Git 1.6.5.7
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
89a56bfb 12'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=GIT_EXEC_PATH]] [--html-path]
463a849d 13 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager]
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14 [--bare] [--git-dir=GIT_DIR] [--work-tree=GIT_WORK_TREE]
15 [--help] COMMAND [ARGS]
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16
17DESCRIPTION
18-----------
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19Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
20unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
21and full access to internals.
22
6998e4db 23See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
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24link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
25"man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
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26also want to read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]. See
27the link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
a1dc34fa 28introduction.
cb22bc44 29
4514ad4f 30The COMMAND is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
5162e697 31as defined in the configuration file (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
4514ad4f 32
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33Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
34documentation can be viewed at
35`http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
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41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
527b9d70 46* link:v1.6.5.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.7]
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47
48* release notes for
527b9d70 49 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
9861b644 50 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
aa031314 51 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
eefe19fb 52 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
080cbc12 53 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
6c0efa2a 54 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
b142da2a 55 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
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56 link:RelNotes-1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
57
cb572206 58* link:v1.6.4.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.4]
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59
60* release notes for
cb572206 61 link:RelNotes-1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
7fb6bcff 62 link:RelNotes-1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
82c3e210 63 link:RelNotes-1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
d9b9784f 64 link:RelNotes-1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
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65 link:RelNotes-1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
66
441b40d8 67* link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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68
69* release notes for
441b40d8 70 link:RelNotes-1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
e16a4779 71 link:RelNotes-1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
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72 link:RelNotes-1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
73 link:RelNotes-1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
74 link:RelNotes-1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
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75
76* release notes for
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77 link:RelNotes-1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
78 link:RelNotes-1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
c965c029 79 link:RelNotes-1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
54a47493 80 link:RelNotes-1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
de769780 81 link:RelNotes-1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
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82 link:RelNotes-1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
83
621f1b4b 84* link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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85
86* release notes for
621f1b4b
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87 link:RelNotes-1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
88 link:RelNotes-1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
c42b1ad9 89 link:RelNotes-1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
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90 link:RelNotes-1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
91
efe05b01 92* link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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93
94* release notes for
efe05b01 95 link:RelNotes-1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
f371d3ea 96 link:RelNotes-1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
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97 link:RelNotes-1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
98 link:RelNotes-1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
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99 link:RelNotes-1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
100 link:RelNotes-1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
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101 link:RelNotes-1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
102
efe05b01 103* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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104
105* release notes for
efe05b01 106 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
781c1834 107 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
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108 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
109 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
110 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
111 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
e636106c 112 link:RelNotes-1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 113
efe05b01 114* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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115
116* release notes for
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117 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
118 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
7064ca51 119 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
28bc3022 120 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
2d3922dc 121 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
66aaa2fc 122 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
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123 link:RelNotes-1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
124
efe05b01 125* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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126
127* release notes for
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128 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
129 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
803d5158 130 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
ad416ed4 131 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
923d44ae 132 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
cf5c51ef 133 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
ecb879f8 134 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
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135 link:RelNotes-1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
136
e708af6e 137* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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138
139* release notes for
e708af6e 140 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
b52e985a 141 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
4a44b9ea 142 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
afc05f9f 143 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
58ba4f6a 144 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
326df26d 145 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
077d6f72 146 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
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147 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
148 link:RelNotes-1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 149
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150* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
151
aba170cd 152* release notes for
da899deb 153 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
baafd6e7 154 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
444649e5 155 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
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156 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
157 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
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158 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
159
160* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
161
162* release notes for
163 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
164 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
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165 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
166 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
167 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
168 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
169 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
170
171* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
172
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173* release notes for
174 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
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175 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
176 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
177 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
178 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
179 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
180 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
181
182* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
183 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
184 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
185 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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186
187============
188
189endif::stalenotes[]
190
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191OPTIONS
192-------
193--version::
a87cd02c 194 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
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195
196--help::
a87cd02c 197 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
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198 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
199 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
200 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
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201+
202Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 203displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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204because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
205help ...`.
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206
207--exec-path::
a87cd02c 208 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 209 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 210 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
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211 the current setting and then exit.
212
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213--html-path::
214 Print the path to wherever your git HTML documentation is installed
215 and exit.
216
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217-p::
218--paginate::
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219 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER).
220
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221--no-pager::
222 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
223
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224--git-dir=<path>::
225 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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226 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
227 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 228
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229--work-tree=<path>::
230 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
231 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
232 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
233 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
234 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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235 variable. It can be an absolute path or relative path to
236 the directory specified by --git-dir or GIT_DIR.
237 Note: If --git-dir or GIT_DIR are specified but none of
238 --work-tree, GIT_WORK_TREE and core.worktree is specified,
239 the current working directory is regarded as the top directory
240 of your working tree.
892c41b9 241
6acbcb92 242--bare::
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243 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
244 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
245 directory.
246
9755afbd 247
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248FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
249---------------------
9755afbd 250
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251See the references above to get started using git. The following is
252probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
8db9307c 253
40dac517 254The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 255user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
40dac517 256introductions to the underlying git architecture.
e6fc2346 257
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258See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
259
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260See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
261examples.
9755afbd 262
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263The internals are documented in the
264link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
530e741c 265
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266GIT COMMANDS
267------------
9755afbd 268
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269We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
270("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 271
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272High-level commands (porcelain)
273-------------------------------
274
275We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
276ancillary user utilities.
277
278Main porcelain commands
279~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 280
377e8139 281include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 282
90933efb 283Ancillary Commands
23091e95 284~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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285Manipulators:
286
377e8139 287include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 288
90933efb 289Interrogators:
204ee6a9 290
377e8139 291include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 292
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293
294Interacting with Others
295~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
296
297These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
298people via patch over e-mail.
299
300include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
301
302
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303Low-level commands (plumbing)
304-----------------------------
305
306Although git includes its
307own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
308development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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309might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
310linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 311
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312The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
313to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
314than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
315primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
316on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
317end user experience.
318
319The following description divides
320the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
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321the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
322compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
323repositories.
324
89bf2077 325
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326Manipulation commands
327~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 328
377e8139 329include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
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330
331
332Interrogation commands
333~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
334
377e8139 335include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
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336
337In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
338the working tree.
339
340
341Synching repositories
342~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
343
377e8139 344include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 345
57f6ec02 346The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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347typically do not use them directly.
348
349include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
350
351
352Internal helper commands
353~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
354
355These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
356users typically do not use them directly.
357
358include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
359
b1f33d62 360
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361Configuration Mechanism
362-----------------------
363
2fa090b6 364Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
5773c9f2 365is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
addf88e4 366simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
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367people. Here is an example:
368
369------------
370#
2fa090b6 371# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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372#
373
374; core variables
375[core]
376 ; Don't trust file modes
377 filemode = false
378
379; user identity
380[user]
381 name = "Junio C Hamano"
382 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
383
384------------
385
386Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
387their operation accordingly.
388
389
6c84e2e0 390Identifier Terminology
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391----------------------
392<object>::
2fa090b6 393 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
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394
395<blob>::
2fa090b6 396 Indicates a blob object name.
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397
398<tree>::
2fa090b6 399 Indicates a tree object name.
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400
401<commit>::
2fa090b6 402 Indicates a commit object name.
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403
404<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 405 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
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406 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
407 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
408 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 409
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410<commit-ish>::
411 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
412 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
413 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
414 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
415
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416<type>::
417 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 418 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
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419
420<file>::
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421 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
422 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 423
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424Symbolic Identifiers
425--------------------
90933efb 426Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 427symbolic notation:
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428
429HEAD::
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430 indicates the head of the current branch (i.e. the
431 contents of `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`).
432
c1bdacf9 433<tag>::
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434 a valid tag 'name'
435 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`).
436
c1bdacf9 437<head>::
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438 a valid head 'name'
439 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`).
440
d47107d8 441For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
5162e697 442"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:git-rev-parse[1].
d47107d8 443
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444
445File/Directory Structure
446------------------------
c1bdacf9 447
6998e4db 448Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 449
6998e4db 450Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 451
c1bdacf9 452Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 453`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 454
a1d4aa74 455
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456Terminology
457-----------
6998e4db 458Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
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459
460
461Environment Variables
462---------------------
463Various git commands use the following environment variables:
464
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465The git Repository
466~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
467These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
468is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2fa090b6 469git so take care if using Cogito etc.
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470
471'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
472 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
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473 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
474 is used.
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475
476'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
477 If the object storage directory is specified via this
478 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
479 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
480 directory is used.
481
482'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
483 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
484 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
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485 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
486 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
487 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
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488
489'GIT_DIR'::
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490 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
491 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
492 for the base of the repository.
c1bdacf9 493
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494'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
495 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
496 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
497 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
498 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
499 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
500
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501'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
502 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
503 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
504 up into while looking for a repository directory.
505 It will not exclude the current working directory or
506 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
507 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
508
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509git Commits
510~~~~~~~~~~~
511'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
512'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
513'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
514'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
515'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 516'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 517'EMAIL'::
5162e697 518 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
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519
520git Diffs
521~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 522'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
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523 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
524 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
525 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
526 value passed on the git diff command line.
527
d81ed1b5 528'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
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529 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
530 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
531 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
532 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
533
534 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
535+
536where:
537
538 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
539 contents of <old|new>,
540 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
541 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
542
543+
544The file parameters can point at the user's working file
545(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
546when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
547index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
548temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
549+
550For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
551parameter, <path>.
2cf565c5 552
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553other
554~~~~~
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555'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
556 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
557 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 558 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 559
c27d205a 560'GIT_PAGER'::
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561 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
562 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
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563 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
564 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 565
d5538b41 566'GIT_SSH'::
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567 If this environment variable is set then 'git-fetch'
568 and 'git-push' will use this command instead
2fd02c92 569 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
483bc4f0 570 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
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571 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
572 shell command to execute on that remote system.
573+
574To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
575you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
576then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
577+
578Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
579personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
580for further details.
581
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582'GIT_FLUSH'::
583 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
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584 as 'git-blame' (in incremental mode), 'git-rev-list', 'git-log',
585 and 'git-whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
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586 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
587 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
588 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
589 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
590 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
591
575ba9d6 592'GIT_TRACE'::
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593 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
594 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
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595 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
596 execution and external command execution.
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597 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
598 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
599 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
600 trace messages into this file descriptor.
601 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
602 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
603 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
604 into it.
575ba9d6 605
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606Discussion[[Discussion]]
607------------------------
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608
609More detail on the following is available from the
610link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 611user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
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612
613A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
614subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
615things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
616of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
617contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
618as tags and branch heads.
619
620The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
621hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 622directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
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623and some number of parent commits.
624
625The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
626"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
627represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
628parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
629
630All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
631written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
632The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
633just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
634purpose.
635
636When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
637efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
638
639Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
640may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
641with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
02ff6250 642recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
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643tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
644`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
645
646The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
647path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
648the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
649attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
650corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
651working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
652be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
653content stored in the index.
654
655The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
656for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
657unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 658
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659Authors
660-------
9755afbd 661* git's founding father is Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
947ad2e1 662* The current git nurse is Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>.
0240e21a 663* The git potty was written by Andreas Ericsson <ae@op5.se>.
9755afbd 664* General upbringing is handled by the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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665
666Documentation
667--------------
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668The documentation for git suite was started by David Greaves
669<david@dgreaves.com>, and later enhanced greatly by the
670contributors on the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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672SEE ALSO
673--------
674linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
5cbef01a 675link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 676linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
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677linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
678linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
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680GIT
681---
9e1f0a85 682Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite