t4014: "no-add-headers" is actually called "no-add-header"
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-format-patch.txt
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1git-format-patch(1)
2===================
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-format-patch - Prepare patches for e-mail submission
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
353ce815 11[verse]
50710ce4 12'git format-patch' [-k] [(-o|--output-directory) <dir> | --stdout]
f693b7e9 13 [--no-thread | --thread[=<style>]]
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14 [(--attach|--inline)[=<boundary>] | --no-attach]
15 [-s | --signoff]
6622d9c7 16 [--signature=<signature> | --no-signature]
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17 [-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
18 [--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
19 [--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
20 [--ignore-if-in-upstream]
21 [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix]
ae6c098f 22 [--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
b781cfaf 23 [--cover-letter] [--quiet]
50710ce4 24 [<common diff options>]
8a1d076e 25 [ <since> | <revision range> ]
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26
27DESCRIPTION
28-----------
2052d146 29
8a1d076e 30Prepare each commit with its patch in
2052d146 31one file per commit, formatted to resemble UNIX mailbox format.
2052d146 32The output of this command is convenient for e-mail submission or
0b444cdb 33for use with 'git am'.
35ef3a4c 34
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35There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
36
371. A single commit, <since>, specifies that the commits leading
38 to the tip of the current branch that are not in the history
39 that leads to the <since> to be output.
40
412. Generic <revision range> expression (see "SPECIFYING
9d83e382 42 REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7]) means the
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43 commits in the specified range.
44
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45The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
46apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
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47history up until <commit>, use the '\--root' option: `git format-patch
48\--root <commit>`. If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
49can do this with `git format-patch -1 <commit>`.
8a1d076e 50
e6ff0f42 51By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the
2052d146 52first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
dce5ef14 53the filename. With the `--numbered-files` option, the output file names
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54will only be numbers, without the first line of the commit appended.
55The names of the output files are printed to standard
dce5ef14 56output, unless the `--stdout` option is specified.
66f04f38 57
dce5ef14 58If `-o` is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise
2052d146 59they are created in the current working directory.
35ef3a4c 60
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61By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] First Line" and
62the subject when multiple patches are output is "[PATCH n/m] First
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63Line". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use `-n`. To omit
64patch numbers from the subject, use `-N`.
35ef3a4c 65
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66If given `--thread`, `git-format-patch` will generate `In-Reply-To` and
67`References` headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
68as replies to the first mail; this also generates a `Message-Id` header to
cc35de84 69reference.
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70
71OPTIONS
72-------
c1a95fa6 73:git-format-patch: 1
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74include::diff-options.txt[]
75
ed5f07a6 76-<n>::
2c642ed8 77 Prepare patches from the topmost <n> commits.
ed5f07a6 78
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79-o <dir>::
80--output-directory <dir>::
35ef3a4c 81 Use <dir> to store the resulting files, instead of the
efd02016 82 current working directory.
35ef3a4c 83
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84-n::
85--numbered::
a567fdcb 86 Name output in '[PATCH n/m]' format, even with a single patch.
35ef3a4c 87
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88-N::
89--no-numbered::
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90 Name output in '[PATCH]' format.
91
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92--start-number <n>::
93 Start numbering the patches at <n> instead of 1.
94
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95--numbered-files::
96 Output file names will be a simple number sequence
97 without the default first line of the commit appended.
e6ff0f42 98
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99-k::
100--keep-subject::
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101 Do not strip/add '[PATCH]' from the first line of the
102 commit log message.
103
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104-s::
105--signoff::
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106 Add `Signed-off-by:` line to the commit message, using
107 the committer identity of yourself.
108
54ba6013 109--stdout::
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110 Print all commits to the standard output in mbox format,
111 instead of creating a file for each one.
7fc9d69f 112
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113--attach[=<boundary>]::
114 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
115 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 116 second part, with `Content-Disposition: attachment`.
c112f689 117
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118--no-attach::
119 Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the
120 configuration setting.
121
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122--inline[=<boundary>]::
123 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
124 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 125 second part, with `Content-Disposition: inline`.
a15a44ef 126
30984ed2 127--thread[=<style>]::
f693b7e9 128--no-thread::
dce5ef14 129 Controls addition of `In-Reply-To` and `References` headers to
f693b7e9 130 make the second and subsequent mails appear as replies to the
dce5ef14 131 first. Also controls generation of the `Message-Id` header to
f693b7e9 132 reference.
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133+
134The optional <style> argument can be either `shallow` or `deep`.
fd1ff306 135'shallow' threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the
30984ed2 136series, where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
fd1ff306 137`\--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order. 'deep'
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138threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
139+
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140The default is `--no-thread`, unless the 'format.thread' configuration
141is set. If `--thread` is specified without a style, it defaults to the
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142style specified by 'format.thread' if any, or else `shallow`.
143+
144Beware that the default for 'git send-email' is to thread emails
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145itself. If you want `git format-patch` to take care of threading, you
146will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
28ffb898 147
da56645d 148--in-reply-to=Message-Id::
dce5ef14 149 Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
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150 reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
151 provide a new patch series.
152
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153--ignore-if-in-upstream::
154 Do not include a patch that matches a commit in
155 <until>..<since>. This will examine all patches reachable
156 from <since> but not from <until> and compare them with the
157 patches being generated, and any patch that matches is
158 ignored.
159
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160--subject-prefix=<Subject-Prefix>::
161 Instead of the standard '[PATCH]' prefix in the subject
162 line, instead use '[<Subject-Prefix>]'. This
163 allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
dce5ef14 164 combined with the `--numbered` option.
2d9e4a47 165
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166--to=<email>::
167 Add a `To:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
168 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
169
736cc67d 170--cc=<email>::
dce5ef14 171 Add a `Cc:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
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172 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
173
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174--add-header=<header>::
175 Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in addition
176 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
dce5ef14 177 For example, `--add-header="Organization: git-foo"`
d7d9c2d0 178
a5a27c79 179--cover-letter::
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180 In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
181 containing the shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can
182 fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
a5a27c79 183
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184--[no]-signature=<signature>::
185 Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the signature
186 is separated from the body by a line with '-- ' on it. If the
187 signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the git version
188 number.
189
03eeaeae 190--suffix=.<sfx>::
917a8f89 191 Instead of using `.patch` as the suffix for generated
02783075 192 filenames, use specified suffix. A common alternative is
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193 `--suffix=.txt`. Leaving this empty will remove the `.patch`
194 suffix.
03eeaeae 195+
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196Note that the leading character does not have to be a dot; for example,
197you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
03eeaeae 198
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199--quiet::
200 Do not print the names of the generated files to standard output.
201
37c22a4b 202--no-binary::
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203 Do not output contents of changes in binary files, instead
204 display a notice that those files changed. Patches generated
205 using this option cannot be applied properly, but they are
206 still useful for code review.
37c22a4b 207
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208--root::
209 Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it
210 is just a single commit (that would normally be treated as a
211 <since>). Note that root commits included in the specified
212 range are always formatted as creation patches, independently
213 of this flag.
214
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215CONFIGURATION
216-------------
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217You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,
218defaults for the subject prefix and file suffix, number patches when
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219outputting more than one patch, add "To" or "Cc:" headers, configure
220attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.
96ce6d26 221
917a8f89 222------------
96ce6d26 223[format]
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224 headers = "Organization: git-foo\n"
225 subjectprefix = CHANGE
226 suffix = .txt
227 numbered = auto
ae6c098f 228 to = <email>
fe8928e6 229 cc = <email>
0db5260b 230 attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
1d1876e9 231 signoff = true
917a8f89 232------------
03eeaeae 233
96ce6d26 234
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235DISCUSSION
236----------
237
238The patch produced by 'git format-patch' is in UNIX mailbox format,
239with a fixed "magic" time stamp to indicate that the file is output
240from format-patch rather than a real mailbox, like so:
241
242------------
243From 8f72bad1baf19a53459661343e21d6491c3908d3 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
244From: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
245Date: Tue, 13 Jul 2010 11:42:54 -0700
246Subject: [PATCH] =?UTF-8?q?[IA64]=20Put=20ia64=20config=20files=20on=20the=20?=
247 =?UTF-8?q?Uwe=20Kleine-K=C3=B6nig=20diet?=
248MIME-Version: 1.0
249Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
250Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit
251
252arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
253(See commit c2330e286f68f1c408b4aa6515ba49d57f05beae comment)
254
255Do the same for ia64 so we can have sleek & trim looking
256...
257------------
258
259Typically it will be placed in a MUA's drafts folder, edited to add
260timely commentary that should not go in the changelog after the three
261dashes, and then sent as a message whose body, in our example, starts
262with "arch/arm config files were...". On the receiving end, readers
263can save interesting patches in a UNIX mailbox and apply them with
264linkgit:git-am[1].
265
266When a patch is part of an ongoing discussion, the patch generated by
267'git format-patch' can be tweaked to take advantage of the 'git am
268--scissors' feature. After your response to the discussion comes a
269line that consists solely of "`-- >8 --`" (scissors and perforation),
270followed by the patch with unnecessary header fields removed:
271
272------------
273...
274> So we should do such-and-such.
275
276Makes sense to me. How about this patch?
277
278-- >8 --
279Subject: [IA64] Put ia64 config files on the Uwe Kleine-König diet
280
281arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
282...
283------------
284
285When sending a patch this way, most often you are sending your own
286patch, so in addition to the "`From $SHA1 $magic_timestamp`" marker you
287should omit `From:` and `Date:` lines from the patch file. The patch
288title is likely to be different from the subject of the discussion the
289patch is in response to, so it is likely that you would want to keep
290the Subject: line, like the example above.
291
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292Checking for patch corruption
293~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
294Many mailers if not set up properly will corrupt whitespace. Here are
295two common types of corruption:
296
297* Empty context lines that do not have _any_ whitespace.
298
299* Non-empty context lines that have one extra whitespace at the
300 beginning.
301
302One way to test if your MUA is set up correctly is:
303
304* Send the patch to yourself, exactly the way you would, except
305 with To: and Cc: lines that do not contain the list and
306 maintainer address.
307
308* Save that patch to a file in UNIX mailbox format. Call it a.patch,
309 say.
310
311* Apply it:
312
313 $ git fetch <project> master:test-apply
314 $ git checkout test-apply
315 $ git reset --hard
316 $ git am a.patch
317
318If it does not apply correctly, there can be various reasons.
319
320* The patch itself does not apply cleanly. That is _bad_ but
321 does not have much to do with your MUA. You might want to rebase
322 the patch with linkgit:git-rebase[1] before regenerating it in
323 this case.
324
325* The MUA corrupted your patch; "am" would complain that
326 the patch does not apply. Look in the .git/rebase-apply/ subdirectory and
327 see what 'patch' file contains and check for the common
328 corruption patterns mentioned above.
329
330* While at it, check the 'info' and 'final-commit' files as well.
331 If what is in 'final-commit' is not exactly what you would want to
332 see in the commit log message, it is very likely that the
333 receiver would end up hand editing the log message when applying
334 your patch. Things like "Hi, this is my first patch.\n" in the
335 patch e-mail should come after the three-dash line that signals
336 the end of the commit message.
337
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338MUA-SPECIFIC HINTS
339------------------
340Here are some hints on how to successfully submit patches inline using
341various mailers.
342
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343GMail
344~~~~~
345GMail does not have any way to turn off line wrapping in the web
346interface, so it will mangle any emails that you send. You can however
347use "git send-email" and send your patches through the GMail SMTP server, or
348use any IMAP email client to connect to the google IMAP server and forward
349the emails through that.
350
351For hints on using 'git send-email' to send your patches through the
352GMail SMTP server, see the EXAMPLE section of linkgit:git-send-email[1].
353
354For hints on submission using the IMAP interface, see the EXAMPLE
355section of linkgit:git-imap-send[1].
356
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357Thunderbird
358~~~~~~~~~~~
359By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as well as flag
360them as being 'format=flowed', both of which will make the
361resulting email unusable by git.
362
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363There are three different approaches: use an add-on to turn off line wraps,
364configure Thunderbird to not mangle patches, or use
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365an external editor to keep Thunderbird from mangling the patches.
366
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367Approach #1 (add-on)
368^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
369
370Install the Toggle Word Wrap add-on that is available from
371https://addons.mozilla.org/thunderbird/addon/toggle-word-wrap/
372It adds a menu entry "Enable Word Wrap" in the composer's "Options" menu
373that you can tick off. Now you can compose the message as you otherwise do
374(cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc), but you have to
375insert line breaks manually in any text that you type.
376
377Approach #2 (configuration)
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378^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
379Three steps:
380
3811. Configure your mail server composition as plain text:
382 Edit...Account Settings...Composition & Addressing,
383 uncheck "Compose Messages in HTML".
384
3852. Configure your general composition window to not wrap.
386+
387In Thunderbird 2:
388Edit..Preferences..Composition, wrap plain text messages at 0
389+
390In Thunderbird 3:
391Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
392"mail.wrap_long_lines".
393Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`.
394
3953. Disable the use of format=flowed:
396Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
397"mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed".
398Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`.
399
400After that is done, you should be able to compose email as you
401otherwise would (cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc),
402and the patches will not be mangled.
403
b8959605 404Approach #3 (external editor)
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405^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
406
407The following Thunderbird extensions are needed:
408AboutConfig from http://aboutconfig.mozdev.org/ and
409External Editor from http://globs.org/articles.php?lng=en&pg=8
410
4111. Prepare the patch as a text file using your method of choice.
412
4132. Before opening a compose window, use Edit->Account Settings to
414 uncheck the "Compose messages in HTML format" setting in the
415 "Composition & Addressing" panel of the account to be used to
416 send the patch.
417
4183. In the main Thunderbird window, 'before' you open the compose
419 window for the patch, use Tools->about:config to set the
420 following to the indicated values:
421+
422----------
423 mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed => false
424 mailnews.wraplength => 0
425----------
426
4274. Open a compose window and click the external editor icon.
428
4295. In the external editor window, read in the patch file and exit
430 the editor normally.
431
432Side note: it may be possible to do step 2 with
433about:config and the following settings but no one's tried yet.
434
435----------
436 mail.html_compose => false
437 mail.identity.default.compose_html => false
438 mail.identity.id?.compose_html => false
439----------
440
441There is a script in contrib/thunderbird-patch-inline which can help
442you include patches with Thunderbird in an easy way. To use it, do the
443steps above and then use the script as the external editor.
444
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445KMail
446~~~~~
447This should help you to submit patches inline using KMail.
448
4491. Prepare the patch as a text file.
450
4512. Click on New Mail.
452
4533. Go under "Options" in the Composer window and be sure that
454 "Word wrap" is not set.
455
4564. Use Message -> Insert file... and insert the patch.
457
4585. Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish to the
459 message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
460
e0d48279 461
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462EXAMPLES
463--------
464
921177f5 465* Extract commits between revisions R1 and R2, and apply them on top of
0b444cdb 466the current branch using 'git am' to cherry-pick them:
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467+
468------------
467c0197 469$ git format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git am -3 -k
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470------------
471
472* Extract all commits which are in the current branch but not in the
473origin branch:
474+
475------------
476$ git format-patch origin
477------------
478+
479For each commit a separate file is created in the current directory.
480
481* Extract all commits that lead to 'origin' since the inception of the
482project:
483+
484------------
9c67c757 485$ git format-patch --root origin
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486------------
487
488* The same as the previous one:
489+
490------------
491$ git format-patch -M -B origin
492------------
493+
494Additionally, it detects and handles renames and complete rewrites
495intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A renaming patch reduces
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496the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review.
497Note that non-git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
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498use it only when you know the recipient uses git to apply your patch.
499
500* Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format them
501as e-mailable patches:
502+
503------------
504$ git format-patch -3
505------------
28ffb898 506
56ae8df5 507SEE ALSO
28ffb898 508--------
5162e697 509linkgit:git-am[1], linkgit:git-send-email[1]
28ffb898 510
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511GIT
512---
9e1f0a85 513Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite