trace: improve trace performance
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
44e1e4d6 12'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
68e4b552 13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
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25link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
26commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27in-depth introduction.
cb22bc44 28
7687ae98 29After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
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30page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
06ab60c0 32manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
4514ad4f 33
2de9b711 34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
7687ae98 35can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
34b604af 36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
2ff3f61a 41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
06ab60c0 42unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
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43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
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46* link:v2.0.0/git.html[documentation for release 2.0]
47
48* release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
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360 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
361 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
362 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
363 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
364 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
365 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
366 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
367 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
368 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 369
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370* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
371
aba170cd 372* release notes for
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373 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
374 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
375 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
376 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
377 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
378 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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379
380* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
381
382* release notes for
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383 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
384 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
385 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
386 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
387 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
388 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
389 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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390
391* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
392
aba170cd 393* release notes for
761e742d
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394 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
395 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
396 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
397 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
398 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
399 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
400 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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401
402* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
403 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
404 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
405 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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406
407============
408
409endif::stalenotes[]
410
cb22bc44
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411OPTIONS
412-------
413--version::
2de9b711 414 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
cb22bc44
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415
416--help::
a87cd02c 417 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
0f6f195b 418 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
2de9b711 419 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
0f6f195b 420 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
45533d26
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421+
422Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 423displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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424because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
425help ...`.
cb22bc44 426
44e1e4d6
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427-C <path>::
428 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
429 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
430 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
431 <path>`.
432+
433This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
434`--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
435made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
436example the following invocations are equivalent:
437
438 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
439 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
440
8b1fa778
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441-c <name>=<value>::
442 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
443 given will override values from configuration files.
444 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
445 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
446
62b4698e 447--exec-path[=<path>]::
2de9b711 448 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 449 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 450 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
cb22bc44
AE
451 the current setting and then exit.
452
89a56bfb 453--html-path::
2de9b711 454 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
239b5ed9 455 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 456
f2dd8c37 457--man-path::
239b5ed9 458 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
2de9b711 459 this version of Git and exit.
f2dd8c37
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460
461--info-path::
239b5ed9 462 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
2de9b711 463 version of Git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 464
3240240f
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465-p::
466--paginate::
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467 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
468 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
469 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
470 below).
6acbcb92 471
463a849d 472--no-pager::
2de9b711 473 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
463a849d 474
6acbcb92
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475--git-dir=<path>::
476 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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477 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
478 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 479
892c41b9 480--work-tree=<path>::
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481 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
482 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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483 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
484 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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485 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
486 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 487
d49483f0 488--namespace=<path>::
2de9b711 489 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
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490 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
491 variable.
492
6acbcb92 493--bare::
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494 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
495 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
496 directory.
497
b0fa7ab5 498--no-replace-objects::
2de9b711 499 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
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500 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
501
823ab40f 502--literal-pathspecs::
a16bf9dd
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503 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
504 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
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505 variable to `1`.
506
6fb02165 507--glob-pathspecs::
bd30c2e4
NTND
508 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
509 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
510 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
511 magic ":(literal)"
512
6fb02165 513--noglob-pathspecs::
bd30c2e4
NTND
514 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
515 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
516 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
517 magic ":(glob)"
9755afbd 518
6fb02165 519--icase-pathspecs::
93d93537
NTND
520 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
521 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
9755afbd 522
23091e95
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523GIT COMMANDS
524------------
9755afbd 525
2de9b711 526We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
23091e95 527("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 528
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529High-level commands (porcelain)
530-------------------------------
531
532We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
533ancillary user utilities.
534
535Main porcelain commands
536~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 537
377e8139 538include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 539
90933efb 540Ancillary Commands
23091e95 541~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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542Manipulators:
543
377e8139 544include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 545
90933efb 546Interrogators:
204ee6a9 547
377e8139 548include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 549
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550
551Interacting with Others
552~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
553
554These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
555people via patch over e-mail.
556
557include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
558
559
b1f33d62
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560Low-level commands (plumbing)
561-----------------------------
562
2de9b711 563Although Git includes its
b1f33d62
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564own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
565development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
5162e697
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566might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
567linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 568
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569The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
570to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
571than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
572primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
573on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
574end user experience.
575
576The following description divides
577the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
b1f33d62
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578the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
579compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
580repositories.
581
89bf2077 582
b1f33d62
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583Manipulation commands
584~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 585
377e8139 586include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
b1f33d62
RR
587
588
589Interrogation commands
590~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
591
377e8139 592include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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593
594In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
595the working tree.
596
597
598Synching repositories
599~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
600
377e8139 601include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 602
57f6ec02 603The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
89bf2077
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604typically do not use them directly.
605
606include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
607
608
609Internal helper commands
610~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
611
612These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
613users typically do not use them directly.
614
615include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
616
b1f33d62 617
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618Configuration Mechanism
619-----------------------
620
c0179c0d
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621Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
622repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
623like this:
5773c9f2
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624
625------------
626#
2fa090b6 627# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
5773c9f2
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628#
629
630; core variables
631[core]
632 ; Don't trust file modes
633 filemode = false
634
635; user identity
636[user]
637 name = "Junio C Hamano"
c0179c0d 638 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
5773c9f2
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639
640------------
641
642Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
06300d97 643their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
c0179c0d 644list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
5773c9f2
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645
646
6c84e2e0 647Identifier Terminology
2cf565c5
DG
648----------------------
649<object>::
2fa090b6 650 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
2cf565c5
DG
651
652<blob>::
2fa090b6 653 Indicates a blob object name.
2cf565c5
DG
654
655<tree>::
2fa090b6 656 Indicates a tree object name.
2cf565c5
DG
657
658<commit>::
2fa090b6 659 Indicates a commit object name.
2cf565c5
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660
661<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 662 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
6c84e2e0
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663 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
664 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
665 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 666
043d7605
TT
667<commit-ish>::
668 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
669 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
670 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
671 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
672
2cf565c5
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673<type>::
674 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 675 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
2cf565c5
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676
677<file>::
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678 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
679 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 680
c1bdacf9
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681Symbolic Identifiers
682--------------------
2de9b711 683Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 684symbolic notation:
c1bdacf9
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685
686HEAD::
0abcfbff 687 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 688
c1bdacf9 689<tag>::
2fa090b6 690 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 691 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 692
c1bdacf9 693<head>::
2fa090b6 694 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 695 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 696
d47107d8 697For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 698"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 699
c1bdacf9
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700
701File/Directory Structure
702------------------------
c1bdacf9 703
6998e4db 704Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 705
6998e4db 706Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 707
c1bdacf9 708Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 709`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 710
a1d4aa74 711
2cf565c5
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712Terminology
713-----------
6998e4db 714Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
2cf565c5
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715
716
717Environment Variables
718---------------------
2de9b711 719Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
2cf565c5 720
2de9b711 721The Git Repository
c1bdacf9 722~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2de9b711 723These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
c1bdacf9 724is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2de9b711 725Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
c1bdacf9
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726
727'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
728 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
5f3aa197
LS
729 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
730 is used.
c1bdacf9 731
136347d7
TG
732'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
733 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
734 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
735 files. By default index file version [23] is used.
736
c1bdacf9
DG
737'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
738 If the object storage directory is specified via this
739 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
740 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
741 directory is used.
742
743'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
2de9b711 744 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
c1bdacf9 745 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
80ba074f 746 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
2de9b711 747 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
80ba074f 748 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
c1bdacf9
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749
750'GIT_DIR'::
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751 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
752 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
753 for the base of the repository.
75940a00 754 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
c1bdacf9 755
892c41b9 756'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
a758a349 757 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
06ab60c0 758 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
892c41b9
ML
759 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
760
d49483f0 761'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
2de9b711 762 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
d49483f0
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763 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
764
0454dd93 765'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
7ec30aaa 766 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
3e07d268 767 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
7ec30aaa
MH
768 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
769 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
770 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
771 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
772 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
773 might be present in order to compare them with the current
774 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
775 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
776 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
777 e.g.,
778 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
0454dd93 779
cf87463e 780'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
e6405517 781 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
2de9b711 782 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
e6405517
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783 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
784 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
2de9b711 785 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
cf87463e
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786 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
787 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
788 command line.
8030e442 789
2de9b711 790Git Commits
c1bdacf9
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791~~~~~~~~~~~
792'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
793'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
794'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
795'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
796'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 797'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 798'EMAIL'::
5162e697 799 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
c1bdacf9 800
2de9b711 801Git Diffs
c1bdacf9 802~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 803'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
fde97d8a
SE
804 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
805 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
806 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
2de9b711 807 value passed on the Git diff command line.
fde97d8a 808
d81ed1b5 809'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
fde97d8a
SE
810 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
811 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
812 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
813 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
814
815 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
816+
817where:
818
819 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
820 contents of <old|new>,
d5fa1f1a 821 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
fde97d8a 822 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
fde97d8a
SE
823+
824The file parameters can point at the user's working file
825(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
826when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
827index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
828temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
829+
830For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
831parameter, <path>.
ee7fb0b1
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832+
833For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
834'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
835
836'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
837 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
838
839'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
840 The total number of paths.
2cf565c5 841
575ba9d6
ML
842other
843~~~~~
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844'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
845 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
846 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 847 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 848
c27d205a 849'GIT_PAGER'::
a7738c77 850 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
2de9b711 851 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
ab54cd6c
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852 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
853 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 854
36384c97
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855'GIT_EDITOR'::
856 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
2de9b711 857 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
36384c97
RSM
858 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
859 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
860
d5538b41 861'GIT_SSH'::
0b444cdb
TR
862 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
863 and 'git push' will use this command instead
2fd02c92 864 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
e39c695d
DB
865 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two or
866 four arguments: the 'username@host' (or just 'host')
867 from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
868 remote system, optionally preceded by '-p' (literally) and
869 the 'port' from the URL when it specifies something other
870 than the default SSH port.
d5538b41
SP
871+
872To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
873you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
874then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
875+
876Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
877personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
878for further details.
879
453842c9 880'GIT_ASKPASS'::
2de9b711 881 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
453842c9 882 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
06ab60c0 883 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
453842c9
KF
884 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
885 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
886
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887'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
888 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
889 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
890 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
891 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
892 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
893 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
894
06f59e9f
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895'GIT_FLUSH'::
896 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
0b444cdb 897 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
627a8b8d 898 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
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899 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
900 flushed. If this
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901 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
902 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
2de9b711 903 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
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904 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
905
575ba9d6 906'GIT_TRACE'::
2886bdb1 907 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
2de9b711 908 is case insensitive), Git will print `trace:` messages on
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909 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
910 execution and external command execution.
2886bdb1 911 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
2de9b711 912 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
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913 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
914 trace messages into this file descriptor.
915 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
2de9b711 916 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
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917 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
918 into it.
575ba9d6 919
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920'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
921 If this variable is set to a path, a file will be created at
922 the given path logging all accesses to any packs. For each
923 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
924 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
925 pack-related performance problems.
926
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927'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
928 If this variable is set, it shows a trace of all packets
929 coming in or out of a given program. This can help with
930 debugging object negotiation or other protocol issues. Tracing
931 is turned off at a packet starting with "PACK".
932
823ab40f 933GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
2de9b711 934 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
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935 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
936 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
937 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
938 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
2de9b711 939 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
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940 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
941
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942GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
943 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
944 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
945
946GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
947 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
948 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
949
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950GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
951 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
952 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
953
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954'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
955 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
956 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
957 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
958 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
959 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
960 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
961 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
962 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
963
823ab40f 964
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965Discussion[[Discussion]]
966------------------------
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967
968More detail on the following is available from the
2de9b711 969link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 970user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
40dac517 971
2de9b711 972A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
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973subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
974things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
975of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
976contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
977as tags and branch heads.
978
979The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
980hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 981directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
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982and some number of parent commits.
983
984The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
985"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
986represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
987parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
988
d5fa1f1a 989All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
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990written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
991The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
992just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
993purpose.
994
995When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
996efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
997
998Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
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999may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1000with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1001recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
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1002tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1003`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1004
1005The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1006path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1007the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1008attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1009corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1010working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1011be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1012content stored in the index.
1013
1014The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1015for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1016unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 1017
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1018FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1019---------------------
1020
1021See the references in the "description" section to get started
2de9b711 1022using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
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1023for a first-time user.
1024
2de9b711 1025The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
7687ae98 1026user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
2de9b711 1027introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
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1028
1029See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1030
1031See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1032examples.
1033
1034The internals are documented in the
48a8c26c 1035link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
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1036
1037Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1038read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1039
1040
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1041Authors
1042-------
48bb914e 1043Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
2de9b711 1044C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
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1045<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1046gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1047
1048If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
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1049output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1050the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 1051
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1052Reporting Bugs
1053--------------
1054
1055Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1056development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1057subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1058
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1059SEE ALSO
1060--------
1061linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
5cbef01a 1062link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 1063linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
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1064linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1065linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 1066
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1067GIT
1068---
9e1f0a85 1069Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite