Document receive.denyDeleteCurrent
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
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1git-push(1)
2===========
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
97925fde 11[verse]
9f67fee2 12'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
e9fcd1e2 13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
e3163c75 14 [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
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15
16DESCRIPTION
17-----------
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18
19Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
20necessary to complete the given refs.
7fc9d69f 21
cc55aaec 22You can make interesting things happen to a repository
eb0362a4 23every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
5162e697 24documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
eb0362a4 25
7fc9d69f 26
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27OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
28------------------
3598a308 29<repository>::
85a97d4e 30 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
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31 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
32 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
33 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
3598a308 34
2c9693bd 35<refspec>...::
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36 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
37 `{plus}`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
38 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
39 It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
40 in the remote repository is to be updated.
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42The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
43it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
f028cdae 44`HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[1]).
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46The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
47push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
48be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
49updated.
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51The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
52on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
a75d7b54 53update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `{plus}`,
149f6ddf 54you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
a75d7b54 55fast-forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
149f6ddf 56EXAMPLES below for details.
3598a308 57+
80391846 58`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
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59+
60Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
61the remote repository.
a83619d6 62+
a75d7b54 63The special refspec `:` (or `{plus}:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
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64directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
65the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
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66already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
67if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
68nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
7fc9d69f 69
3240240f 70--all::
cc55aaec 71 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 72 refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
d6a73596 73
3240240f 74--mirror::
ff206748 75 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 76 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
73f03627 77 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
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78 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
79 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
80 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
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81 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
82 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
83 set.
ff206748 84
9f67fee2 85-n::
3240240f 86--dry-run::
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87 Do everything except actually send the updates.
88
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89--porcelain::
90 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
91 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
92 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
93
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94--delete::
95 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
96 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
97
3240240f 98--tags::
cc1b8d8b 99 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
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100 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
101 line.
102
3240240f 103--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
4fc988ef 104--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
ba020ef5 105 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
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106 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
107 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
108 a directory on the default $PATH.
109
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110-f::
111--force::
f0fff36e 112 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
64a476e6 113 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
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114 This flag disables the check. This can cause the
115 remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
7fc9d69f 116
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117--repo=<repository>::
118 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
0b444cdb 119 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
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120 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
121 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
122 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
123 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
124 the difference between these two commands
125+
126--------------------------
127git push public #1
128git push --repo=public #2
129--------------------------
130+
131is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
132only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
0b444cdb 133useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
dc36f265 134
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135-u::
136--set-upstream::
137 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
138 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
139 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
140 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
141
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142--thin::
143--no-thin::
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144 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
145 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
146 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
147 \--thin.
dc36f265 148
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149-q::
150--quiet::
151 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
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152 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
153 error stream.
989119d9 154
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155-v::
156--verbose::
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157 Run verbosely.
158
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159--progress::
160 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
161 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
162 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
163 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
989119d9 164
37ba0561 165include::urls-remotes.txt[]
eb0362a4 166
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167OUTPUT
168------
169
170The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
171section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
172locally or via ssh).
173
174The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
175representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
176
177-------------------------------
178 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
179-------------------------------
180
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181If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
182
183-------------------------------
184 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
185-------------------------------
186
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187The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
188option is used.
189
066a5268 190flag::
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191 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
192(space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
193`{plus}`;; for a successful forced update;
194`-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
195`*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
196`!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
197`=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
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198
199summary::
200 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
201 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
202 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
a75d7b54 203 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates). For a
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204 failed update, more details are given for the failure.
205 The string `rejected` indicates that git did not try to send the
a75d7b54 206 ref at all (typically because it is not a fast-forward). The
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207 string `remote rejected` indicates that the remote end refused
208 the update; this rejection is typically caused by a hook on the
209 remote side. The string `remote failure` indicates that the
210 remote end did not report the successful update of the ref
211 (perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
212 break in the network connection, or other transient error).
213
214from::
215 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
216 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
217 name of the local ref is omitted.
218
219to::
220 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
221 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
222
223reason::
224 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
225 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
226 failure is described.
bb9fca80 227
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228Note about fast-forwards
229------------------------
230
231When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
232point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
233fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
234
235In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
236commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
237builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
238
239In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
240suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
241a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
242leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
243
244----------------
245
246 B
247 /
248 ---X---A
249
250----------------
251
252Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
253back to the original repository you two obtained the original commit X.
254
255The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
256commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
257
258But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
259now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
260so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
261will now start building on top of B.
262
263The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
264to prevent such loss of history.
265
266If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
267the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
268history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
269by both parties, and push the result back.
270
271You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
272the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
273and B.
274
275----------------
276
277 B---C
278 / /
279 ---X---A
280
281----------------
282
283Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
284push will be accepted.
285
286Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
287with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
288create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
289A.
290
291----------------
292
293 B D
294 / /
295 ---X---A
296
297----------------
298
299Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
300accepted.
301
302There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
303rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
304pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
305A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
306commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
307forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
308you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
309(and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
310overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
311a case where you do mean to lose history.
312
313
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314Examples
315--------
316
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317git push::
318 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
319 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
320 configured for the current branch).
321
322git push origin::
323 Without additional configuration, works like
324 `git push origin :`.
325+
326The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
327configured by setting the `push` option of the remote.
328+
329For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
330use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
331the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
332`git push origin`.
333
334git push origin :::
335 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
336 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
337 description of "matching" branches.
338
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339git push origin master::
340 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
341 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
342 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
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343 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
344 created.
bb9fca80 345
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346git push origin HEAD::
347 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
348 remote.
bb9fca80 349
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350git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev::
351 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
352 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
353 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `origin` repository, then
354 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
bb9fca80 355
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356git push origin HEAD:master::
357 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
358 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
359 branch without thinking about its local name.
360
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361git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental::
362 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
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363 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
364 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
365 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
366 the ref name on its own will work.
4e560158 367
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368git push origin :experimental::
369 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
370 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
371
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372git push origin {plus}dev:master::
373 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
a75d7b54 374 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
149f6ddf 375 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
a75d7b54 376 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
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377+
378----
379 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
380 \
381 X---Y---Z dev
382----
383+
384The above command would change the origin repository to
385+
386----
387 A---B (unnamed branch)
388 /
389 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
390----
391+
392Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
393and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
394a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
395
17507832 396
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397Author
398------
59eb68aa 399Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>, later rewritten in C
25fb6290 400by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
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401
402Documentation
403--------------
404Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
405
406GIT
407---
9e1f0a85 408Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite