format-patch: add --reroll-count=$N option
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-format-patch.txt
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1git-format-patch(1)
2===================
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-format-patch - Prepare patches for e-mail submission
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
353ce815 11[verse]
50710ce4 12'git format-patch' [-k] [(-o|--output-directory) <dir> | --stdout]
f693b7e9 13 [--no-thread | --thread[=<style>]]
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14 [(--attach|--inline)[=<boundary>] | --no-attach]
15 [-s | --signoff]
6622d9c7 16 [--signature=<signature> | --no-signature]
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17 [-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
18 [--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
19 [--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
20 [--ignore-if-in-upstream]
21 [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix]
ae6c098f 22 [--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
b781cfaf 23 [--cover-letter] [--quiet]
50710ce4 24 [<common diff options>]
8a1d076e 25 [ <since> | <revision range> ]
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26
27DESCRIPTION
28-----------
2052d146 29
8a1d076e 30Prepare each commit with its patch in
2052d146 31one file per commit, formatted to resemble UNIX mailbox format.
2052d146 32The output of this command is convenient for e-mail submission or
0b444cdb 33for use with 'git am'.
35ef3a4c 34
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35There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
36
371. A single commit, <since>, specifies that the commits leading
38 to the tip of the current branch that are not in the history
39 that leads to the <since> to be output.
40
412. Generic <revision range> expression (see "SPECIFYING
9d83e382 42 REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7]) means the
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43 commits in the specified range.
44
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45The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
46apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
dce5ef14 47history up until <commit>, use the '\--root' option: `git format-patch
6cf378f0 48--root <commit>`. If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
dce5ef14 49can do this with `git format-patch -1 <commit>`.
8a1d076e 50
e6ff0f42 51By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the
2052d146 52first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
dce5ef14 53the filename. With the `--numbered-files` option, the output file names
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54will only be numbers, without the first line of the commit appended.
55The names of the output files are printed to standard
dce5ef14 56output, unless the `--stdout` option is specified.
66f04f38 57
dce5ef14 58If `-o` is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise
2052d146 59they are created in the current working directory.
35ef3a4c 60
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61By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] " followed by
62the concatenation of lines from the commit message up to the first blank
63line (see the DISCUSSION section of linkgit:git-commit[1]).
64
65When multiple patches are output, the subject prefix will instead be
66"[PATCH n/m] ". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use `-n`.
67To omit patch numbers from the subject, use `-N`.
35ef3a4c 68
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69If given `--thread`, `git-format-patch` will generate `In-Reply-To` and
70`References` headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
71as replies to the first mail; this also generates a `Message-Id` header to
cc35de84 72reference.
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73
74OPTIONS
75-------
c1a95fa6 76:git-format-patch: 1
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77include::diff-options.txt[]
78
ed5f07a6 79-<n>::
2c642ed8 80 Prepare patches from the topmost <n> commits.
ed5f07a6 81
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82-o <dir>::
83--output-directory <dir>::
35ef3a4c 84 Use <dir> to store the resulting files, instead of the
efd02016 85 current working directory.
35ef3a4c 86
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87-n::
88--numbered::
a567fdcb 89 Name output in '[PATCH n/m]' format, even with a single patch.
35ef3a4c 90
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91-N::
92--no-numbered::
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93 Name output in '[PATCH]' format.
94
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95--start-number <n>::
96 Start numbering the patches at <n> instead of 1.
97
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98--numbered-files::
99 Output file names will be a simple number sequence
100 without the default first line of the commit appended.
e6ff0f42 101
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102-k::
103--keep-subject::
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104 Do not strip/add '[PATCH]' from the first line of the
105 commit log message.
106
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107-s::
108--signoff::
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109 Add `Signed-off-by:` line to the commit message, using
110 the committer identity of yourself.
111
54ba6013 112--stdout::
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113 Print all commits to the standard output in mbox format,
114 instead of creating a file for each one.
7fc9d69f 115
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116--attach[=<boundary>]::
117 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
118 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 119 second part, with `Content-Disposition: attachment`.
c112f689 120
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121--no-attach::
122 Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the
123 configuration setting.
124
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125--inline[=<boundary>]::
126 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
127 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 128 second part, with `Content-Disposition: inline`.
a15a44ef 129
30984ed2 130--thread[=<style>]::
f693b7e9 131--no-thread::
dce5ef14 132 Controls addition of `In-Reply-To` and `References` headers to
f693b7e9 133 make the second and subsequent mails appear as replies to the
dce5ef14 134 first. Also controls generation of the `Message-Id` header to
f693b7e9 135 reference.
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136+
137The optional <style> argument can be either `shallow` or `deep`.
fd1ff306 138'shallow' threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the
30984ed2 139series, where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
6cf378f0 140`--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order. 'deep'
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141threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
142+
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143The default is `--no-thread`, unless the 'format.thread' configuration
144is set. If `--thread` is specified without a style, it defaults to the
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145style specified by 'format.thread' if any, or else `shallow`.
146+
147Beware that the default for 'git send-email' is to thread emails
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148itself. If you want `git format-patch` to take care of threading, you
149will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
28ffb898 150
da56645d 151--in-reply-to=Message-Id::
dce5ef14 152 Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
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153 reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
154 provide a new patch series.
155
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156--ignore-if-in-upstream::
157 Do not include a patch that matches a commit in
158 <until>..<since>. This will examine all patches reachable
159 from <since> but not from <until> and compare them with the
160 patches being generated, and any patch that matches is
161 ignored.
162
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163--subject-prefix=<Subject-Prefix>::
164 Instead of the standard '[PATCH]' prefix in the subject
165 line, instead use '[<Subject-Prefix>]'. This
166 allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
dce5ef14 167 combined with the `--numbered` option.
2d9e4a47 168
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169--to=<email>::
170 Add a `To:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
171 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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172 The negated form `--no-to` discards all `To:` headers added so
173 far (from config or command line).
ae6c098f 174
736cc67d 175--cc=<email>::
dce5ef14 176 Add a `Cc:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
736cc67d 177 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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178 The negated form `--no-cc` discards all `Cc:` headers added so
179 far (from config or command line).
736cc67d 180
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181--add-header=<header>::
182 Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in addition
183 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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184 For example, `--add-header="Organization: git-foo"`.
185 The negated form `--no-add-header` discards *all* (`To:`,
186 `Cc:`, and custom) headers added so far from config or command
187 line.
d7d9c2d0 188
a5a27c79 189--cover-letter::
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190 In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
191 containing the shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can
192 fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
a5a27c79 193
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194--[no]-signature=<signature>::
195 Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the signature
196 is separated from the body by a line with '-- ' on it. If the
197 signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the git version
198 number.
199
03eeaeae 200--suffix=.<sfx>::
917a8f89 201 Instead of using `.patch` as the suffix for generated
02783075 202 filenames, use specified suffix. A common alternative is
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203 `--suffix=.txt`. Leaving this empty will remove the `.patch`
204 suffix.
03eeaeae 205+
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206Note that the leading character does not have to be a dot; for example,
207you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
03eeaeae 208
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209--quiet::
210 Do not print the names of the generated files to standard output.
211
37c22a4b 212--no-binary::
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213 Do not output contents of changes in binary files, instead
214 display a notice that those files changed. Patches generated
215 using this option cannot be applied properly, but they are
216 still useful for code review.
37c22a4b 217
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218--root::
219 Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it
220 is just a single commit (that would normally be treated as a
221 <since>). Note that root commits included in the specified
222 range are always formatted as creation patches, independently
223 of this flag.
224
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225CONFIGURATION
226-------------
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227You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,
228defaults for the subject prefix and file suffix, number patches when
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229outputting more than one patch, add "To" or "Cc:" headers, configure
230attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.
96ce6d26 231
917a8f89 232------------
96ce6d26 233[format]
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234 headers = "Organization: git-foo\n"
235 subjectprefix = CHANGE
236 suffix = .txt
237 numbered = auto
ae6c098f 238 to = <email>
fe8928e6 239 cc = <email>
0db5260b 240 attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
1d1876e9 241 signoff = true
917a8f89 242------------
03eeaeae 243
96ce6d26 244
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245DISCUSSION
246----------
247
248The patch produced by 'git format-patch' is in UNIX mailbox format,
249with a fixed "magic" time stamp to indicate that the file is output
250from format-patch rather than a real mailbox, like so:
251
252------------
253From 8f72bad1baf19a53459661343e21d6491c3908d3 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
254From: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
255Date: Tue, 13 Jul 2010 11:42:54 -0700
256Subject: [PATCH] =?UTF-8?q?[IA64]=20Put=20ia64=20config=20files=20on=20the=20?=
257 =?UTF-8?q?Uwe=20Kleine-K=C3=B6nig=20diet?=
258MIME-Version: 1.0
259Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
260Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit
261
262arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
263(See commit c2330e286f68f1c408b4aa6515ba49d57f05beae comment)
264
265Do the same for ia64 so we can have sleek & trim looking
266...
267------------
268
269Typically it will be placed in a MUA's drafts folder, edited to add
270timely commentary that should not go in the changelog after the three
271dashes, and then sent as a message whose body, in our example, starts
272with "arch/arm config files were...". On the receiving end, readers
273can save interesting patches in a UNIX mailbox and apply them with
274linkgit:git-am[1].
275
276When a patch is part of an ongoing discussion, the patch generated by
277'git format-patch' can be tweaked to take advantage of the 'git am
278--scissors' feature. After your response to the discussion comes a
279line that consists solely of "`-- >8 --`" (scissors and perforation),
280followed by the patch with unnecessary header fields removed:
281
282------------
283...
284> So we should do such-and-such.
285
286Makes sense to me. How about this patch?
287
288-- >8 --
289Subject: [IA64] Put ia64 config files on the Uwe Kleine-König diet
290
291arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
292...
293------------
294
295When sending a patch this way, most often you are sending your own
296patch, so in addition to the "`From $SHA1 $magic_timestamp`" marker you
297should omit `From:` and `Date:` lines from the patch file. The patch
298title is likely to be different from the subject of the discussion the
299patch is in response to, so it is likely that you would want to keep
300the Subject: line, like the example above.
301
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302Checking for patch corruption
303~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
304Many mailers if not set up properly will corrupt whitespace. Here are
305two common types of corruption:
306
307* Empty context lines that do not have _any_ whitespace.
308
309* Non-empty context lines that have one extra whitespace at the
310 beginning.
311
312One way to test if your MUA is set up correctly is:
313
314* Send the patch to yourself, exactly the way you would, except
315 with To: and Cc: lines that do not contain the list and
316 maintainer address.
317
318* Save that patch to a file in UNIX mailbox format. Call it a.patch,
319 say.
320
321* Apply it:
322
323 $ git fetch <project> master:test-apply
324 $ git checkout test-apply
325 $ git reset --hard
326 $ git am a.patch
327
328If it does not apply correctly, there can be various reasons.
329
330* The patch itself does not apply cleanly. That is _bad_ but
331 does not have much to do with your MUA. You might want to rebase
332 the patch with linkgit:git-rebase[1] before regenerating it in
333 this case.
334
335* The MUA corrupted your patch; "am" would complain that
336 the patch does not apply. Look in the .git/rebase-apply/ subdirectory and
337 see what 'patch' file contains and check for the common
338 corruption patterns mentioned above.
339
340* While at it, check the 'info' and 'final-commit' files as well.
341 If what is in 'final-commit' is not exactly what you would want to
342 see in the commit log message, it is very likely that the
343 receiver would end up hand editing the log message when applying
344 your patch. Things like "Hi, this is my first patch.\n" in the
345 patch e-mail should come after the three-dash line that signals
346 the end of the commit message.
347
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348MUA-SPECIFIC HINTS
349------------------
350Here are some hints on how to successfully submit patches inline using
351various mailers.
352
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353GMail
354~~~~~
355GMail does not have any way to turn off line wrapping in the web
356interface, so it will mangle any emails that you send. You can however
357use "git send-email" and send your patches through the GMail SMTP server, or
358use any IMAP email client to connect to the google IMAP server and forward
359the emails through that.
360
361For hints on using 'git send-email' to send your patches through the
362GMail SMTP server, see the EXAMPLE section of linkgit:git-send-email[1].
363
364For hints on submission using the IMAP interface, see the EXAMPLE
365section of linkgit:git-imap-send[1].
366
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367Thunderbird
368~~~~~~~~~~~
369By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as well as flag
370them as being 'format=flowed', both of which will make the
371resulting email unusable by git.
372
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373There are three different approaches: use an add-on to turn off line wraps,
374configure Thunderbird to not mangle patches, or use
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375an external editor to keep Thunderbird from mangling the patches.
376
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377Approach #1 (add-on)
378^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
379
380Install the Toggle Word Wrap add-on that is available from
381https://addons.mozilla.org/thunderbird/addon/toggle-word-wrap/
382It adds a menu entry "Enable Word Wrap" in the composer's "Options" menu
383that you can tick off. Now you can compose the message as you otherwise do
384(cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc), but you have to
385insert line breaks manually in any text that you type.
386
387Approach #2 (configuration)
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388^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
389Three steps:
390
3911. Configure your mail server composition as plain text:
392 Edit...Account Settings...Composition & Addressing,
393 uncheck "Compose Messages in HTML".
394
3952. Configure your general composition window to not wrap.
396+
397In Thunderbird 2:
398Edit..Preferences..Composition, wrap plain text messages at 0
399+
400In Thunderbird 3:
401Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
402"mail.wrap_long_lines".
403Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`.
404
4053. Disable the use of format=flowed:
406Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
407"mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed".
408Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`.
409
410After that is done, you should be able to compose email as you
411otherwise would (cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc),
412and the patches will not be mangled.
413
b8959605 414Approach #3 (external editor)
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415^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
416
417The following Thunderbird extensions are needed:
418AboutConfig from http://aboutconfig.mozdev.org/ and
419External Editor from http://globs.org/articles.php?lng=en&pg=8
420
4211. Prepare the patch as a text file using your method of choice.
422
4232. Before opening a compose window, use Edit->Account Settings to
424 uncheck the "Compose messages in HTML format" setting in the
425 "Composition & Addressing" panel of the account to be used to
426 send the patch.
427
4283. In the main Thunderbird window, 'before' you open the compose
429 window for the patch, use Tools->about:config to set the
430 following to the indicated values:
431+
432----------
433 mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed => false
434 mailnews.wraplength => 0
435----------
436
4374. Open a compose window and click the external editor icon.
438
4395. In the external editor window, read in the patch file and exit
440 the editor normally.
441
442Side note: it may be possible to do step 2 with
443about:config and the following settings but no one's tried yet.
444
445----------
446 mail.html_compose => false
447 mail.identity.default.compose_html => false
448 mail.identity.id?.compose_html => false
449----------
450
451There is a script in contrib/thunderbird-patch-inline which can help
452you include patches with Thunderbird in an easy way. To use it, do the
453steps above and then use the script as the external editor.
454
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455KMail
456~~~~~
457This should help you to submit patches inline using KMail.
458
4591. Prepare the patch as a text file.
460
4612. Click on New Mail.
462
4633. Go under "Options" in the Composer window and be sure that
464 "Word wrap" is not set.
465
4664. Use Message -> Insert file... and insert the patch.
467
4685. Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish to the
469 message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
470
e0d48279 471
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472EXAMPLES
473--------
474
921177f5 475* Extract commits between revisions R1 and R2, and apply them on top of
0b444cdb 476the current branch using 'git am' to cherry-pick them:
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477+
478------------
467c0197 479$ git format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git am -3 -k
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480------------
481
482* Extract all commits which are in the current branch but not in the
483origin branch:
484+
485------------
486$ git format-patch origin
487------------
488+
489For each commit a separate file is created in the current directory.
490
491* Extract all commits that lead to 'origin' since the inception of the
492project:
493+
494------------
9c67c757 495$ git format-patch --root origin
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496------------
497
498* The same as the previous one:
499+
500------------
501$ git format-patch -M -B origin
502------------
503+
504Additionally, it detects and handles renames and complete rewrites
505intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A renaming patch reduces
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506the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review.
507Note that non-git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
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508use it only when you know the recipient uses git to apply your patch.
509
510* Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format them
511as e-mailable patches:
512+
513------------
514$ git format-patch -3
515------------
28ffb898 516
56ae8df5 517SEE ALSO
28ffb898 518--------
5162e697 519linkgit:git-am[1], linkgit:git-send-email[1]
28ffb898 520
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521GIT
522---
9e1f0a85 523Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite