rev-list: add --indexed-objects option
[git/git.git] / Documentation / rev-list-options.txt
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1Commit Limiting
2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3
4Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
5special notations explained in the description, additional commit
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6limiting may be applied.
7
8Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
9`--since=<date1>` limits to commits newer than `<date1>`, and using it
10with `--grep=<pattern>` further limits to commits whose log message
11has a line that matches `<pattern>`), unless otherwise noted.
12
13Note that these are applied before commit
14ordering and formatting options, such as `--reverse`.
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15
16--
17
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18-<number>::
19-n <number>::
982962ce 20--max-count=<number>::
841d8118 21 Limit the number of commits to output.
fdcf39e5 22
982962ce 23--skip=<number>::
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24 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
25
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26--since=<date>::
27--after=<date>::
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28 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
29
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30--until=<date>::
31--before=<date>::
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32 Show commits older than a specific date.
33
56b6d01d 34ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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35--max-age=<timestamp>::
36--min-age=<timestamp>::
fdcf39e5 37 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
56b6d01d 38endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 39
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40--author=<pattern>::
41--committer=<pattern>::
fdcf39e5 42 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
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43 header lines that match the specified pattern (regular
44 expression). With more than one `--author=<pattern>`,
45 commits whose author matches any of the given patterns are
46 chosen (similarly for multiple `--committer=<pattern>`).
fdcf39e5 47
72fd13f7 48--grep-reflog=<pattern>::
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49 Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that
50 match the specified pattern (regular expression). With
51 more than one `--grep-reflog`, commits whose reflog message
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52 matches any of the given patterns are chosen. It is an
53 error to use this option unless `--walk-reflogs` is in use.
72fd13f7 54
982962ce 55--grep=<pattern>::
fdcf39e5 56 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
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57 matches the specified pattern (regular expression). With
58 more than one `--grep=<pattern>`, commits whose message
59 matches any of the given patterns are chosen (but see
60 `--all-match`).
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61+
62When `--show-notes` is in effect, the message from the notes as
63if it is part of the log message.
fdcf39e5 64
7756ba74 65--all-match::
4528aa1a 66 Limit the commits output to ones that match all given `--grep`,
a23e3138 67 instead of ones that match at least one.
7756ba74 68
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69-i::
70--regexp-ignore-case::
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71 Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to letter
72 case.
fdcf39e5 73
727b6fc3 74--basic-regexp::
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75 Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions;
76 this is the default.
77
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78-E::
79--extended-regexp::
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80 Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
81 instead of the default basic regular expressions.
82
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83-F::
84--fixed-strings::
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85 Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
86 pattern as a regular expression).
87
727b6fc3 88--perl-regexp::
19d6eb41 89 Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular expressions.
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90 Requires libpcre to be compiled in.
91
fdcf39e5 92--remove-empty::
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93 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
94
2657420d 95--merges::
6a6ebded 96 Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as `--min-parents=2`.
2657420d 97
fdcf39e5 98--no-merges::
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99 Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is
100 exactly the same as `--max-parents=1`.
101
102--min-parents=<number>::
103--max-parents=<number>::
104--no-min-parents::
105--no-max-parents::
5104d21f 106 Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent
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107 commits. In particular, `--max-parents=1` is the same as `--no-merges`,
108 `--min-parents=2` is the same as `--merges`. `--max-parents=0`
109 gives all root commits and `--min-parents=3` all octopus merges.
110+
111`--no-min-parents` and `--no-max-parents` reset these limits (to no limit)
112again. Equivalent forms are `--min-parents=0` (any commit has 0 or more
113parents) and `--max-parents=-1` (negative numbers denote no upper limit).
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114
115--first-parent::
116 Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
117 commit. This option can give a better overview when
118 viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
119 because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
120 adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
121 this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
122 brought in to your history by such a merge.
123
124--not::
fdcf39e5 125 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
4528aa1a 126 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next `--not`.
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127
128--all::
cc1b8d8b 129 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/` are listed on the
fdcf39e5 130 command line as '<commit>'.
c2e6385d 131
62b4698e 132--branches[=<pattern>]::
cc1b8d8b 133 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/heads` are listed
62b4698e 134 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
b09fe971 135 branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?',
e34bb2e7 136 '{asterisk}', or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 137
62b4698e 138--tags[=<pattern>]::
cc1b8d8b 139 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/tags` are listed
62b4698e 140 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
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141 tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}',
142 or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 143
62b4698e 144--remotes[=<pattern>]::
cc1b8d8b 145 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/remotes` are listed
62b4698e 146 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
0e615b25 147 remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob.
e34bb2e7 148 If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}', or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
fdcf39e5 149
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150--glob=<glob-pattern>::
151 Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob '<glob-pattern>'
d08bae7e 152 are listed on the command line as '<commit>'. Leading 'refs/',
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153 is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}',
154 or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
d08bae7e 155
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156--exclude=<glob-pattern>::
157
158 Do not include refs matching '<glob-pattern>' that the next `--all`,
159 `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or `--glob` would otherwise
160 consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns
161 up to the next `--all`, `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or
162 `--glob` option (other options or arguments do not clear
163 accumlated patterns).
164+
165The patterns given should not begin with `refs/heads`, `refs/tags`, or
166`refs/remotes` when applied to `--branches`, `--tags`, or `--remotes`,
167respectively, and they must begin with `refs/` when applied to `--glob`
168or `--all`. If a trailing '/{asterisk}' is intended, it must be given
169explicitly.
170
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171--reflog::
172 Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
173 command line as `<commit>`.
174
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175--indexed-objects::
176 Pretend as if all trees and blobs used by the index are listed
177 on the command line. Note that you probably want to use
178 `--objects`, too.
179
cc243c3c 180--ignore-missing::
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181 Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if
182 the bad input was not given.
d08bae7e 183
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184ifndef::git-rev-list[]
185--bisect::
cc1b8d8b 186 Pretend as if the bad bisection ref `refs/bisect/bad`
af06e93a 187 was listed and as if it was followed by `--not` and the good
cc1b8d8b 188 bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` on the command
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189 line.
190endif::git-rev-list[]
191
fdcf39e5 192--stdin::
fdcf39e5 193 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
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194 line, read them from the standard input. If a '--' separator is
195 seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
196 result.
fdcf39e5 197
8b3dce56 198ifdef::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 199--quiet::
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200 Don't print anything to standard output. This form
201 is primarily meant to allow the caller to
202 test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
203 connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
4528aa1a 204 to `/dev/null` as the output does not have to be formatted.
adf60f14 205endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 206
cb56e309 207--cherry-mark::
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208 Like `--cherry-pick` (see below) but mark equivalent commits
209 with `=` rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with `+`.
210
fdcf39e5 211--cherry-pick::
fdcf39e5 212 Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
4528aa1a 213 another commit on the ``other side'' when the set of
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214 commits are limited with symmetric difference.
215+
216For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
217to list all commits on only one side of them is with
3add01bb 218`--left-right` (see the example below in the description of
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219the `--left-right` option). However, it shows the commits that were
220cherry-picked from the other branch (for example, ``3rd on b'' may be
221cherry-picked from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
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222excluded from the output.
223
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224--left-only::
225--right-only::
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226 List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric range,
227 i.e. only those which would be marked `<` resp. `>` by
228 `--left-right`.
229+
230For example, `--cherry-pick --right-only A...B` omits those
231commits from `B` which are in `A` or are patch-equivalent to a commit in
6cf378f0 232`A`. In other words, this lists the `+` commits from `git cherry A B`.
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233More precisely, `--cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges` gives the exact
234list.
235
94f605ec 236--cherry::
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237 A synonym for `--right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges`; useful to
238 limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that
239 have been applied to the other side of a forked history with
240 `git log --cherry upstream...mybranch`, similar to
241 `git cherry upstream mybranch`.
242
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243-g::
244--walk-reflogs::
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245 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
246 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
247 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
248 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
a58088ab 249 and 'commit1\...commit2' notations cannot be used).
fdcf39e5 250+
4528aa1a 251With `--pretty` format other than `oneline` (for obvious reasons),
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252this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
253taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@\{Nth}' notation is
254used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
18a2197e 255'commit@\{now}', output also uses 'commit@\{timestamp}' notation
4528aa1a 256instead. Under `--pretty=oneline`, the commit message is
fdcf39e5 257prefixed with this information on the same line.
4528aa1a 258This option cannot be combined with `--reverse`.
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259See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
260
261--merge::
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262 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
263 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
264
265--boundary::
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266 Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are
267 prefixed with `-`.
fdcf39e5 268
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269ifdef::git-rev-list[]
270--use-bitmap-index::
271
272 Try to speed up the traversal using the pack bitmap index (if
273 one is available). Note that when traversing with `--objects`,
274 trees and blobs will not have their associated path printed.
275endif::git-rev-list[]
276
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277--
278
279History Simplification
280~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
281
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282Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
283commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
284'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
285is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
286
287The following options select the commits to be shown:
288
289<paths>::
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290 Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
291
292--simplify-by-decoration::
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293 Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
294
295Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
296
297The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
298
299Default mode::
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300 Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
301 final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
302 branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
303 with the same content)
304
305--full-history::
df6b0cad 306 Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.
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307
308--dense::
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309 Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
310 meaningful history.
311
312--sparse::
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313 All commits in the simplified history are shown.
314
315--simplify-merges::
4528aa1a 316 Additional option to `--full-history` to remove some needless
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317 merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
318 commits contributing to this merge.
319
57456ef4 320--ancestry-path::
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321 When given a range of commits to display (e.g. 'commit1..commit2'
322 or 'commit2 {caret}commit1'), only display commits that exist
323 directly on the ancestry chain between the 'commit1' and
324 'commit2', i.e. commits that are both descendants of 'commit1',
325 and ancestors of 'commit2'.
326
7bc2508b 327A more detailed explanation follows.
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328
329Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
330that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
331filtered for `foo`, they look different and equal, respectively.)
332
333In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
334illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
335that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
336-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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337 .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
338 / / / / / /
339 I B C D E Y
340 \ / / / / /
341 `-------------' X
70d9895e 342-----------------------------------------------------------------------
143f1eaf 343The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of
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344each merge. The commits are:
345
346* `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
4528aa1a 347 ``asdf'', and a file `quux` exists with contents ``quux''. Initial
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348 commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
349
4528aa1a 350* In `A`, `foo` contains just ``foo''.
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351
352* `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
353 hence TREESAME to all parents.
354
4528aa1a 355* `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to ``foobar'',
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356 so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
357
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358* `D` sets `foo` to ``baz''. Its merge `O` combines the strings from
359 `N` and `D` to ``foobarbaz''; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
70d9895e 360
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361* `E` changes `quux` to ``xyzzy'', and its merge `P` combines the
362 strings to ``quux xyzzy''. `P` is TREESAME to `O`, but not to `E`.
70d9895e 363
17b83d71 364* `X` is an independent root commit that added a new file `side`, and `Y`
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365 modified it. `Y` is TREESAME to `X`. Its merge `Q` added `side` to `P`, and
366 `Q` is TREESAME to `P`, but not to `Y`.
367
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368`rev-list` walks backwards through history, including or excluding
369commits based on whether `--full-history` and/or parent rewriting
370(via `--parents` or `--children`) are used. The following settings
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371are available.
372
373Default mode::
70d9895e 374 Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
4528aa1a 375 (though this can be changed, see `--sparse` below). If the
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376 commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
377 only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
378 parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
379 parents.
380+
381This results in:
382+
383-----------------------------------------------------------------------
384 .-A---N---O
f70d0586 385 / / /
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386 I---------D
387-----------------------------------------------------------------------
388+
389Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
390available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
391considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
392empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
393+
4528aa1a 394Parent/child relations are only visible with `--parents`, but that does
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395not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
396parent lines.
397
398--full-history without parent rewriting::
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399 This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
400 all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
401 Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
402 included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
403 the example, we get
404+
405-----------------------------------------------------------------------
143f1eaf 406 I A B N D O P Q
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407-----------------------------------------------------------------------
408+
d0af663e 409`M` was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents. `E`,
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410`C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
411do not appear.
412+
413Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
414about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
415them disconnected.
416
417--full-history with parent rewriting::
70d9895e 418 Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
4528aa1a 419 (though this can be changed, see `--sparse` below).
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420+
421Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
422Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
423themselves. This results in
424+
425-----------------------------------------------------------------------
143f1eaf 426 .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
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427 / / / / /
428 I B / D /
429 \ / / / /
430 `-------------'
431-----------------------------------------------------------------------
432+
4528aa1a 433Compare to `--full-history` without rewriting above. Note that `E`
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434was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
435rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
143f1eaf 436`N`, and `X`, `Y` and `Q`.
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437
438In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
439affects inclusion:
440
3240240f 441--dense::
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442 Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
443 to any parent.
444
3240240f 445--sparse::
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446 All commits that are walked are included.
447+
4528aa1a 448Note that without `--full-history`, this still simplifies merges: if
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449one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
450sides of the merge are never walked.
fdcf39e5 451
d266a988 452--simplify-merges::
d266a988 453 First, build a history graph in the same way that
4528aa1a 454 `--full-history` with parent rewriting does (see above).
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455+
456Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
457history according to the following rules:
458+
459--
460* Set `C'` to `C`.
461+
462* Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
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463 the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents or that are
464 root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and remove duplicates, but take care
465 to never drop all parents that we are TREESAME to.
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466+
467* If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
468 zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
469 Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
470--
471+
472The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
4528aa1a 473`--full-history` with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
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474+
475-----------------------------------------------------------------------
476 .-A---M---N---O
477 / / /
478 I B D
479 \ / /
480 `---------'
481-----------------------------------------------------------------------
482+
19d6eb41 483Note the major differences in `N`, `P`, and `Q` over `--full-history`:
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484+
485--
486* `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
487 other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
488+
489* `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
490 removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
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491+
492* `Q`'s parent list had `Y` simplified to `X`. `X` was then removed, because it
493 was a TREESAME root. `Q` was then removed completely, because it had one
494 parent and is TREESAME.
d266a988 495--
fdcf39e5 496
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497Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:
498
499--ancestry-path::
57456ef4 500 Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry
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501 chain between the ``from'' and ``to'' commits in the given commit
502 range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the ``to''
19d6eb41 503 commit and descendants of the ``from'' commit.
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504+
505As an example use case, consider the following commit history:
506+
507-----------------------------------------------------------------------
508 D---E-------F
509 / \ \
510 B---C---G---H---I---J
511 / \
512 A-------K---------------L--M
513-----------------------------------------------------------------------
514+
515A regular 'D..M' computes the set of commits that are ancestors of `M`,
516but excludes the ones that are ancestors of `D`. This is useful to see
517what happened to the history leading to `M` since `D`, in the sense
4528aa1a 518that ``what does `M` have that did not exist in `D`''. The result in this
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519example would be all the commits, except `A` and `B` (and `D` itself,
520of course).
521+
522When we want to find out what commits in `M` are contaminated with the
523bug introduced by `D` and need fixing, however, we might want to view
524only the subset of 'D..M' that are actually descendants of `D`, i.e.
4528aa1a 525excluding `C` and `K`. This is exactly what the `--ancestry-path`
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526option does. Applied to the 'D..M' range, it results in:
527+
528-----------------------------------------------------------------------
529 E-------F
530 \ \
531 G---H---I---J
532 \
533 L--M
534-----------------------------------------------------------------------
535
4528aa1a 536The `--simplify-by-decoration` option allows you to view only the
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537big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
538that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
539(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
540above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
541contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
542commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
543
fdcf39e5 544ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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545Bisection Helpers
546~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
547
fdcf39e5 548--bisect::
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549 Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
550 included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
551 `refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
552 exists) and the good bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` are
553 added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
554 are no refs in `refs/bisect/`, if
555+
fdcf39e5 556-----------------------------------------------------------------------
6514aa36 557 $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
fdcf39e5 558-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4528aa1a 559+
fdcf39e5 560outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
4528aa1a 561+
fdcf39e5 562-----------------------------------------------------------------------
6514aa36
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563 $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
564 $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
fdcf39e5 565-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4528aa1a 566+
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567would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
568introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
569generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
570one.
571
572--bisect-vars::
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573 This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
574 `refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
575 text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
576 name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
577 expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
578 to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
579 `bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
580 number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
581 `bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
582 `bisect_all`.
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583
584--bisect-all::
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585 This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
586 commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
587 commits. Refs in `refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
588 from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
589 `--bisect`.)
3d2d4f96 590+
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591This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
592test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
593may not compile for example).
3d2d4f96 594+
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595This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
596after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
597`--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
598endif::git-rev-list[]
599
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600
601Commit Ordering
602~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
603
604By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
605
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606--date-order::
607 Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
608 otherwise show commits in the commit timestamp order.
fdcf39e5 609
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610--author-date-order::
611 Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
612 otherwise show commits in the author timestamp order.
613
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614--topo-order::
615 Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and
616 avoid showing commits on multiple lines of history
617 intermixed.
618+
619For example, in a commit history like this:
620+
621----------------------------------------------------------------
fdcf39e5 622
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623 ---1----2----4----7
624 \ \
625 3----5----6----8---
fdcf39e5 626
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627----------------------------------------------------------------
628+
629where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, `git
630rev-list` and friends with `--date-order` show the commits in the
631timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.
632+
633With `--topo-order`, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5
6343 1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order to
635avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed
636together.
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637
638--reverse::
fdcf39e5 639 Output the commits in reverse order.
4528aa1a 640 Cannot be combined with `--walk-reflogs`.
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641
642Object Traversal
643~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
644
2de9b711 645These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.
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646
647--objects::
fdcf39e5 648 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
4528aa1a 649 commits. `--objects foo ^bar` thus means ``send me
fdcf39e5 650 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
4528aa1a 651 object _bar_ but not _foo_''.
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652
653--objects-edge::
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654 Similar to `--objects`, but also print the IDs of excluded
655 commits prefixed with a ``-'' character. This is used by
656 linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build ``thin'' pack, which records
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657 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
658 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
659
660--unpacked::
4528aa1a 661 Only useful with `--objects`; print the object IDs that are not
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662 in packs.
663
ca92e59e 664--no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]::
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665 Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
666 This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
19d6eb41 667 `unsorted` is given, the commits are shown in the order they were
4528aa1a 668 given on the command line. Otherwise (if `sorted` or no argument
19d6eb41 669 was given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order
ca92e59e 670 by commit time.
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671
672--do-walk::
4528aa1a 673 Overrides a previous `--no-walk`.
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674
675Commit Formatting
676~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
677
678ifdef::git-rev-list[]
679Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
680more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
681linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]
682endif::git-rev-list[]
683
684include::pretty-options.txt[]
685
686--relative-date::
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687 Synonym for `--date=relative`.
688
466fb674 689--date=(relative|local|default|iso|iso-strict|rfc|short|raw)::
f98fd436 690 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
4528aa1a 691 as when using `--pretty`. `log.date` config variable sets a default
19d6eb41 692 value for the log command's `--date` option.
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693+
694`--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
4528aa1a 695e.g. ``2 hours ago''.
f98fd436 696+
0ffa154b 697`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local time zone.
f98fd436 698+
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699`--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in a ISO 8601-like format.
700The differences to the strict ISO 8601 format are:
701
702 - a space instead of the `T` date/time delimiter
703 - a space between time and time zone
704 - no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone
705
706+
707`--date=iso-strict` (or `--date=iso8601-strict`) shows timestamps in strict
708ISO 8601 format.
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709+
710`--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
19d6eb41 711format, often found in email messages.
f98fd436 712+
19d6eb41 713`--date=short` shows only the date, but not the time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
f98fd436 714+
2de9b711 715`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw Git format `%s %z` format.
f98fd436 716+
0ffa154b 717`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original time zone
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718(either committer's or author's).
719
720ifdef::git-rev-list[]
721--header::
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722 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
723 separated with a NUL character.
724endif::git-rev-list[]
725
726--parents::
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727 Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent...").
728 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
729
730--children::
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731 Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child...").
732 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
733
734ifdef::git-rev-list[]
735--timestamp::
736 Print the raw commit timestamp.
737endif::git-rev-list[]
738
739--left-right::
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740 Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
741 Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
742 the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
743 commits are prefixed with `-`.
744+
745For example, if you have this topology:
746+
747-----------------------------------------------------------------------
748 y---b---b branch B
749 / \ /
750 / .
751 / / \
752 o---x---a---a branch A
753-----------------------------------------------------------------------
754+
755you would get an output like this:
756+
757-----------------------------------------------------------------------
758 $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
759
760 >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
761 >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
762 <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
763 <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
764 -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
765 -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
766-----------------------------------------------------------------------
767
768--graph::
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769 Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
770 on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
771 to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
772 to be drawn properly.
773+
774This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
775+
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776This implies the `--topo-order` option by default, but the
777`--date-order` option may also be specified.
f98fd436 778
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779--show-linear-break[=<barrier>]::
780 When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened
781 which can make it hard to see that the two consecutive commits
782 do not belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier
783 in between them in that case. If `<barrier>` is specified, it
784 is the string that will be shown instead of the default one.
785
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786ifdef::git-rev-list[]
787--count::
788 Print a number stating how many commits would have been
789 listed, and suppress all other output. When used together
4528aa1a 790 with `--left-right`, instead print the counts for left and
b388e14b 791 right commits, separated by a tab. When used together with
4528aa1a 792 `--cherry-mark`, omit patch equivalent commits from these
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793 counts and print the count for equivalent commits separated
794 by a tab.
f98fd436
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795endif::git-rev-list[]
796
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797ifndef::git-rev-list[]
798Diff Formatting
799~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
800
19d6eb41 801Listed below are options that control the formatting of diff output.
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802Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
803options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
804
805-c::
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806 With this option, diff output for a merge commit
807 shows the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
808 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
809 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
810 which were modified from all parents.
811
812--cc::
4528aa1a 813 This flag implies the `-c` option and further compresses the
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814 patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
815 the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
816 one of them without modification.
817
818-m::
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819 This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like
820 regular commits; for each merge parent, a separate log entry
821 and diff is generated. An exception is that only diff against
4528aa1a 822 the first parent is shown when `--first-parent` option is given;
f98fd436
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823 in that case, the output represents the changes the merge
824 brought _into_ the then-current branch.
825
826-r::
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827 Show recursive diffs.
828
829-t::
4528aa1a 830 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies `-r`.
f98fd436 831endif::git-rev-list[]