t3409 t4107 t7406 t9150: use dashless commands
[git/git.git] / t / README
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1Core GIT Tests
2==============
3
4This directory holds many test scripts for core GIT tools. The
5first part of this short document describes how to run the tests
6and read their output.
7
8When fixing the tools or adding enhancements, you are strongly
9encouraged to add tests in this directory to cover what you are
10trying to fix or enhance. The later part of this short document
11describes how your test scripts should be organized.
12
13
14Running Tests
15-------------
16
17The easiest way to run tests is to say "make". This runs all
18the tests.
19
20 *** t0000-basic.sh ***
5c94f87e 21 * ok 1: .git/objects should be empty after git-init in an empty repo.
986aa7f1 22 * ok 2: .git/objects should have 256 subdirectories.
215a7ad1 23 * ok 3: git-update-index without --add should fail adding.
986aa7f1 24 ...
215a7ad1 25 * ok 23: no diff after checkout and git-update-index --refresh.
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26 * passed all 23 test(s)
27 *** t0100-environment-names.sh ***
28 * ok 1: using old names should issue warnings.
29 * ok 2: using old names but having new names should not issue warnings.
30 ...
31
32Or you can run each test individually from command line, like
33this:
34
14cd1ff3 35 $ sh ./t3001-ls-files-killed.sh
215a7ad1 36 * ok 1: git-update-index --add to add various paths.
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37 * ok 2: git-ls-files -k to show killed files.
38 * ok 3: validate git-ls-files -k output.
39 * passed all 3 test(s)
40
41You can pass --verbose (or -v), --debug (or -d), and --immediate
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42(or -i) command line argument to the test, or by setting GIT_TEST_OPTS
43appropriately before running "make".
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44
45--verbose::
46 This makes the test more verbose. Specifically, the
47 command being run and their output if any are also
48 output.
49
50--debug::
51 This may help the person who is developing a new test.
52 It causes the command defined with test_debug to run.
53
54--immediate::
55 This causes the test to immediately exit upon the first
56 failed test.
57
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58--long-tests::
59 This causes additional long-running tests to be run (where
60 available), for more exhaustive testing.
61
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62--valgrind::
63 Execute all Git binaries with valgrind and exit with status
64 126 on errors (just like regular tests, this will only stop
65 the test script when running under -i). Valgrind errors
66 go to stderr, so you might want to pass the -v option, too.
986aa7f1 67
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68 Since it makes no sense to run the tests with --valgrind and
69 not see any output, this option implies --verbose. For
70 convenience, it also implies --tee.
71
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72--tee::
73 In addition to printing the test output to the terminal,
74 write it to files named 't/test-results/$TEST_NAME.out'.
75 As the names depend on the tests' file names, it is safe to
76 run the tests with this option in parallel.
77
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78Skipping Tests
79--------------
80
81In some environments, certain tests have no way of succeeding
82due to platform limitation, such as lack of 'unzip' program, or
83filesystem that do not allow arbitrary sequence of non-NUL bytes
84as pathnames.
85
86You should be able to say something like
87
88 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS=t9200.8 sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh
89
90and even:
91
92 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS='t[0-4]??? t91?? t9200.8' make
93
94to omit such tests. The value of the environment variable is a
95SP separated list of patterns that tells which tests to skip,
96and either can match the "t[0-9]{4}" part to skip the whole
97test, or t[0-9]{4} followed by ".$number" to say which
98particular test to skip.
99
100Note that some tests in the existing test suite rely on previous
101test item, so you cannot arbitrarily disable one and expect the
102remainder of test to check what the test originally was intended
103to check.
104
105
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106Naming Tests
107------------
108
109The test files are named as:
110
111 tNNNN-commandname-details.sh
112
113where N is a decimal digit.
114
115First digit tells the family:
116
117 0 - the absolute basics and global stuff
118 1 - the basic commands concerning database
119 2 - the basic commands concerning the working tree
120 3 - the other basic commands (e.g. ls-files)
121 4 - the diff commands
122 5 - the pull and exporting commands
123 6 - the revision tree commands (even e.g. merge-base)
8f4a9b62 124 7 - the porcelainish commands concerning the working tree
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125 8 - the porcelainish commands concerning forensics
126 9 - the git tools
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127
128Second digit tells the particular command we are testing.
129
130Third digit (optionally) tells the particular switch or group of switches
131we are testing.
132
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133If you create files under t/ directory (i.e. here) that is not
134the top-level test script, never name the file to match the above
135pattern. The Makefile here considers all such files as the
136top-level test script and tries to run all of them. A care is
137especially needed if you are creating a common test library
138file, similar to test-lib.sh, because such a library file may
139not be suitable for standalone execution.
140
f50c9f76 141
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142Writing Tests
143-------------
144
145The test script is written as a shell script. It should start
146with the standard "#!/bin/sh" with copyright notices, and an
147assignment to variable 'test_description', like this:
148
149 #!/bin/sh
150 #
151 # Copyright (c) 2005 Junio C Hamano
152 #
153
14cd1ff3 154 test_description='xxx test (option --frotz)
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155
156 This test registers the following structure in the cache
157 and tries to run git-ls-files with option --frotz.'
158
f50c9f76 159
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160Source 'test-lib.sh'
161--------------------
162
163After assigning test_description, the test script should source
164test-lib.sh like this:
165
166 . ./test-lib.sh
167
168This test harness library does the following things:
169
170 - If the script is invoked with command line argument --help
171 (or -h), it shows the test_description and exits.
172
173 - Creates an empty test directory with an empty .git/objects
9231e3a9 174 database and chdir(2) into it. This directory is 't/trash directory'
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175 if you must know, but I do not think you care.
176
177 - Defines standard test helper functions for your scripts to
178 use. These functions are designed to make all scripts behave
179 consistently when command line arguments --verbose (or -v),
180 --debug (or -d), and --immediate (or -i) is given.
181
14cd1ff3 182
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183End with test_done
184------------------
185
186Your script will be a sequence of tests, using helper functions
187from the test harness library. At the end of the script, call
188'test_done'.
189
190
191Test harness library
192--------------------
193
194There are a handful helper functions defined in the test harness
195library for your script to use.
196
197 - test_expect_success <message> <script>
198
199 This takes two strings as parameter, and evaluates the
200 <script>. If it yields success, test is considered
201 successful. <message> should state what it is testing.
202
203 Example:
204
205 test_expect_success \
206 'git-write-tree should be able to write an empty tree.' \
207 'tree=$(git-write-tree)'
208
209 - test_expect_failure <message> <script>
210
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211 This is NOT the opposite of test_expect_success, but is used
212 to mark a test that demonstrates a known breakage. Unlike
213 the usual test_expect_success tests, which say "ok" on
214 success and "FAIL" on failure, this will say "FIXED" on
215 success and "still broken" on failure. Failures from these
216 tests won't cause -i (immediate) to stop.
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217
218 - test_debug <script>
219
220 This takes a single argument, <script>, and evaluates it only
221 when the test script is started with --debug command line
222 argument. This is primarily meant for use during the
223 development of a new test script.
224
225 - test_done
226
227 Your test script must have test_done at the end. Its purpose
228 is to summarize successes and failures in the test script and
229 exit with an appropriate error code.
230
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231 - test_tick
232
233 Make commit and tag names consistent by setting the author and
234 committer times to defined stated. Subsequent calls will
235 advance the times by a fixed amount.
236
237 - test_commit <message> [<filename> [<contents>]]
238
239 Creates a commit with the given message, committing the given
240 file with the given contents (default for both is to reuse the
241 message string), and adds a tag (again reusing the message
242 string as name). Calls test_tick to make the SHA-1s
243 reproducible.
244
245 - test_merge <message> <commit-or-tag>
246
247 Merges the given rev using the given message. Like test_commit,
248 creates a tag and calls test_tick before committing.
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249
250Tips for Writing Tests
251----------------------
252
253As with any programming projects, existing programs are the best
254source of the information. However, do _not_ emulate
255t0000-basic.sh when writing your tests. The test is special in
256that it tries to validate the very core of GIT. For example, it
257knows that there will be 256 subdirectories under .git/objects/,
258and it knows that the object ID of an empty tree is a certain
25940-byte string. This is deliberately done so in t0000-basic.sh
260because the things the very basic core test tries to achieve is
261to serve as a basis for people who are changing the GIT internal
262drastically. For these people, after making certain changes,
263not seeing failures from the basic test _is_ a failure. And
264such drastic changes to the core GIT that even changes these
265otherwise supposedly stable object IDs should be accompanied by
266an update to t0000-basic.sh.
267
268However, other tests that simply rely on basic parts of the core
269GIT working properly should not have that level of intimate
270knowledge of the core GIT internals. If all the test scripts
271hardcoded the object IDs like t0000-basic.sh does, that defeats
272the purpose of t0000-basic.sh, which is to isolate that level of
273validation in one place. Your test also ends up needing
274updating when such a change to the internal happens, so do _not_
275do it and leave the low level of validation to t0000-basic.sh.