Start preparing the API documents.
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
CommitLineData
7984eabe 1git(7)
2cf565c5 2======
2cf565c5
DG
3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
463a849d
MM
12'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=GIT_EXEC_PATH]]
13 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager]
892c41b9
ML
14 [--bare] [--git-dir=GIT_DIR] [--work-tree=GIT_WORK_TREE]
15 [--help] COMMAND [ARGS]
2cf565c5
DG
16
17DESCRIPTION
18-----------
23091e95
BF
19Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
20unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
21and full access to internals.
22
23See this link:tutorial.html[tutorial] to get started, then see
24link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
25"man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
a1dc34fa
BF
26also want to read link:cvs-migration.html[CVS migration]. See
27link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
28introduction.
cb22bc44 29
4514ad4f 30The COMMAND is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
e0d10e1c 31as defined in the configuration file (see gitlink:git-config[1]).
4514ad4f 32
34b604af
JA
33Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
34documentation can be viewed at
35`http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
36
26cfcfbf
JH
37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
2ff3f61a
JH
41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
5587cac2
JH
46* link:v1.5.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3]
47
48* release notes for
b52e985a 49 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
4a44b9ea 50 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
afc05f9f 51 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
58ba4f6a 52 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
326df26d 53 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
077d6f72 54 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
8d863c98
JH
55 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
56 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 57
aba170cd 58* release notes for
da899deb 59 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
baafd6e7 60 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
444649e5 61 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
3e48af38
JH
62 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
63 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
aba170cd
JH
64 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
65
66* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
67
68* release notes for
69 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
70 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
2ff3f61a
JH
71 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
72 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
73 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
74 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
75 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
76
77* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
78
aba170cd
JH
79* release notes for
80 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
2ff3f61a
JH
81 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
82 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
83 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
84 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
85 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
86 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
87
88* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
89 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
90 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
91 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
26cfcfbf
JH
92
93============
94
95endif::stalenotes[]
96
cb22bc44
AE
97OPTIONS
98-------
99--version::
a87cd02c 100 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
cb22bc44
AE
101
102--help::
a87cd02c 103 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
0f6f195b
CC
104 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
105 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
106 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
45533d26
CC
107+
108Other options are available to control how the manual page is
109displayed. See gitlink:git-help[1] for more information,
110because 'git --help ...' is converted internally into 'git
111help ...'.
cb22bc44
AE
112
113--exec-path::
a87cd02c 114 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
cb22bc44
AE
115 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
116 environment variable. If no path is given 'git' will print
117 the current setting and then exit.
118
6acbcb92
JS
119-p|--paginate::
120 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER).
121
463a849d
MM
122--no-pager::
123 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
124
6acbcb92
JS
125--git-dir=<path>::
126 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
127 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable.
128
892c41b9
ML
129--work-tree=<path>::
130 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
131 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
132 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
133 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
134 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
135 variable.
136
6acbcb92 137--bare::
9277d602
JH
138 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
139 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
140 directory.
141
9755afbd 142
23091e95
BF
143FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
144---------------------
9755afbd 145
23091e95
BF
146See the references above to get started using git. The following is
147probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
8db9307c 148
40dac517
BF
149The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
150user-manual] and the link:core-tutorial.html[Core tutorial] both provide
151introductions to the underlying git architecture.
e6fc2346 152
23091e95
BF
153See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
154examples.
9755afbd 155
530e741c
JH
156The internals are documented link:technical/api-index.html[here].
157
23091e95
BF
158GIT COMMANDS
159------------
9755afbd 160
23091e95
BF
161We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
162("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 163
23091e95
BF
164High-level commands (porcelain)
165-------------------------------
166
167We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
168ancillary user utilities.
169
170Main porcelain commands
171~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 172
377e8139 173include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 174
90933efb 175Ancillary Commands
23091e95 176~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2f2de9b4
JH
177Manipulators:
178
377e8139 179include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 180
90933efb 181Interrogators:
204ee6a9 182
377e8139 183include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 184
89bf2077
JH
185
186Interacting with Others
187~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
188
189These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
190people via patch over e-mail.
191
192include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
193
194
b1f33d62
RR
195Low-level commands (plumbing)
196-----------------------------
197
198Although git includes its
199own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
200development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
201might start by reading about gitlink:git-update-index[1] and
202gitlink:git-read-tree[1].
203
89bf2077
JH
204The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
205to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
206than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
207primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
208on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
209end user experience.
210
211The following description divides
212the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
b1f33d62
RR
213the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
214compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
215repositories.
216
89bf2077 217
b1f33d62
RR
218Manipulation commands
219~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 220
377e8139 221include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
b1f33d62
RR
222
223
224Interrogation commands
225~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
226
377e8139 227include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
b1f33d62
RR
228
229In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
230the working tree.
231
232
233Synching repositories
234~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
235
377e8139 236include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 237
89bf2077
JH
238The following are helper programs used by the above; end users
239typically do not use them directly.
240
241include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
242
243
244Internal helper commands
245~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
246
247These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
248users typically do not use them directly.
249
250include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
251
b1f33d62 252
5773c9f2
JH
253Configuration Mechanism
254-----------------------
255
2fa090b6 256Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
5773c9f2 257is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
addf88e4 258simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
5773c9f2
JH
259people. Here is an example:
260
261------------
262#
2fa090b6 263# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
5773c9f2
JH
264#
265
266; core variables
267[core]
268 ; Don't trust file modes
269 filemode = false
270
271; user identity
272[user]
273 name = "Junio C Hamano"
274 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
275
276------------
277
278Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
279their operation accordingly.
280
281
6c84e2e0 282Identifier Terminology
2cf565c5
DG
283----------------------
284<object>::
2fa090b6 285 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
2cf565c5
DG
286
287<blob>::
2fa090b6 288 Indicates a blob object name.
2cf565c5
DG
289
290<tree>::
2fa090b6 291 Indicates a tree object name.
2cf565c5
DG
292
293<commit>::
2fa090b6 294 Indicates a commit object name.
2cf565c5
DG
295
296<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 297 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
6c84e2e0
DG
298 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
299 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
300 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 301
043d7605
TT
302<commit-ish>::
303 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
304 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
305 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
306 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
307
2cf565c5
DG
308<type>::
309 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 310 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
2cf565c5
DG
311
312<file>::
2fa090b6
JH
313 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
314 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 315
c1bdacf9
DG
316Symbolic Identifiers
317--------------------
90933efb 318Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 319symbolic notation:
c1bdacf9
DG
320
321HEAD::
2fa090b6
JH
322 indicates the head of the current branch (i.e. the
323 contents of `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`).
324
c1bdacf9 325<tag>::
2fa090b6
JH
326 a valid tag 'name'
327 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`).
328
c1bdacf9 329<head>::
2fa090b6
JH
330 a valid head 'name'
331 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`).
332
d47107d8
JH
333For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
334"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitlink:git-rev-parse[1].
335
c1bdacf9
DG
336
337File/Directory Structure
338------------------------
c1bdacf9 339
06ada152 340Please see the link:repository-layout.html[repository layout] document.
c1bdacf9 341
6250ad1e
JL
342Read link:hooks.html[hooks] for more details about each hook.
343
c1bdacf9 344Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 345`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 346
a1d4aa74 347
2cf565c5
DG
348Terminology
349-----------
06ada152 350Please see the link:glossary.html[glossary] document.
2cf565c5
DG
351
352
353Environment Variables
354---------------------
355Various git commands use the following environment variables:
356
c1bdacf9
DG
357The git Repository
358~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
359These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
360is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2fa090b6 361git so take care if using Cogito etc.
c1bdacf9
DG
362
363'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
364 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
5f3aa197
LS
365 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
366 is used.
c1bdacf9
DG
367
368'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
369 If the object storage directory is specified via this
370 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
371 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
372 directory is used.
373
374'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
375 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
376 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
90933efb 377 specifies a ":" separated list of git object directories which
c1bdacf9
DG
378 can be used to search for git objects. New objects will not be
379 written to these directories.
380
381'GIT_DIR'::
2fa090b6
JH
382 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
383 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
384 for the base of the repository.
c1bdacf9 385
892c41b9
ML
386'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
387 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
388 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
389 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
390 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
391 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
392
c1bdacf9
DG
393git Commits
394~~~~~~~~~~~
395'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
396'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
397'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
398'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
399'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 400'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 401'EMAIL'::
a7154e91 402 see gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]
c1bdacf9
DG
403
404git Diffs
405~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 406'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
fde97d8a
SE
407 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
408 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
409 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
410 value passed on the git diff command line.
411
d81ed1b5 412'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
fde97d8a
SE
413 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
414 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
415 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
416 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
417
418 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
419+
420where:
421
422 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
423 contents of <old|new>,
424 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
425 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
426
427+
428The file parameters can point at the user's working file
429(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
430when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
431index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
432temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
433+
434For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
435parameter, <path>.
2cf565c5 436
575ba9d6
ML
437other
438~~~~~
dbddb714
JN
439'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
440 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
441 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
442 See gitlink:git-merge[1]
443
c27d205a 444'GIT_PAGER'::
a7738c77
SG
445 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
446 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
447 a pager.
c27d205a 448
d5538b41
SP
449'GIT_SSH'::
450 If this environment variable is set then gitlink:git-fetch[1]
451 and gitlink:git-push[1] will use this command instead
452 of `ssh` when they need to connect to a remote system.
453 The 'GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
454 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
455 shell command to execute on that remote system.
456+
457To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
458you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
459then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
460+
461Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
462personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
463for further details.
464
06f59e9f
TT
465'GIT_FLUSH'::
466 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
467 as git-blame (in incremental mode), git-rev-list, git-log,
468 git-whatchanged, etc., will force a flush of the output stream
469 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
470 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
471 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
472 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
473 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
474
575ba9d6 475'GIT_TRACE'::
2886bdb1
CC
476 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
477 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
575ba9d6
ML
478 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
479 execution and external command execution.
2886bdb1
CC
480 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
481 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
482 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
483 trace messages into this file descriptor.
484 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
485 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
486 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
487 into it.
575ba9d6 488
8db9307c
JH
489Discussion[[Discussion]]
490------------------------
40dac517
BF
491
492More detail on the following is available from the
493link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
494user-manual] and the link:core-tutorial.html[Core tutorial].
495
496A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
497subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
498things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
499of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
500contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
501as tags and branch heads.
502
503The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
504hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
505directory heirarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
506and some number of parent commits.
507
508The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
509"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
510represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
511parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
512
513All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
514written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
515The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
516just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
517purpose.
518
519When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
520efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
521
522Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
523may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
524with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
525recent commit (or "head") of a branch under developement. SHA1 names of
526tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
527`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
528
529The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
530path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
531the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
532attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
533corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
534working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
535be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
536content stored in the index.
537
538The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
539for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
540unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 541
cb22bc44
AE
542Authors
543-------
9755afbd 544* git's founding father is Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
947ad2e1 545* The current git nurse is Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>.
0240e21a 546* The git potty was written by Andreas Ericsson <ae@op5.se>.
9755afbd 547* General upbringing is handled by the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
2cf565c5
DG
548
549Documentation
550--------------
9755afbd
JH
551The documentation for git suite was started by David Greaves
552<david@dgreaves.com>, and later enhanced greatly by the
553contributors on the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
2cf565c5
DG
554
555GIT
556---
a7154e91 557Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite