format-patch: teach --range-diff to respect -v/--reroll-count
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-format-patch.txt
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1git-format-patch(1)
2===================
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-format-patch - Prepare patches for e-mail submission
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
353ce815 11[verse]
50710ce4 12'git format-patch' [-k] [(-o|--output-directory) <dir> | --stdout]
f693b7e9 13 [--no-thread | --thread[=<style>]]
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14 [(--attach|--inline)[=<boundary>] | --no-attach]
15 [-s | --signoff]
6622d9c7 16 [--signature=<signature> | --no-signature]
7022650f 17 [--signature-file=<file>]
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18 [-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
19 [--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
20 [--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
21 [--ignore-if-in-upstream]
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22 [--rfc] [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix]
23 [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
ae6c098f 24 [--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
2a4c2607 25 [--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
126facf8 26 [--interdiff=<previous>]
31e2617a 27 [--range-diff=<previous>]
738e88a2 28 [--progress]
50710ce4 29 [<common diff options>]
8a1d076e 30 [ <since> | <revision range> ]
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31
32DESCRIPTION
33-----------
2052d146 34
8a1d076e 35Prepare each commit with its patch in
2052d146 36one file per commit, formatted to resemble UNIX mailbox format.
2052d146 37The output of this command is convenient for e-mail submission or
0b444cdb 38for use with 'git am'.
35ef3a4c 39
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40There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
41
421. A single commit, <since>, specifies that the commits leading
43 to the tip of the current branch that are not in the history
44 that leads to the <since> to be output.
45
462. Generic <revision range> expression (see "SPECIFYING
9d83e382 47 REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7]) means the
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48 commits in the specified range.
49
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50The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
51apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
9e9f132f 52history up until <commit>, use the `--root` option: `git format-patch
6cf378f0 53--root <commit>`. If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
dce5ef14 54can do this with `git format-patch -1 <commit>`.
8a1d076e 55
e6ff0f42 56By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the
2052d146 57first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
dce5ef14 58the filename. With the `--numbered-files` option, the output file names
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59will only be numbers, without the first line of the commit appended.
60The names of the output files are printed to standard
dce5ef14 61output, unless the `--stdout` option is specified.
66f04f38 62
dce5ef14 63If `-o` is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise
bc6bf2d7 64they are created in the current working directory. The default path
ae9f6311 65can be set with the `format.outputDirectory` configuration option.
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66The `-o` option takes precedence over `format.outputDirectory`.
67To store patches in the current working directory even when
68`format.outputDirectory` points elsewhere, use `-o .`.
35ef3a4c 69
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70By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] " followed by
71the concatenation of lines from the commit message up to the first blank
72line (see the DISCUSSION section of linkgit:git-commit[1]).
73
74When multiple patches are output, the subject prefix will instead be
75"[PATCH n/m] ". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use `-n`.
76To omit patch numbers from the subject, use `-N`.
35ef3a4c 77
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78If given `--thread`, `git-format-patch` will generate `In-Reply-To` and
79`References` headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
80as replies to the first mail; this also generates a `Message-Id` header to
cc35de84 81reference.
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82
83OPTIONS
84-------
c1a95fa6 85:git-format-patch: 1
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86include::diff-options.txt[]
87
ed5f07a6 88-<n>::
2c642ed8 89 Prepare patches from the topmost <n> commits.
ed5f07a6 90
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91-o <dir>::
92--output-directory <dir>::
35ef3a4c 93 Use <dir> to store the resulting files, instead of the
efd02016 94 current working directory.
35ef3a4c 95
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96-n::
97--numbered::
a567fdcb 98 Name output in '[PATCH n/m]' format, even with a single patch.
35ef3a4c 99
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100-N::
101--no-numbered::
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102 Name output in '[PATCH]' format.
103
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104--start-number <n>::
105 Start numbering the patches at <n> instead of 1.
106
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107--numbered-files::
108 Output file names will be a simple number sequence
109 without the default first line of the commit appended.
e6ff0f42 110
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111-k::
112--keep-subject::
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113 Do not strip/add '[PATCH]' from the first line of the
114 commit log message.
115
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116-s::
117--signoff::
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118 Add `Signed-off-by:` line to the commit message, using
119 the committer identity of yourself.
b2c150d3 120 See the signoff option in linkgit:git-commit[1] for more information.
6f855371 121
54ba6013 122--stdout::
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123 Print all commits to the standard output in mbox format,
124 instead of creating a file for each one.
7fc9d69f 125
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126--attach[=<boundary>]::
127 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
128 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 129 second part, with `Content-Disposition: attachment`.
c112f689 130
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131--no-attach::
132 Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the
133 configuration setting.
134
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135--inline[=<boundary>]::
136 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
137 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 138 second part, with `Content-Disposition: inline`.
a15a44ef 139
30984ed2 140--thread[=<style>]::
f693b7e9 141--no-thread::
dce5ef14 142 Controls addition of `In-Reply-To` and `References` headers to
f693b7e9 143 make the second and subsequent mails appear as replies to the
dce5ef14 144 first. Also controls generation of the `Message-Id` header to
f693b7e9 145 reference.
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146+
147The optional <style> argument can be either `shallow` or `deep`.
fd1ff306 148'shallow' threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the
30984ed2 149series, where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
6cf378f0 150`--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order. 'deep'
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151threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
152+
ae9f6311 153The default is `--no-thread`, unless the `format.thread` configuration
dce5ef14 154is set. If `--thread` is specified without a style, it defaults to the
ae9f6311 155style specified by `format.thread` if any, or else `shallow`.
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156+
157Beware that the default for 'git send-email' is to thread emails
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158itself. If you want `git format-patch` to take care of threading, you
159will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
28ffb898 160
da56645d 161--in-reply-to=Message-Id::
dce5ef14 162 Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
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163 reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
164 provide a new patch series.
165
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166--ignore-if-in-upstream::
167 Do not include a patch that matches a commit in
168 <until>..<since>. This will examine all patches reachable
169 from <since> but not from <until> and compare them with the
170 patches being generated, and any patch that matches is
171 ignored.
172
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173--subject-prefix=<Subject-Prefix>::
174 Instead of the standard '[PATCH]' prefix in the subject
175 line, instead use '[<Subject-Prefix>]'. This
176 allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
dce5ef14 177 combined with the `--numbered` option.
2d9e4a47 178
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179--rfc::
180 Alias for `--subject-prefix="RFC PATCH"`. RFC means "Request For
181 Comments"; use this when sending an experimental patch for
182 discussion rather than application.
183
7952ea66 184-v <n>::
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185--reroll-count=<n>::
186 Mark the series as the <n>-th iteration of the topic. The
d614f075 187 output filenames have `v<n>` prepended to them, and the
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188 subject prefix ("PATCH" by default, but configurable via the
189 `--subject-prefix` option) has ` v<n>` appended to it. E.g.
190 `--reroll-count=4` may produce `v4-0001-add-makefile.patch`
191 file that has "Subject: [PATCH v4 1/20] Add makefile" in it.
192
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193--to=<email>::
194 Add a `To:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
195 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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196 The negated form `--no-to` discards all `To:` headers added so
197 far (from config or command line).
ae6c098f 198
736cc67d 199--cc=<email>::
dce5ef14 200 Add a `Cc:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
736cc67d 201 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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202 The negated form `--no-cc` discards all `Cc:` headers added so
203 far (from config or command line).
736cc67d 204
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205--from::
206--from=<ident>::
207 Use `ident` in the `From:` header of each commit email. If the
208 author ident of the commit is not textually identical to the
209 provided `ident`, place a `From:` header in the body of the
210 message with the original author. If no `ident` is given, use
211 the committer ident.
212+
213Note that this option is only useful if you are actually sending the
214emails and want to identify yourself as the sender, but retain the
215original author (and `git am` will correctly pick up the in-body
216header). Note also that `git send-email` already handles this
217transformation for you, and this option should not be used if you are
218feeding the result to `git send-email`.
219
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220--add-header=<header>::
221 Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in addition
222 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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223 For example, `--add-header="Organization: git-foo"`.
224 The negated form `--no-add-header` discards *all* (`To:`,
225 `Cc:`, and custom) headers added so far from config or command
226 line.
d7d9c2d0 227
2a4c2607 228--[no-]cover-letter::
f4912391 229 In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
561d2b79 230 containing the branch description, shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can
f4912391 231 fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
a5a27c79 232
126facf8 233--interdiff=<previous>::
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234 As a reviewer aid, insert an interdiff into the cover letter,
235 or as commentary of the lone patch of a 1-patch series, showing
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236 the differences between the previous version of the patch series and
237 the series currently being formatted. `previous` is a single revision
238 naming the tip of the previous series which shares a common base with
239 the series being formatted (for example `git format-patch
240 --cover-letter --interdiff=feature/v1 -3 feature/v2`).
241
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242--range-diff=<previous>::
243 As a reviewer aid, insert a range-diff (see linkgit:git-range-diff[1])
244 into the cover letter showing the differences between the previous
245 version of the patch series and the series currently being formatted.
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246 `previous` can be a single revision naming the tip of the previous
247 series if it shares a common base with the series being formatted (for
31e2617a 248 example `git format-patch --cover-letter --range-diff=feature/v1 -3
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249 feature/v2`), or a revision range if the two versions of the series are
250 disjoint (for example `git format-patch --cover-letter
251 --range-diff=feature/v1~3..feature/v1 -3 feature/v2`).
31e2617a 252
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253--notes[=<ref>]::
254 Append the notes (see linkgit:git-notes[1]) for the commit
255 after the three-dash line.
256+
257The expected use case of this is to write supporting explanation for
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258the commit that does not belong to the commit log message proper,
259and include it with the patch submission. While one can simply write
260these explanations after `format-patch` has run but before sending,
2de9b711 261keeping them as Git notes allows them to be maintained between versions
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262of the patch series (but see the discussion of the `notes.rewrite`
263configuration options in linkgit:git-notes[1] to use this workflow).
e422c0cf 264
2c7ee986 265--[no-]signature=<signature>::
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266 Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the signature
267 is separated from the body by a line with '-- ' on it. If the
2de9b711 268 signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the Git version
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269 number.
270
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271--signature-file=<file>::
272 Works just like --signature except the signature is read from a file.
273
03eeaeae 274--suffix=.<sfx>::
917a8f89 275 Instead of using `.patch` as the suffix for generated
02783075 276 filenames, use specified suffix. A common alternative is
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277 `--suffix=.txt`. Leaving this empty will remove the `.patch`
278 suffix.
03eeaeae 279+
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280Note that the leading character does not have to be a dot; for example,
281you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
03eeaeae 282
b7df098c 283-q::
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284--quiet::
285 Do not print the names of the generated files to standard output.
286
37c22a4b 287--no-binary::
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288 Do not output contents of changes in binary files, instead
289 display a notice that those files changed. Patches generated
290 using this option cannot be applied properly, but they are
291 still useful for code review.
37c22a4b 292
3a30aa17 293--zero-commit::
294 Output an all-zero hash in each patch's From header instead
295 of the hash of the commit.
296
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297--base=<commit>::
298 Record the base tree information to identify the state the
299 patch series applies to. See the BASE TREE INFORMATION section
300 below for details.
301
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302--root::
303 Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it
304 is just a single commit (that would normally be treated as a
305 <since>). Note that root commits included in the specified
306 range are always formatted as creation patches, independently
307 of this flag.
308
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309--progress::
310 Show progress reports on stderr as patches are generated.
311
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312CONFIGURATION
313-------------
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314You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,
315defaults for the subject prefix and file suffix, number patches when
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316outputting more than one patch, add "To" or "Cc:" headers, configure
317attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.
96ce6d26 318
917a8f89 319------------
96ce6d26 320[format]
7f9d77f2 321 headers = "Organization: git-foo\n"
da0005b8 322 subjectPrefix = CHANGE
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323 suffix = .txt
324 numbered = auto
ae6c098f 325 to = <email>
fe8928e6 326 cc = <email>
0db5260b 327 attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
da0005b8 328 signOff = true
2a4c2607 329 coverletter = auto
917a8f89 330------------
03eeaeae 331
96ce6d26 332
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333DISCUSSION
334----------
335
336The patch produced by 'git format-patch' is in UNIX mailbox format,
337with a fixed "magic" time stamp to indicate that the file is output
338from format-patch rather than a real mailbox, like so:
339
340------------
341From 8f72bad1baf19a53459661343e21d6491c3908d3 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
342From: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
343Date: Tue, 13 Jul 2010 11:42:54 -0700
344Subject: [PATCH] =?UTF-8?q?[IA64]=20Put=20ia64=20config=20files=20on=20the=20?=
345 =?UTF-8?q?Uwe=20Kleine-K=C3=B6nig=20diet?=
346MIME-Version: 1.0
347Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
348Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit
349
350arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
351(See commit c2330e286f68f1c408b4aa6515ba49d57f05beae comment)
352
353Do the same for ia64 so we can have sleek & trim looking
354...
355------------
356
357Typically it will be placed in a MUA's drafts folder, edited to add
358timely commentary that should not go in the changelog after the three
359dashes, and then sent as a message whose body, in our example, starts
360with "arch/arm config files were...". On the receiving end, readers
361can save interesting patches in a UNIX mailbox and apply them with
362linkgit:git-am[1].
363
364When a patch is part of an ongoing discussion, the patch generated by
365'git format-patch' can be tweaked to take advantage of the 'git am
366--scissors' feature. After your response to the discussion comes a
367line that consists solely of "`-- >8 --`" (scissors and perforation),
368followed by the patch with unnecessary header fields removed:
369
370------------
371...
372> So we should do such-and-such.
373
374Makes sense to me. How about this patch?
375
376-- >8 --
377Subject: [IA64] Put ia64 config files on the Uwe Kleine-König diet
378
379arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
380...
381------------
382
383When sending a patch this way, most often you are sending your own
384patch, so in addition to the "`From $SHA1 $magic_timestamp`" marker you
385should omit `From:` and `Date:` lines from the patch file. The patch
386title is likely to be different from the subject of the discussion the
387patch is in response to, so it is likely that you would want to keep
388the Subject: line, like the example above.
389
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390Checking for patch corruption
391~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
392Many mailers if not set up properly will corrupt whitespace. Here are
393two common types of corruption:
394
395* Empty context lines that do not have _any_ whitespace.
396
397* Non-empty context lines that have one extra whitespace at the
398 beginning.
399
400One way to test if your MUA is set up correctly is:
401
402* Send the patch to yourself, exactly the way you would, except
403 with To: and Cc: lines that do not contain the list and
404 maintainer address.
405
406* Save that patch to a file in UNIX mailbox format. Call it a.patch,
407 say.
408
409* Apply it:
410
411 $ git fetch <project> master:test-apply
412 $ git checkout test-apply
413 $ git reset --hard
414 $ git am a.patch
415
416If it does not apply correctly, there can be various reasons.
417
418* The patch itself does not apply cleanly. That is _bad_ but
419 does not have much to do with your MUA. You might want to rebase
420 the patch with linkgit:git-rebase[1] before regenerating it in
421 this case.
422
423* The MUA corrupted your patch; "am" would complain that
424 the patch does not apply. Look in the .git/rebase-apply/ subdirectory and
425 see what 'patch' file contains and check for the common
426 corruption patterns mentioned above.
427
428* While at it, check the 'info' and 'final-commit' files as well.
429 If what is in 'final-commit' is not exactly what you would want to
430 see in the commit log message, it is very likely that the
431 receiver would end up hand editing the log message when applying
432 your patch. Things like "Hi, this is my first patch.\n" in the
433 patch e-mail should come after the three-dash line that signals
434 the end of the commit message.
435
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436MUA-SPECIFIC HINTS
437------------------
438Here are some hints on how to successfully submit patches inline using
439various mailers.
440
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441GMail
442~~~~~
443GMail does not have any way to turn off line wrapping in the web
444interface, so it will mangle any emails that you send. You can however
445use "git send-email" and send your patches through the GMail SMTP server, or
446use any IMAP email client to connect to the google IMAP server and forward
447the emails through that.
448
449For hints on using 'git send-email' to send your patches through the
450GMail SMTP server, see the EXAMPLE section of linkgit:git-send-email[1].
451
452For hints on submission using the IMAP interface, see the EXAMPLE
453section of linkgit:git-imap-send[1].
454
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455Thunderbird
456~~~~~~~~~~~
457By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as well as flag
458them as being 'format=flowed', both of which will make the
2de9b711 459resulting email unusable by Git.
dc53151f 460
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461There are three different approaches: use an add-on to turn off line wraps,
462configure Thunderbird to not mangle patches, or use
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463an external editor to keep Thunderbird from mangling the patches.
464
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465Approach #1 (add-on)
466^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
467
468Install the Toggle Word Wrap add-on that is available from
469https://addons.mozilla.org/thunderbird/addon/toggle-word-wrap/
470It adds a menu entry "Enable Word Wrap" in the composer's "Options" menu
471that you can tick off. Now you can compose the message as you otherwise do
472(cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc), but you have to
473insert line breaks manually in any text that you type.
474
475Approach #2 (configuration)
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476^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
477Three steps:
478
4791. Configure your mail server composition as plain text:
480 Edit...Account Settings...Composition & Addressing,
481 uncheck "Compose Messages in HTML".
482
4832. Configure your general composition window to not wrap.
484+
485In Thunderbird 2:
486Edit..Preferences..Composition, wrap plain text messages at 0
487+
488In Thunderbird 3:
489Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
490"mail.wrap_long_lines".
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491Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`. Also, search for
492"mailnews.wraplength" and set the value to 0.
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493
4943. Disable the use of format=flowed:
495Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
496"mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed".
497Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`.
498
499After that is done, you should be able to compose email as you
500otherwise would (cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc),
501and the patches will not be mangled.
502
b8959605 503Approach #3 (external editor)
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504^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
505
506The following Thunderbird extensions are needed:
507AboutConfig from http://aboutconfig.mozdev.org/ and
508External Editor from http://globs.org/articles.php?lng=en&pg=8
509
5101. Prepare the patch as a text file using your method of choice.
511
5122. Before opening a compose window, use Edit->Account Settings to
513 uncheck the "Compose messages in HTML format" setting in the
514 "Composition & Addressing" panel of the account to be used to
515 send the patch.
516
5173. In the main Thunderbird window, 'before' you open the compose
518 window for the patch, use Tools->about:config to set the
519 following to the indicated values:
520+
521----------
522 mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed => false
523 mailnews.wraplength => 0
524----------
525
5264. Open a compose window and click the external editor icon.
527
5285. In the external editor window, read in the patch file and exit
529 the editor normally.
530
531Side note: it may be possible to do step 2 with
532about:config and the following settings but no one's tried yet.
533
534----------
535 mail.html_compose => false
536 mail.identity.default.compose_html => false
537 mail.identity.id?.compose_html => false
538----------
539
540There is a script in contrib/thunderbird-patch-inline which can help
541you include patches with Thunderbird in an easy way. To use it, do the
542steps above and then use the script as the external editor.
543
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544KMail
545~~~~~
546This should help you to submit patches inline using KMail.
547
5481. Prepare the patch as a text file.
549
5502. Click on New Mail.
551
5523. Go under "Options" in the Composer window and be sure that
553 "Word wrap" is not set.
554
5554. Use Message -> Insert file... and insert the patch.
556
5575. Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish to the
558 message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
559
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560BASE TREE INFORMATION
561---------------------
562
563The base tree information block is used for maintainers or third party
564testers to know the exact state the patch series applies to. It consists
565of the 'base commit', which is a well-known commit that is part of the
566stable part of the project history everybody else works off of, and zero
567or more 'prerequisite patches', which are well-known patches in flight
568that is not yet part of the 'base commit' that need to be applied on top
569of 'base commit' in topological order before the patches can be applied.
570
571The 'base commit' is shown as "base-commit: " followed by the 40-hex of
572the commit object name. A 'prerequisite patch' is shown as
573"prerequisite-patch-id: " followed by the 40-hex 'patch id', which can
574be obtained by passing the patch through the `git patch-id --stable`
575command.
576
577Imagine that on top of the public commit P, you applied well-known
578patches X, Y and Z from somebody else, and then built your three-patch
579series A, B, C, the history would be like:
580
581................................................
582---P---X---Y---Z---A---B---C
583................................................
584
585With `git format-patch --base=P -3 C` (or variants thereof, e.g. with
7ba1ceef 586`--cover-letter` or using `Z..C` instead of `-3 C` to specify the
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587range), the base tree information block is shown at the end of the
588first message the command outputs (either the first patch, or the
589cover letter), like this:
590
591------------
592base-commit: P
593prerequisite-patch-id: X
594prerequisite-patch-id: Y
595prerequisite-patch-id: Z
596------------
597
598For non-linear topology, such as
599
600................................................
601---P---X---A---M---C
602 \ /
603 Y---Z---B
604................................................
605
606You can also use `git format-patch --base=P -3 C` to generate patches
607for A, B and C, and the identifiers for P, X, Y, Z are appended at the
608end of the first message.
e0d48279 609
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610If set `--base=auto` in cmdline, it will track base commit automatically,
611the base commit will be the merge base of tip commit of the remote-tracking
612branch and revision-range specified in cmdline.
613For a local branch, you need to track a remote branch by `git branch
614--set-upstream-to` before using this option.
615
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616EXAMPLES
617--------
618
921177f5 619* Extract commits between revisions R1 and R2, and apply them on top of
0b444cdb 620the current branch using 'git am' to cherry-pick them:
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621+
622------------
467c0197 623$ git format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git am -3 -k
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624------------
625
626* Extract all commits which are in the current branch but not in the
627origin branch:
628+
629------------
630$ git format-patch origin
631------------
632+
633For each commit a separate file is created in the current directory.
634
635* Extract all commits that lead to 'origin' since the inception of the
636project:
637+
638------------
9c67c757 639$ git format-patch --root origin
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640------------
641
642* The same as the previous one:
643+
644------------
645$ git format-patch -M -B origin
646------------
647+
648Additionally, it detects and handles renames and complete rewrites
649intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A renaming patch reduces
50710ce4 650the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review.
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651Note that non-Git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
652use it only when you know the recipient uses Git to apply your patch.
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653
654* Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format them
655as e-mailable patches:
656+
657------------
658$ git format-patch -3
659------------
28ffb898 660
56ae8df5 661SEE ALSO
28ffb898 662--------
5162e697 663linkgit:git-am[1], linkgit:git-send-email[1]
28ffb898 664
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665GIT
666---
9e1f0a85 667Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite