Documentation/git-clone: describe --mirror more verbosely
[git/git.git] / t / README
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1Core GIT Tests
2==============
3
4This directory holds many test scripts for core GIT tools. The
5first part of this short document describes how to run the tests
6and read their output.
7
8When fixing the tools or adding enhancements, you are strongly
9encouraged to add tests in this directory to cover what you are
10trying to fix or enhance. The later part of this short document
11describes how your test scripts should be organized.
12
13
14Running Tests
15-------------
16
17The easiest way to run tests is to say "make". This runs all
18the tests.
19
20 *** t0000-basic.sh ***
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21 ok 1 - .git/objects should be empty after git init in an empty repo.
22 ok 2 - .git/objects should have 3 subdirectories.
23 ok 3 - success is reported like this
986aa7f1 24 ...
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25 ok 43 - very long name in the index handled sanely
26 # fixed 1 known breakage(s)
27 # still have 1 known breakage(s)
28 # passed all remaining 42 test(s)
29 1..43
30 *** t0001-init.sh ***
31 ok 1 - plain
32 ok 2 - plain with GIT_WORK_TREE
33 ok 3 - plain bare
34
35Since the tests all output TAP (see http://testanything.org) they can
85b0b34e 36be run with any TAP harness. Here's an example of parallel testing
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37powered by a recent version of prove(1):
38
39 $ prove --timer --jobs 15 ./t[0-9]*.sh
40 [19:17:33] ./t0005-signals.sh ................................... ok 36 ms
41 [19:17:33] ./t0022-crlf-rename.sh ............................... ok 69 ms
42 [19:17:33] ./t0024-crlf-archive.sh .............................. ok 154 ms
43 [19:17:33] ./t0004-unwritable.sh ................................ ok 289 ms
44 [19:17:33] ./t0002-gitfile.sh ................................... ok 480 ms
45 ===( 102;0 25/? 6/? 5/? 16/? 1/? 4/? 2/? 1/? 3/? 1... )===
46
47prove and other harnesses come with a lot of useful options. The
48--state option in particular is very useful:
49
50 # Repeat until no more failures
51 $ prove -j 15 --state=failed,save ./t[0-9]*.sh
986aa7f1 52
5099b99d 53You can also run each test individually from command line, like this:
986aa7f1 54
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55 $ sh ./t3010-ls-files-killed-modified.sh
56 ok 1 - git update-index --add to add various paths.
57 ok 2 - git ls-files -k to show killed files.
58 ok 3 - validate git ls-files -k output.
59 ok 4 - git ls-files -m to show modified files.
60 ok 5 - validate git ls-files -m output.
61 # passed all 5 test(s)
62 1..5
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63
64You can pass --verbose (or -v), --debug (or -d), and --immediate
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65(or -i) command line argument to the test, or by setting GIT_TEST_OPTS
66appropriately before running "make".
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67
68--verbose::
69 This makes the test more verbose. Specifically, the
70 command being run and their output if any are also
71 output.
72
73--debug::
74 This may help the person who is developing a new test.
75 It causes the command defined with test_debug to run.
76
77--immediate::
78 This causes the test to immediately exit upon the first
79 failed test.
80
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81--long-tests::
82 This causes additional long-running tests to be run (where
83 available), for more exhaustive testing.
84
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85--valgrind::
86 Execute all Git binaries with valgrind and exit with status
87 126 on errors (just like regular tests, this will only stop
88 the test script when running under -i). Valgrind errors
89 go to stderr, so you might want to pass the -v option, too.
986aa7f1 90
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91 Since it makes no sense to run the tests with --valgrind and
92 not see any output, this option implies --verbose. For
93 convenience, it also implies --tee.
94
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95--tee::
96 In addition to printing the test output to the terminal,
97 write it to files named 't/test-results/$TEST_NAME.out'.
98 As the names depend on the tests' file names, it is safe to
99 run the tests with this option in parallel.
100
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101--with-dashes::
102 By default tests are run without dashed forms of
103 commands (like git-commit) in the PATH (it only uses
104 wrappers from ../bin-wrappers). Use this option to include
105 the build directory (..) in the PATH, which contains all
106 the dashed forms of commands. This option is currently
107 implied by other options like --valgrind and
108 GIT_TEST_INSTALLED.
109
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110--root=<directory>::
111 Create "trash" directories used to store all temporary data during
112 testing under <directory>, instead of the t/ directory.
113 Using this option with a RAM-based filesystem (such as tmpfs)
114 can massively speed up the test suite.
115
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116You can also set the GIT_TEST_INSTALLED environment variable to
117the bindir of an existing git installation to test that installation.
118You still need to have built this git sandbox, from which various
119test-* support programs, templates, and perl libraries are used.
120If your installed git is incomplete, it will silently test parts of
121your built version instead.
122
123When using GIT_TEST_INSTALLED, you can also set GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH to
124override the location of the dashed-form subcommands (what
125GIT_EXEC_PATH would be used for during normal operation).
126GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH defaults to `$GIT_TEST_INSTALLED/git --exec-path`.
127
128
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129Skipping Tests
130--------------
131
132In some environments, certain tests have no way of succeeding
133due to platform limitation, such as lack of 'unzip' program, or
134filesystem that do not allow arbitrary sequence of non-NUL bytes
135as pathnames.
136
137You should be able to say something like
138
139 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS=t9200.8 sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh
140
141and even:
142
143 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS='t[0-4]??? t91?? t9200.8' make
144
145to omit such tests. The value of the environment variable is a
146SP separated list of patterns that tells which tests to skip,
147and either can match the "t[0-9]{4}" part to skip the whole
148test, or t[0-9]{4} followed by ".$number" to say which
149particular test to skip.
150
151Note that some tests in the existing test suite rely on previous
152test item, so you cannot arbitrarily disable one and expect the
153remainder of test to check what the test originally was intended
154to check.
155
156
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157Naming Tests
158------------
159
160The test files are named as:
161
162 tNNNN-commandname-details.sh
163
164where N is a decimal digit.
165
166First digit tells the family:
167
168 0 - the absolute basics and global stuff
169 1 - the basic commands concerning database
170 2 - the basic commands concerning the working tree
171 3 - the other basic commands (e.g. ls-files)
172 4 - the diff commands
173 5 - the pull and exporting commands
174 6 - the revision tree commands (even e.g. merge-base)
8f4a9b62 175 7 - the porcelainish commands concerning the working tree
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176 8 - the porcelainish commands concerning forensics
177 9 - the git tools
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178
179Second digit tells the particular command we are testing.
180
181Third digit (optionally) tells the particular switch or group of switches
182we are testing.
183
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184If you create files under t/ directory (i.e. here) that is not
185the top-level test script, never name the file to match the above
186pattern. The Makefile here considers all such files as the
187top-level test script and tries to run all of them. A care is
188especially needed if you are creating a common test library
189file, similar to test-lib.sh, because such a library file may
190not be suitable for standalone execution.
191
f50c9f76 192
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193Writing Tests
194-------------
195
196The test script is written as a shell script. It should start
197with the standard "#!/bin/sh" with copyright notices, and an
198assignment to variable 'test_description', like this:
199
200 #!/bin/sh
201 #
202 # Copyright (c) 2005 Junio C Hamano
203 #
204
14cd1ff3 205 test_description='xxx test (option --frotz)
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206
207 This test registers the following structure in the cache
208 and tries to run git-ls-files with option --frotz.'
209
f50c9f76 210
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211Source 'test-lib.sh'
212--------------------
213
214After assigning test_description, the test script should source
215test-lib.sh like this:
216
217 . ./test-lib.sh
218
219This test harness library does the following things:
220
221 - If the script is invoked with command line argument --help
222 (or -h), it shows the test_description and exits.
223
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224 - Creates an empty test directory with an empty .git/objects database
225 and chdir(2) into it. This directory is 't/trash
226 directory.$test_name_without_dotsh', with t/ subject to change by
227 the --root option documented above.
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228
229 - Defines standard test helper functions for your scripts to
230 use. These functions are designed to make all scripts behave
231 consistently when command line arguments --verbose (or -v),
232 --debug (or -d), and --immediate (or -i) is given.
233
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234Do's, don'ts & things to keep in mind
235-------------------------------------
236
6fd45295 237Here are a few examples of things you probably should and shouldn't do
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238when writing tests.
239
240Do:
241
6fd45295 242 - Put all code inside test_expect_success and other assertions.
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243
244 Even code that isn't a test per se, but merely some setup code
6fd45295 245 should be inside a test assertion.
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246
247 - Chain your test assertions
248
249 Write test code like this:
250
251 git merge foo &&
252 git push bar &&
253 test ...
254
255 Instead of:
256
257 git merge hla
258 git push gh
259 test ...
260
261 That way all of the commands in your tests will succeed or fail. If
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262 you must ignore the return value of something (e.g., the return
263 after unsetting a variable that was already unset is unportable) it's
264 best to indicate so explicitly with a semicolon:
20873f45 265
bdcaa325 266 unset HLAGH;
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267 git merge hla &&
268 git push gh &&
269 test ...
270
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271 - Check the test coverage for your tests. See the "Test coverage"
272 below.
273
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274 Don't blindly follow test coverage metrics, they're a good way to
275 spot if you've missed something. If a new function you added
276 doesn't have any coverage you're probably doing something wrong,
277 but having 100% coverage doesn't necessarily mean that you tested
278 everything.
279
280 Tests that are likely to smoke out future regressions are better
281 than tests that just inflate the coverage metrics.
282
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283Don't:
284
285 - exit() within a <script> part.
286
287 The harness will catch this as a programming error of the test.
288 Use test_done instead if you need to stop the tests early (see
289 "Skipping tests" below).
290
291 - Break the TAP output
292
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293 The raw output from your test may be interpreted by a TAP harness. TAP
294 harnesses will ignore everything they don't know about, but don't step
295 on their toes in these areas:
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296
297 - Don't print lines like "$x..$y" where $x and $y are integers.
298
299 - Don't print lines that begin with "ok" or "not ok".
300
6fd45295 301 TAP harnesses expect a line that begins with either "ok" and "not
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302 ok" to signal a test passed or failed (and our harness already
303 produces such lines), so your script shouldn't emit such lines to
304 their output.
305
306 You can glean some further possible issues from the TAP grammar
307 (see http://search.cpan.org/perldoc?TAP::Parser::Grammar#TAP_Grammar)
308 but the best indication is to just run the tests with prove(1),
309 it'll complain if anything is amiss.
310
311Keep in mind:
312
6fd45295 313 - Inside <script> part, the standard output and standard error
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314 streams are discarded, and the test harness only reports "ok" or
315 "not ok" to the end user running the tests. Under --verbose, they
316 are shown to help debugging the tests.
317
318
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319Skipping tests
320--------------
321
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322If you need to skip tests you should do so be using the three-arg form
323of the test_* functions (see the "Test harness library" section
324below), e.g.:
325
326 test_expect_success PERL 'I need Perl' "
327 '$PERL_PATH' -e 'hlagh() if unf_unf()'
328 "
329
330The advantage of skipping tests like this is that platforms that don't
331have the PERL and other optional dependencies get an indication of how
332many tests they're missing.
333
334If the test code is too hairy for that (i.e. does a lot of setup work
335outside test assertions) you can also skip all remaining tests by
336setting skip_all and immediately call test_done:
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337
338 if ! test_have_prereq PERL
339 then
340 skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
341 test_done
342 fi
14cd1ff3 343
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344The string you give to skip_all will be used as an explanation for why
345the test was skipped.
346
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347End with test_done
348------------------
349
350Your script will be a sequence of tests, using helper functions
351from the test harness library. At the end of the script, call
352'test_done'.
353
354
355Test harness library
356--------------------
357
358There are a handful helper functions defined in the test harness
359library for your script to use.
360
9a897893 361 - test_expect_success [<prereq>] <message> <script>
986aa7f1 362
9a897893 363 Usually takes two strings as parameter, and evaluates the
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364 <script>. If it yields success, test is considered
365 successful. <message> should state what it is testing.
366
367 Example:
368
369 test_expect_success \
370 'git-write-tree should be able to write an empty tree.' \
371 'tree=$(git-write-tree)'
372
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373 If you supply three parameters the first will be taken to be a
374 prerequisite, see the test_set_prereq and test_have_prereq
375 documentation below:
376
377 test_expect_success TTY 'git --paginate rev-list uses a pager' \
378 ' ... '
379
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380 You can also supply a comma-separated list of prerequisites, in the
381 rare case where your test depends on more than one:
382
383 test_expect_success PERL,PYTHON 'yo dawg' \
384 ' test $(perl -E 'print eval "1 +" . qx[python -c "print 2"]') == "4" '
385
9a897893 386 - test_expect_failure [<prereq>] <message> <script>
986aa7f1 387
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388 This is NOT the opposite of test_expect_success, but is used
389 to mark a test that demonstrates a known breakage. Unlike
390 the usual test_expect_success tests, which say "ok" on
391 success and "FAIL" on failure, this will say "FIXED" on
392 success and "still broken" on failure. Failures from these
393 tests won't cause -i (immediate) to stop.
986aa7f1 394
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395 Like test_expect_success this function can optionally use a three
396 argument invocation with a prerequisite as the first argument.
397
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398 - test_expect_code [<prereq>] <code> <message> <script>
399
400 Analogous to test_expect_success, but pass the test if it exits
401 with a given exit <code>
402
403 test_expect_code 1 'Merge with d/f conflicts' 'git merge "merge msg" B master'
404
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405 - test_debug <script>
406
407 This takes a single argument, <script>, and evaluates it only
408 when the test script is started with --debug command line
409 argument. This is primarily meant for use during the
410 development of a new test script.
411
412 - test_done
413
414 Your test script must have test_done at the end. Its purpose
415 is to summarize successes and failures in the test script and
416 exit with an appropriate error code.
417
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418 - test_tick
419
420 Make commit and tag names consistent by setting the author and
421 committer times to defined stated. Subsequent calls will
422 advance the times by a fixed amount.
423
424 - test_commit <message> [<filename> [<contents>]]
425
426 Creates a commit with the given message, committing the given
427 file with the given contents (default for both is to reuse the
428 message string), and adds a tag (again reusing the message
429 string as name). Calls test_tick to make the SHA-1s
430 reproducible.
431
432 - test_merge <message> <commit-or-tag>
433
434 Merges the given rev using the given message. Like test_commit,
435 creates a tag and calls test_tick before committing.
986aa7f1 436
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437 - test_set_prereq SOME_PREREQ
438
439 Set a test prerequisite to be used later with test_have_prereq. The
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440 test-lib will set some prerequisites for you, see the
441 "Prerequisites" section below for a full list of these.
442
443 Others you can set yourself and use later with either
444 test_have_prereq directly, or the three argument invocation of
445 test_expect_success and test_expect_failure.
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446
447 - test_have_prereq SOME PREREQ
448
449 Check if we have a prerequisite previously set with
450 test_set_prereq. The most common use of this directly is to skip
451 all the tests if we don't have some essential prerequisite:
452
453 if ! test_have_prereq PERL
454 then
455 skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
456 test_done
457 fi
458
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459 - test_external [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>
460
461 Execute a <script> with an <external> interpreter (like perl). This
462 was added for tests like t9700-perl-git.sh which do most of their
463 work in an external test script.
464
465 test_external \
466 'GitwebCache::*FileCache*' \
467 "$PERL_PATH" "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9503/test_cache_interface.pl
468
469 If the test is outputting its own TAP you should set the
470 test_external_has_tap variable somewhere before calling the first
471 test_external* function. See t9700-perl-git.sh for an example.
472
473 # The external test will outputs its own plan
474 test_external_has_tap=1
475
476 - test_external_without_stderr [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>
477
478 Like test_external but fail if there's any output on stderr,
479 instead of checking the exit code.
480
481 test_external_without_stderr \
482 'Perl API' \
483 "$PERL_PATH" "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9700/test.pl
484
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485 - test_must_fail <git-command>
486
487 Run a git command and ensure it fails in a controlled way. Use
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488 this instead of "! <git-command>". When git-command dies due to a
489 segfault, test_must_fail diagnoses it as an error; "! <git-command>"
490 treats it as just another expected failure, which would let such a
491 bug go unnoticed.
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492
493 - test_might_fail <git-command>
494
495 Similar to test_must_fail, but tolerate success, too. Use this
496 instead of "<git-command> || :" to catch failures due to segv.
497
498 - test_cmp <expected> <actual>
499
500 Check whether the content of the <actual> file matches the
501 <expected> file. This behaves like "cmp" but produces more
502 helpful output when the test is run with "-v" option.
503
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504 - test_path_is_file <file> [<diagnosis>]
505 test_path_is_dir <dir> [<diagnosis>]
506 test_path_is_missing <path> [<diagnosis>]
507
508 Check whether a file/directory exists or doesn't. <diagnosis> will
509 be displayed if the test fails.
510
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511 - test_when_finished <script>
512
513 Prepend <script> to a list of commands to run to clean up
514 at the end of the current test. If some clean-up command
515 fails, the test will not pass.
516
517 Example:
518
519 test_expect_success 'branch pointing to non-commit' '
520 git rev-parse HEAD^{tree} >.git/refs/heads/invalid &&
521 test_when_finished "git update-ref -d refs/heads/invalid" &&
522 ...
523 '
524
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525Prerequisites
526-------------
527
528These are the prerequisites that the test library predefines with
529test_have_prereq.
530
531See the prereq argument to the test_* functions in the "Test harness
532library" section above and the "test_have_prereq" function for how to
533use these, and "test_set_prereq" for how to define your own.
534
535 - PERL & PYTHON
536
537 Git wasn't compiled with NO_PERL=YesPlease or
538 NO_PYTHON=YesPlease. Wrap any tests that need Perl or Python in
539 these.
540
541 - POSIXPERM
542
543 The filesystem supports POSIX style permission bits.
544
545 - BSLASHPSPEC
546
547 Backslashes in pathspec are not directory separators. This is not
548 set on Windows. See 6fd1106a for details.
549
550 - EXECKEEPSPID
551
552 The process retains the same pid across exec(2). See fb9a2bea for
553 details.
554
555 - SYMLINKS
556
557 The filesystem we're on supports symbolic links. E.g. a FAT
558 filesystem doesn't support these. See 704a3143 for details.
2fac6a4b 559
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560 - SANITY
561
562 Test is not run by root user, and an attempt to write to an
563 unwritable file is expected to fail correctly.
2fac6a4b 564
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565Tips for Writing Tests
566----------------------
567
568As with any programming projects, existing programs are the best
569source of the information. However, do _not_ emulate
570t0000-basic.sh when writing your tests. The test is special in
571that it tries to validate the very core of GIT. For example, it
572knows that there will be 256 subdirectories under .git/objects/,
573and it knows that the object ID of an empty tree is a certain
57440-byte string. This is deliberately done so in t0000-basic.sh
575because the things the very basic core test tries to achieve is
576to serve as a basis for people who are changing the GIT internal
577drastically. For these people, after making certain changes,
578not seeing failures from the basic test _is_ a failure. And
579such drastic changes to the core GIT that even changes these
580otherwise supposedly stable object IDs should be accompanied by
581an update to t0000-basic.sh.
582
583However, other tests that simply rely on basic parts of the core
584GIT working properly should not have that level of intimate
585knowledge of the core GIT internals. If all the test scripts
586hardcoded the object IDs like t0000-basic.sh does, that defeats
587the purpose of t0000-basic.sh, which is to isolate that level of
588validation in one place. Your test also ends up needing
589updating when such a change to the internal happens, so do _not_
590do it and leave the low level of validation to t0000-basic.sh.
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592Test coverage
593-------------
594
595You can use the coverage tests to find code paths that are not being
596used or properly exercised yet.
597
598To do that, run the coverage target at the top-level (not in the t/
599directory):
600
601 make coverage
602
603That'll compile Git with GCC's coverage arguments, and generate a test
604report with gcov after the tests finish. Running the coverage tests
605can take a while, since running the tests in parallel is incompatible
606with GCC's coverage mode.
607
608After the tests have run you can generate a list of untested
609functions:
610
611 make coverage-untested-functions
612
613You can also generate a detailed per-file HTML report using the
614Devel::Cover module. To install it do:
615
616 # On Debian or Ubuntu:
617 sudo aptitude install libdevel-cover-perl
618
619 # From the CPAN with cpanminus
620 curl -L http://cpanmin.us | perl - --sudo --self-upgrade
621 cpanm --sudo Devel::Cover
622
623Then, at the top-level:
624
625 make cover_db_html
626
627That'll generate a detailed cover report in the "cover_db_html"
628directory, which you can then copy to a webserver, or inspect locally
629in a browser.
630
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631Smoke testing
632-------------
633
634The Git test suite has support for smoke testing. Smoke testing is
635when you submit the results of a test run to a central server for
636analysis and aggregation.
637
638Running a smoke tester is an easy and valuable way of contributing to
639Git development, particularly if you have access to an uncommon OS on
640obscure hardware.
641
642After building Git you can generate a smoke report like this in the
643"t" directory:
644
645 make clean smoke
646
647You can also pass arguments via the environment. This should make it
648faster:
649
650 GIT_TEST_OPTS='--root=/dev/shm' TEST_JOBS=10 make clean smoke
651
652The "smoke" target will run the Git test suite with Perl's
653"TAP::Harness" module, and package up the results in a .tar.gz archive
654with "TAP::Harness::Archive". The former is included with Perl v5.10.1
655or later, but you'll need to install the latter from the CPAN. See the
656"Test coverage" section above for how you might do that.
657
658Once the "smoke" target finishes you'll see a message like this:
659
660 TAP Archive created at <path to git>/t/test-results/git-smoke.tar.gz
661
662To upload the smoke report you need to have curl(1) installed, then
663do:
664
665 make smoke_report
666
667To upload the report anonymously. Hopefully that'll return something
668like "Reported #7 added.".
669
670If you're going to be uploading reports frequently please request a
671user account by E-Mailing gitsmoke@v.nix.is. Once you have a username
672and password you'll be able to do:
673
674 SMOKE_USERNAME=<username> SMOKE_PASSWORD=<password> make smoke_report
675
e38efac8
ÆAB
676You can also add an additional comment to attach to the report, and/or
677a comma separated list of tags:
678
679 SMOKE_USERNAME=<username> SMOKE_PASSWORD=<password> \
680 SMOKE_COMMENT=<comment> SMOKE_TAGS=<tags> \
681 make smoke_report
682
d15e9ebc
ÆAB
683Once the report is uploaded it'll be made available at
684http://smoke.git.nix.is, here's an overview of Recent Smoke Reports
685for Git:
686
687 http://smoke.git.nix.is/app/projects/smoke_reports/1
688
689The reports will also be mirrored to GitHub every few hours:
690
691 http://github.com/gitsmoke/smoke-reports
692
693The Smolder SQLite database is also mirrored and made available for
694download:
695
696 http://github.com/gitsmoke/smoke-database
697
698Note that the database includes hashed (with crypt()) user passwords
699and E-Mail addresses. Don't use a valuable password for the smoke
700service if you have an account, or an E-Mail address you don't want to
701be publicly known. The user accounts are just meant to be convenient
702labels, they're not meant to be secure.