git-send-email.txt: clarify which options take an argument.
[git/git.git] / Documentation / rev-list-options.txt
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1Commit Formatting
2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3
4ifdef::git-rev-list[]
5Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
6more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
7linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]
8endif::git-rev-list[]
9
10include::pretty-options.txt[]
11
12--relative-date::
13
14 Synonym for `--date=relative`.
15
7dff9b30 16--date={relative,local,default,iso,rfc,short,raw}::
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17
18 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
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19 as when using "--pretty". `log.date` config variable sets a default
20 value for log command's --date option.
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21+
22`--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
23e.g. "2 hours ago".
24+
25`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local timezone.
26+
27`--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
28+
29`--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
30format, often found in E-mail messages.
31+
32`--date=short` shows only date but not time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
33+
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34`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw git format `%s %z` format.
35+
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36`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original timezone
37(either committer's or author's).
38
adf60f14 39ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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40--header::
41
42 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
43 separated with a NUL character.
adf60f14 44endif::git-rev-list[]
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45
46--parents::
47
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48 Print the parents of the commit. Also enables parent
49 rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
fdcf39e5 50
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51--children::
52
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53 Print the children of the commit. Also enables parent
54 rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
72276a3e 55
adf60f14 56ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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57--timestamp::
58 Print the raw commit timestamp.
adf60f14 59endif::git-rev-list[]
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60
61--left-right::
62
63 Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
64 Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
65 the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
66 commits are prefixed with `-`.
67+
68For example, if you have this topology:
69+
70-----------------------------------------------------------------------
71 y---b---b branch B
72 / \ /
73 / .
74 / / \
75 o---x---a---a branch A
76-----------------------------------------------------------------------
77+
d777af86 78you would get an output like this:
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79+
80-----------------------------------------------------------------------
81 $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
82
83 >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
84 >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
85 <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
86 <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
87 -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
88 -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
89-----------------------------------------------------------------------
90
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91--graph::
92
93 Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
94 on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
95 to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
96 to be drawn properly.
97+
98This implies the '--topo-order' option by default, but the
99'--date-order' option may also be specified.
100
9612e743 101ifndef::git-rev-list[]
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102Diff Formatting
103~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
104
105Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
106Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
107options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
108
109-c::
110
111 This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed. It shows
112 the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
113 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
114 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
115 which were modified from all parents.
116
117--cc::
118
119 This flag implies the '-c' options and further compresses the
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120 patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
121 the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
122 one of them without modification.
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123
124-r::
125
126 Show recursive diffs.
127
128-t::
129
130 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies '-r'.
9612e743 131endif::git-rev-list[]
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132
133Commit Limiting
134~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
135
136Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
137special notations explained in the description, additional commit
138limiting may be applied.
139
140--
141
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142-n 'number'::
143--max-count='number'::
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144
145 Limit the number of commits output.
146
147--skip='number'::
148
149 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
150
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151--since='date'::
152--after='date'::
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153
154 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
155
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156--until='date'::
157--before='date'::
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158
159 Show commits older than a specific date.
160
56b6d01d 161ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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162--max-age='timestamp'::
163--min-age='timestamp'::
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164
165 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
56b6d01d 166endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 167
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168--author='pattern'::
169--committer='pattern'::
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170
171 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
172 header lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression).
173
174--grep='pattern'::
175
176 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
177 matches the specified pattern (regular expression).
178
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179--all-match::
180 Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
181 --author and --committer instead of ones that match at least one.
182
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183-i::
184--regexp-ignore-case::
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185
186 Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.
187
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188-E::
189--extended-regexp::
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190
191 Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
192 instead of the default basic regular expressions.
193
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194-F::
195--fixed-strings::
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196
197 Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
198 pattern as a regular expression).
199
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200--remove-empty::
201
202 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
203
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204--no-merges::
205
206 Do not print commits with more than one parent.
207
208--first-parent::
209 Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
210 commit. This option can give a better overview when
211 viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
212 because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
213 adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
214 this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
215 brought in to your history by such a merge.
216
217--not::
218
219 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
220 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next '--not'.
221
222--all::
223
224 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/` are listed on the
225 command line as '<commit>'.
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226
227--branches::
228
229 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads` are listed
230 on the command line as '<commit>'.
231
232--tags::
233
234 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` are listed
235 on the command line as '<commit>'.
236
237--remotes::
238
239 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes` are listed
240 on the command line as '<commit>'.
fdcf39e5 241
adf60f14 242ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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243--stdin::
244
245 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
246 line, read them from the standard input.
247
248--quiet::
249
250 Don't print anything to standard output. This form
251 is primarily meant to allow the caller to
252 test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
253 connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
254 to /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.
adf60f14 255endif::git-rev-list[]
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256
257--cherry-pick::
258
259 Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
260 another commit on the "other side" when the set of
261 commits are limited with symmetric difference.
262+
263For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
264to list all commits on only one side of them is with
265`--left-right`, like the example above in the description of
266that option. It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked
267from the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked
268from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
269excluded from the output.
270
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271-g::
272--walk-reflogs::
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273
274 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
275 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
276 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
277 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
278 nor 'commit1...commit2' notations cannot be used).
279+
280With '\--pretty' format other than oneline (for obvious reasons),
281this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
282taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@\{Nth}' notation is
283used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
18a2197e 284'commit@\{now}', output also uses 'commit@\{timestamp}' notation
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285instead. Under '\--pretty=oneline', the commit message is
286prefixed with this information on the same line.
e534735a 287This option cannot be combined with '\--reverse'.
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288See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
289
290--merge::
291
292 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
293 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
294
295--boundary::
296
297 Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually
298 not shown.
299
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300--
301
302History Simplification
303~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
304
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305Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
306commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
307'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
308is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
309
310The following options select the commits to be shown:
311
312<paths>::
313
314 Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
315
316--simplify-by-decoration::
317
318 Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
319
320Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
321
322The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
323
324Default mode::
325
326 Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
327 final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
328 branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
329 with the same content)
330
331--full-history::
332
333 As the default mode but does not prune some history.
334
335--dense::
336
337 Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
338 meaningful history.
339
340--sparse::
341
342 All commits in the simplified history are shown.
343
344--simplify-merges::
345
346 Additional option to '--full-history' to remove some needless
347 merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
348 commits contributing to this merge.
349
350A more detailed explanation follows.
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351
352Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
353that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
354filtered for `foo`, they look different and equal, respectively.)
355
356In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
357illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
358that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
359-----------------------------------------------------------------------
360 .-A---M---N---O---P
361 / / / / /
362 I B C D E
363 \ / / / /
364 `-------------'
365-----------------------------------------------------------------------
366The horizontal line of history A--P is taken to be the first parent of
367each merge. The commits are:
368
369* `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
370 "asdf", and a file `quux` exists with contents "quux". Initial
371 commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
372
373* In `A`, `foo` contains just "foo".
374
375* `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
376 hence TREESAME to all parents.
377
378* `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to "foobar",
379 so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
380
381* `D` sets `foo` to "baz". Its merge `O` combines the strings from
382 `N` and `D` to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
383
384* `E` changes `quux` to "xyzzy", and its merge `P` combines the
385 strings to "quux xyzzy". Despite appearing interesting, `P` is
386 TREESAME to all parents.
387
388'rev-list' walks backwards through history, including or excluding
389commits based on whether '\--full-history' and/or parent rewriting
390(via '\--parents' or '\--children') are used. The following settings
391are available.
392
393Default mode::
394
395 Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
396 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below). If the
397 commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
398 only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
399 parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
400 parents.
401+
402This results in:
403+
404-----------------------------------------------------------------------
405 .-A---N---O
406 / /
407 I---------D
408-----------------------------------------------------------------------
409+
410Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
411available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
412considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
413empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
414+
415Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does
416not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
417parent lines.
418
419--full-history without parent rewriting::
420
421 This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
422 all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
423 Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
424 included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
425 the example, we get
426+
427-----------------------------------------------------------------------
428 I A B N D O
429-----------------------------------------------------------------------
430+
431`P` and `M` were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent. `E`,
432`C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
433do not appear.
434+
435Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
436about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
437them disconnected.
438
439--full-history with parent rewriting::
440
441 Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
442 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below).
443+
444Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
445Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
446themselves. This results in
447+
448-----------------------------------------------------------------------
449 .-A---M---N---O---P
450 / / / / /
451 I B / D /
452 \ / / / /
453 `-------------'
454-----------------------------------------------------------------------
455+
456Compare to '\--full-history' without rewriting above. Note that `E`
457was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
458rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
459`N`. Note also that `P` was included despite being TREESAME.
460
461In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
462affects inclusion:
463
3240240f 464--dense::
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465
466 Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
467 to any parent.
468
3240240f 469--sparse::
fdcf39e5 470
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471 All commits that are walked are included.
472+
473Note that without '\--full-history', this still simplifies merges: if
474one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
475sides of the merge are never walked.
fdcf39e5 476
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477Finally, there is a fourth simplification mode available:
478
479--simplify-merges::
480
481 First, build a history graph in the same way that
482 '\--full-history' with parent rewriting does (see above).
483+
484Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
485history according to the following rules:
486+
487--
488* Set `C'` to `C`.
489+
490* Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
491 the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and
492 remove duplicates.
493+
494* If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
495 zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
496 Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
497--
498+
499The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
500'\--full-history' with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
501+
502-----------------------------------------------------------------------
503 .-A---M---N---O
504 / / /
505 I B D
506 \ / /
507 `---------'
508-----------------------------------------------------------------------
509+
510Note the major differences in `N` and `P` over '\--full-history':
511+
512--
513* `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
514 other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
515+
516* `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
517 removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
518--
fdcf39e5 519
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520The '\--simplify-by-decoration' option allows you to view only the
521big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
522that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
523(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
524above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
525contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
526commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
527
fdcf39e5 528ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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529Bisection Helpers
530~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
531
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532--bisect::
533
534Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
535the included and excluded commits. Thus, if
536
537-----------------------------------------------------------------------
6514aa36 538 $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
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539-----------------------------------------------------------------------
540
541outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
542
543-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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544 $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
545 $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
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546-----------------------------------------------------------------------
547
548would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
549introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
550generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
551one.
552
553--bisect-vars::
554
555This calculates the same as `--bisect`, but outputs text ready
556to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the name of
557the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
558expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is
559tested to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be
560tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`,
561the expected number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev`
562turns out to be bad to `bisect_bad`, and the number of commits
563we are bisecting right now to `bisect_all`.
564
565--bisect-all::
566
567This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
568commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
569commits. The farthest from them is displayed first. (This is the only
570one displayed by `--bisect`.)
3d2d4f96 571+
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572This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
573test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
574may not compile for example).
3d2d4f96 575+
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576This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
577after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
578`--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
579endif::git-rev-list[]
580
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581
582Commit Ordering
583~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
584
585By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
586
587--topo-order::
588
589 This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
590 descendant commits are shown before their parents).
591
592--date-order::
593
594 This option is similar to '--topo-order' in the sense that no
595 parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things
596 are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.
597
598--reverse::
599
600 Output the commits in reverse order.
601 Cannot be combined with '\--walk-reflogs'.
602
603Object Traversal
604~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
605
606These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.
607
608--objects::
609
610 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
611 commits. '--objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me
612 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
613 object 'bar', but not 'foo'".
614
615--objects-edge::
616
617 Similar to '--objects', but also print the IDs of excluded
618 commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
619 linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build "thin" pack, which records
620 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
621 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
622
623--unpacked::
624
625 Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
626 in packs.
627
628--no-walk::
629
630 Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their ancestors.
631
632--do-walk::
633
634 Overrides a previous --no-walk.