builtin/push.c: use strbuf instead of manual allocation
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
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1git-push(1)
2===========
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
97925fde 11[verse]
c2aba155 12'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
6ddba5e2 13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
28f5d176 14 [--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
90d32d1f 15 [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
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16
17DESCRIPTION
18-----------
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19
20Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
21necessary to complete the given refs.
7fc9d69f 22
cc55aaec 23You can make interesting things happen to a repository
eb0362a4 24every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
5162e697 25documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
eb0362a4 26
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27When the command line does not specify where to push with the
28`<repository>` argument, `branch.*.remote` configuration for the
29current branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the
30configuration is missing, it defaults to 'origin'.
31
32When the command line does not specify what to push with `<refspec>...`
33arguments or `--all`, `--mirror`, `--tags` options, the command finds
34the default `<refspec>` by consulting `remote.*.push` configuration,
35and if it is not found, honors `push.default` configuration to decide
36what to push (See gitlink:git-config[1] for the meaning of `push.default`).
37
7fc9d69f 38
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39OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
40------------------
3598a308 41<repository>::
85a97d4e 42 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
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43 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
44 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
45 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
3598a308 46
2c9693bd 47<refspec>...::
cfe1348d 48 Specify what destination ref to update with what source object.
7a0d911f 49 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
cfe1348d 50 `+`, followed by the source object <src>, followed
7a0d911f 51 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
3598a308 52+
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53The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
54it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
9d83e382 55`HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]).
3598a308 56+
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57The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
58push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
59be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
60updated.
3598a308 61+
149f6ddf 62The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
dbfeddb1 63on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if <dst> is not
40eff179 64a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if it can fast-forward
2de9b711 65<dst>. By having the optional leading `+`, you can tell Git to update
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66the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by default (e.g., it is not a
67fast-forward.) This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
149f6ddf 68EXAMPLES below for details.
3598a308 69+
80391846 70`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
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71+
72Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
73the remote repository.
a83619d6 74+
6cf378f0 75The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
2de9b711 76directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
89edd5a9 77the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
cfe1348d 78already exists on the remote side.
7fc9d69f 79
3240240f 80--all::
cc55aaec 81 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 82 refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
d6a73596 83
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84--prune::
85 Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example
86 a remote branch `tmp` will be removed if a local branch with the same
87 name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs, e.g.
6cf378f0 88 `git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/*` would
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89 make sure that remote `refs/tmp/foo` will be removed if `refs/heads/foo`
90 doesn't exist.
91
3240240f 92--mirror::
ff206748 93 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 94 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
73f03627 95 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
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96 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
97 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
98 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
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99 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
100 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
101 set.
ff206748 102
9f67fee2 103-n::
3240240f 104--dry-run::
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105 Do everything except actually send the updates.
106
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107--porcelain::
108 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
109 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
110 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
111
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112--delete::
113 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
114 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
115
3240240f 116--tags::
cc1b8d8b 117 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
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118 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
119 line.
120
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121--follow-tags::
122 Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option,
123 and also push annotated tags in `refs/tags` that are missing
a8a5406a 124 from the remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are
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125 reachable from the refs being pushed.
126
3240240f 127--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
4fc988ef 128--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
ba020ef5 129 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
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130 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
131 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
132 a directory on the default $PATH.
133
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134--[no-]force-with-lease::
135--force-with-lease=<refname>::
136--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>::
137 Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is
138 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
139+
140This option bypasses the check, but instead requires that the
141current value of the ref to be the expected value. "git push"
142fails otherwise.
143+
144Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published.
145You will have to bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to
146replace the history you originally published with the rebased history.
147If somebody else built on top of your original history while you are
148rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may advance with her
149commit, and blindly pushing with `--force` will lose her work.
150+
151This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are
152updating is what you rebased and want to replace. If the remote ref
153still points at the commit you specified, you can be sure that no
154other people did anything to the ref (it is like taking a "lease" on
155the ref without explicitly locking it, and you update the ref while
156making sure that your earlier "lease" is still valid).
157+
158`--force-with-lease` alone, without specifying the details, will protect
159all remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring their
160current value to be the same as the remote-tracking branch we have
161for them, unless specified with a `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
162option that explicitly states what the expected value is.
163+
164`--force-with-lease=<refname>`, without specifying the expected value, will
165protect the named ref (alone), if it is going to be updated, by
166requiring its current value to be the same as the remote-tracking
167branch we have for it.
168+
169`--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>` will protect the named ref (alone),
170if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current value to be
171the same as the specified value <expect> (which is allowed to be
172different from the remote-tracking branch we have for the refname,
173or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking branch when
174this form is used).
175+
176Note that all forms other than `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
177that specifies the expected current value of the ref explicitly are
178still experimental and their semantics may change as we gain experience
179with this feature.
180+
181"--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous --force-with-lease on the
182command line.
183
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184-f::
185--force::
f0fff36e 186 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
64a476e6 187 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
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188 Also, when `--force-with-lease` option is used, the command refuses
189 to update a remote ref whose current value does not match
190 what is expected.
191+
192This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote repository
193to lose commits; use it with care.
194+
195Note that `--force` applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence
196using it with `push.default` set to `matching` or with multiple push
197destinations configured with `remote.*.push` may overwrite refs
198other than the current branch (including local refs that are
199strictly behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to only
200one branch, use a `+` in front of the refspec to push (e.g `git push
201origin +master` to force a push to the `master` branch). See the
202`<refspec>...` section above for details.
7fc9d69f 203
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204--repo=<repository>::
205 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
0b444cdb 206 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
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207 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
208 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
209 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
210 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
211 the difference between these two commands
212+
213--------------------------
214git push public #1
215git push --repo=public #2
216--------------------------
217+
218is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
219only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
0b444cdb 220useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
dc36f265 221
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222-u::
223--set-upstream::
224 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
225 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
226 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
227 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
228
0460ed2c 229--[no-]thin::
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230 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
231 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
232 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
233 \--thin.
dc36f265 234
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235-q::
236--quiet::
237 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
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238 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
239 error stream.
989119d9 240
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241-v::
242--verbose::
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243 Run verbosely.
244
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245--progress::
246 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
247 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
248 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
249 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
989119d9 250
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251--recurse-submodules=check|on-demand::
252 Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
a6d3bde5 253 pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch. If 'check' is
2de9b711 254 used Git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
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255 the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote
256 of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be
257 aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
258 all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will
259 be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary
260 revisions it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status.
d2b17b32 261
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262--[no-]verify::
263 Toggle the pre-push hook (see linkgit:githooks[5]). The
264 default is \--verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the
265 push. With \--no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.
266
d2b17b32 267
37ba0561 268include::urls-remotes.txt[]
eb0362a4 269
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270OUTPUT
271------
272
273The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
2de9b711 274section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
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275locally or via ssh).
276
277The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
278representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
279
280-------------------------------
281 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
282-------------------------------
283
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284If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
285
286-------------------------------
287 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
288-------------------------------
289
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290The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
291option is used.
292
066a5268 293flag::
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294 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
295(space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
6cf378f0 296`+`;; for a successful forced update;
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297`-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
298`*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
299`!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
300`=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
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301
302summary::
303 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
304 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
305 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
6cf378f0 306 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
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307+
308For a failed update, more details are given:
309+
310--
311rejected::
312 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
313 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
314
315remote rejected::
316 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
317 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
318 of the following safety options in effect:
319 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
320 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
321 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
322 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
323
324remote failure::
325 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
326 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
327 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
328--
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329
330from::
331 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
332 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
333 name of the local ref is omitted.
334
335to::
336 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
337 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
338
339reason::
340 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
341 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
342 failure is described.
bb9fca80 343
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344Note about fast-forwards
345------------------------
346
347When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
348point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
349fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
350
351In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
352commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
353builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
354
355In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
356suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
357a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
358leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
359
360----------------
361
362 B
363 /
364 ---X---A
365
366----------------
367
368Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
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369back to the original repository from which you two obtained the original
370commit X.
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371
372The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
373commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
374
375But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
376now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
377so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
378will now start building on top of B.
379
380The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
381to prevent such loss of history.
382
383If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
384the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
385history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
386by both parties, and push the result back.
387
388You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
389the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
390and B.
391
392----------------
393
394 B---C
395 / /
396 ---X---A
397
398----------------
399
400Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
401push will be accepted.
402
403Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
404with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
405create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
406A.
407
408----------------
409
410 B D
411 / /
412 ---X---A
413
414----------------
415
416Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
417accepted.
418
419There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
420rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
421pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
422A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
423commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
424forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
425you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
426(and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
427overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
428a case where you do mean to lose history.
429
430
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431Examples
432--------
433
5d2fc913 434`git push`::
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435 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
436 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
437 configured for the current branch).
438
5d2fc913 439`git push origin`::
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440 Without additional configuration, works like
441 `git push origin :`.
442+
443The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
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444configured by setting the `push` option of the remote, or the `push.default`
445configuration variable.
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446+
447For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
448use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
449the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
450`git push origin`.
451
5d2fc913 452`git push origin :`::
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453 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
454 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
455 description of "matching" branches.
456
5d2fc913 457`git push origin master`::
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458 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
459 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
460 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
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461 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
462 created.
bb9fca80 463
5d2fc913 464`git push origin HEAD`::
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465 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
466 remote.
bb9fca80 467
b48990e7 468`git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev`::
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469 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
470 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
b48990e7 471 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `mothership` repository;
2c9693bd 472 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
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473+
474This is to emulate `git fetch` run on the `mothership` using `git
475push` that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate
476the work done on `satellite`, and is often necessary when you can
477only make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into
478mothership but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite
479because the latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).
480+
481After running this `git push` on the `satellite` machine, you would
482ssh into the `mothership` and run `git merge` there to complete the
483emulation of `git pull` that were run on `mothership` to pull changes
484made on `satellite`.
bb9fca80 485
5d2fc913 486`git push origin HEAD:master`::
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487 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
488 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
489 branch without thinking about its local name.
490
5d2fc913 491`git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental`::
4e560158 492 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
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493 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
494 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
495 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
496 the ref name on its own will work.
4e560158 497
5d2fc913 498`git push origin :experimental`::
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499 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
500 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
501
6cf378f0 502`git push origin +dev:master`::
149f6ddf 503 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
a75d7b54 504 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
149f6ddf 505 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
a75d7b54 506 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
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507+
508----
509 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
510 \
511 X---Y---Z dev
512----
513+
514The above command would change the origin repository to
515+
516----
517 A---B (unnamed branch)
518 /
519 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
520----
521+
522Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
523and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
524a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
525
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526GIT
527---
9e1f0a85 528Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite