commit.c: use clear_commit_marks_many() in in_merge_bases_many()
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
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1git-push(1)
2===========
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
97925fde 11[verse]
9f67fee2 12'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
6ddba5e2 13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
e3163c75 14 [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
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15
16DESCRIPTION
17-----------
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18
19Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
20necessary to complete the given refs.
7fc9d69f 21
cc55aaec 22You can make interesting things happen to a repository
eb0362a4 23every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
5162e697 24documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
eb0362a4 25
7fc9d69f 26
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27OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
28------------------
3598a308 29<repository>::
85a97d4e 30 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
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31 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
32 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
33 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
3598a308 34
2c9693bd 35<refspec>...::
7a0d911f 36 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
6cf378f0 37 `+`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
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38 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
39 It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
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40 in the remote repository is to be updated. If not specified,
41 the behavior of the command is controlled by the `push.default`
42 configuration variable.
3598a308 43+
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44The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
45it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
9d83e382 46`HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]).
3598a308 47+
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48The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
49push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
50be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
51updated.
3598a308 52+
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53The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
54on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
6cf378f0 55update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `+`,
149f6ddf 56you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
a75d7b54 57fast-forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
149f6ddf 58EXAMPLES below for details.
3598a308 59+
80391846 60`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
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61+
62Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
63the remote repository.
a83619d6 64+
6cf378f0 65The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
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66directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
67the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
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68already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
69if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
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70nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below) and
71no `push.default` configuration variable is set.
7fc9d69f 72
3240240f 73--all::
cc55aaec 74 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 75 refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
d6a73596 76
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77--prune::
78 Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example
79 a remote branch `tmp` will be removed if a local branch with the same
80 name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs, e.g.
6cf378f0 81 `git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/*` would
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82 make sure that remote `refs/tmp/foo` will be removed if `refs/heads/foo`
83 doesn't exist.
84
3240240f 85--mirror::
ff206748 86 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 87 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
73f03627 88 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
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89 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
90 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
91 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
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92 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
93 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
94 set.
ff206748 95
9f67fee2 96-n::
3240240f 97--dry-run::
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98 Do everything except actually send the updates.
99
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100--porcelain::
101 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
102 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
103 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
104
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105--delete::
106 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
107 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
108
3240240f 109--tags::
cc1b8d8b 110 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
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111 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
112 line.
113
3240240f 114--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
4fc988ef 115--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
ba020ef5 116 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
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117 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
118 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
119 a directory on the default $PATH.
120
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121-f::
122--force::
f0fff36e 123 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
64a476e6 124 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
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125 This flag disables the check. This can cause the
126 remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
7fc9d69f 127
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128--repo=<repository>::
129 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
0b444cdb 130 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
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131 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
132 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
133 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
134 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
135 the difference between these two commands
136+
137--------------------------
138git push public #1
139git push --repo=public #2
140--------------------------
141+
142is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
143only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
0b444cdb 144useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
dc36f265 145
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146-u::
147--set-upstream::
148 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
149 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
150 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
151 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
152
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153--thin::
154--no-thin::
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155 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
156 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
157 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
158 \--thin.
dc36f265 159
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160-q::
161--quiet::
162 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
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163 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
164 error stream.
989119d9 165
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166-v::
167--verbose::
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168 Run verbosely.
169
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170--progress::
171 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
172 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
173 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
174 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
989119d9 175
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176--recurse-submodules=check|on-demand::
177 Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
a6d3bde5 178 pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch. If 'check' is
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179 used git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
180 the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote
181 of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be
182 aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
183 all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will
184 be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary
185 revisions it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status.
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186
187
37ba0561 188include::urls-remotes.txt[]
eb0362a4 189
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190OUTPUT
191------
192
193The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
194section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
195locally or via ssh).
196
197The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
198representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
199
200-------------------------------
201 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
202-------------------------------
203
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204If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
205
206-------------------------------
207 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
208-------------------------------
209
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210The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
211option is used.
212
066a5268 213flag::
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214 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
215(space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
6cf378f0 216`+`;; for a successful forced update;
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217`-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
218`*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
219`!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
220`=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
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221
222summary::
223 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
224 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
225 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
6cf378f0 226 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
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227+
228For a failed update, more details are given:
229+
230--
231rejected::
232 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
233 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
234
235remote rejected::
236 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
237 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
238 of the following safety options in effect:
239 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
240 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
241 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
242 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
243
244remote failure::
245 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
246 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
247 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
248--
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249
250from::
251 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
252 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
253 name of the local ref is omitted.
254
255to::
256 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
257 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
258
259reason::
260 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
261 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
262 failure is described.
bb9fca80 263
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264Note about fast-forwards
265------------------------
266
267When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
268point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
269fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
270
271In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
272commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
273builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
274
275In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
276suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
277a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
278leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
279
280----------------
281
282 B
283 /
284 ---X---A
285
286----------------
287
288Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
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289back to the original repository from which you two obtained the original
290commit X.
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291
292The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
293commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
294
295But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
296now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
297so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
298will now start building on top of B.
299
300The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
301to prevent such loss of history.
302
303If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
304the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
305history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
306by both parties, and push the result back.
307
308You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
309the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
310and B.
311
312----------------
313
314 B---C
315 / /
316 ---X---A
317
318----------------
319
320Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
321push will be accepted.
322
323Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
324with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
325create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
326A.
327
328----------------
329
330 B D
331 / /
332 ---X---A
333
334----------------
335
336Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
337accepted.
338
339There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
340rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
341pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
342A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
343commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
344forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
345you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
346(and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
347overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
348a case where you do mean to lose history.
349
350
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351Examples
352--------
353
5d2fc913 354`git push`::
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355 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
356 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
357 configured for the current branch).
358
5d2fc913 359`git push origin`::
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360 Without additional configuration, works like
361 `git push origin :`.
362+
363The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
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364configured by setting the `push` option of the remote, or the `push.default`
365configuration variable.
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366+
367For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
368use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
369the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
370`git push origin`.
371
5d2fc913 372`git push origin :`::
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373 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
374 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
375 description of "matching" branches.
376
5d2fc913 377`git push origin master`::
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378 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
379 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
380 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
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381 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
382 created.
bb9fca80 383
5d2fc913 384`git push origin HEAD`::
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385 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
386 remote.
bb9fca80 387
b48990e7 388`git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev`::
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389 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
390 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
b48990e7 391 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `mothership` repository;
2c9693bd 392 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
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393+
394This is to emulate `git fetch` run on the `mothership` using `git
395push` that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate
396the work done on `satellite`, and is often necessary when you can
397only make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into
398mothership but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite
399because the latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).
400+
401After running this `git push` on the `satellite` machine, you would
402ssh into the `mothership` and run `git merge` there to complete the
403emulation of `git pull` that were run on `mothership` to pull changes
404made on `satellite`.
bb9fca80 405
5d2fc913 406`git push origin HEAD:master`::
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407 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
408 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
409 branch without thinking about its local name.
410
5d2fc913 411`git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental`::
4e560158 412 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
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413 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
414 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
415 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
416 the ref name on its own will work.
4e560158 417
5d2fc913 418`git push origin :experimental`::
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419 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
420 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
421
6cf378f0 422`git push origin +dev:master`::
149f6ddf 423 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
a75d7b54 424 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
149f6ddf 425 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
a75d7b54 426 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
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427+
428----
429 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
430 \
431 X---Y---Z dev
432----
433+
434The above command would change the origin repository to
435+
436----
437 A---B (unnamed branch)
438 /
439 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
440----
441+
442Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
443and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
444a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
445
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446GIT
447---
9e1f0a85 448Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite