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
234
235remote failure::
236 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
237 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
238 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
239--
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240
241from::
242 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
243 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
244 name of the local ref is omitted.
245
246to::
247 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
248 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
249
250reason::
251 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
252 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
253 failure is described.
bb9fca80 254
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255Note about fast-forwards
256------------------------
257
258When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
259point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
260fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
261
262In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
263commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
264builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
265
266In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
267suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
268a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
269leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
270
271----------------
272
273 B
274 /
275 ---X---A
276
277----------------
278
279Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
280back to the original repository you two obtained the original commit X.
281
282The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
283commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
284
285But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
286now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
287so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
288will now start building on top of B.
289
290The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
291to prevent such loss of history.
292
293If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
294the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
295history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
296by both parties, and push the result back.
297
298You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
299the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
300and B.
301
302----------------
303
304 B---C
305 / /
306 ---X---A
307
308----------------
309
310Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
311push will be accepted.
312
313Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
314with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
315create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
316A.
317
318----------------
319
320 B D
321 / /
322 ---X---A
323
324----------------
325
326Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
327accepted.
328
329There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
330rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
331pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
332A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
333commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
334forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
335you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
336(and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
337overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
338a case where you do mean to lose history.
339
340
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341Examples
342--------
343
5d2fc913 344`git push`::
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345 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
346 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
347 configured for the current branch).
348
5d2fc913 349`git push origin`::
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350 Without additional configuration, works like
351 `git push origin :`.
352+
353The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
354configured by setting the `push` option of the remote.
355+
356For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
357use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
358the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
359`git push origin`.
360
5d2fc913 361`git push origin :`::
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362 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
363 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
364 description of "matching" branches.
365
5d2fc913 366`git push origin master`::
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367 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
368 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
369 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
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370 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
371 created.
bb9fca80 372
5d2fc913 373`git push origin HEAD`::
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374 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
375 remote.
bb9fca80 376
5d2fc913 377`git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev`::
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378 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
379 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
380 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `origin` repository, then
381 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
bb9fca80 382
5d2fc913 383`git push origin HEAD:master`::
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384 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
385 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
386 branch without thinking about its local name.
387
5d2fc913 388`git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental`::
4e560158 389 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
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390 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
391 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
392 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
393 the ref name on its own will work.
4e560158 394
5d2fc913 395`git push origin :experimental`::
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396 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
397 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
398
5d2fc913 399`git push origin {plus}dev:master`::
149f6ddf 400 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
a75d7b54 401 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
149f6ddf 402 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
a75d7b54 403 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
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404+
405----
406 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
407 \
408 X---Y---Z dev
409----
410+
411The above command would change the origin repository to
412+
413----
414 A---B (unnamed branch)
415 /
416 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
417----
418+
419Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
420and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
421a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
422
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423GIT
424---
9e1f0a85 425Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite