refs: introduce a "ref paranoia" flag
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
44e1e4d6 12'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
68e4b552 13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
673151a9 25linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
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26commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27in-depth introduction.
cb22bc44 28
7687ae98 29After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
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30page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
06ab60c0 32manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
4514ad4f 33
2de9b711 34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
7687ae98 35can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
34b604af 36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
2ff3f61a 41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
06ab60c0 42unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
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43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
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47
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359 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
360 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
361 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
362 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
363 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 364
efe05b01 365* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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366
367* release notes for
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368 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
369 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
370 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
371 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
372 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
373 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
374 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
1d2375dd 375
efe05b01 376* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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377
378* release notes for
761e742d
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379 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
380 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
381 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
382 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
383 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
384 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
385 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
386 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 387
e708af6e 388* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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389
390* release notes for
761e742d
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391 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
392 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
393 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
394 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
395 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
396 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
397 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
398 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
399 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 400
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401* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
402
aba170cd 403* release notes for
761e742d
NP
404 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
405 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
406 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
407 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
408 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
409 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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410
411* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
412
413* release notes for
761e742d
NP
414 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
415 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
416 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
417 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
418 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
419 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
420 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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421
422* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
423
aba170cd 424* release notes for
761e742d
NP
425 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
426 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
427 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
428 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
429 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
430 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
431 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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432
433* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
434 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
435 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
436 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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437
438============
439
440endif::stalenotes[]
441
cb22bc44
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442OPTIONS
443-------
444--version::
2de9b711 445 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
cb22bc44
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446
447--help::
a87cd02c 448 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
0f6f195b 449 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
2de9b711 450 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
0f6f195b 451 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
45533d26
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452+
453Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 454displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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455because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
456help ...`.
cb22bc44 457
44e1e4d6
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458-C <path>::
459 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
460 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
461 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
462 <path>`.
463+
464This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
465`--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
466made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
467example the following invocations are equivalent:
468
469 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
470 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
471
8b1fa778
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472-c <name>=<value>::
473 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
474 given will override values from configuration files.
475 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
476 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
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477+
478Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
479`foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
480config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
481foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
8b1fa778 482
62b4698e 483--exec-path[=<path>]::
2de9b711 484 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 485 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 486 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
cb22bc44
AE
487 the current setting and then exit.
488
89a56bfb 489--html-path::
2de9b711 490 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
239b5ed9 491 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 492
f2dd8c37 493--man-path::
239b5ed9 494 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
2de9b711 495 this version of Git and exit.
f2dd8c37
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496
497--info-path::
239b5ed9 498 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
2de9b711 499 version of Git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 500
3240240f
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501-p::
502--paginate::
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503 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
504 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
505 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
506 below).
6acbcb92 507
463a849d 508--no-pager::
2de9b711 509 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
463a849d 510
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511--git-dir=<path>::
512 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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513 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
514 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 515
892c41b9 516--work-tree=<path>::
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517 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
518 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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519 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
520 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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521 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
522 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 523
d49483f0 524--namespace=<path>::
2de9b711 525 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
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526 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
527 variable.
528
6acbcb92 529--bare::
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530 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
531 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
532 directory.
533
b0fa7ab5 534--no-replace-objects::
2de9b711 535 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
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536 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
537
823ab40f 538--literal-pathspecs::
a16bf9dd
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539 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
540 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
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541 variable to `1`.
542
6fb02165 543--glob-pathspecs::
bd30c2e4
NTND
544 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
545 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
546 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
547 magic ":(literal)"
548
6fb02165 549--noglob-pathspecs::
bd30c2e4
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550 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
551 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
552 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
553 magic ":(glob)"
9755afbd 554
6fb02165 555--icase-pathspecs::
93d93537
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556 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
557 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
9755afbd 558
23091e95
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559GIT COMMANDS
560------------
9755afbd 561
2de9b711 562We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
23091e95 563("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 564
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565High-level commands (porcelain)
566-------------------------------
567
568We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
569ancillary user utilities.
570
571Main porcelain commands
572~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 573
377e8139 574include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 575
90933efb 576Ancillary Commands
23091e95 577~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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578Manipulators:
579
377e8139 580include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 581
90933efb 582Interrogators:
204ee6a9 583
377e8139 584include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 585
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586
587Interacting with Others
588~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
589
590These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
591people via patch over e-mail.
592
593include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
594
595
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596Low-level commands (plumbing)
597-----------------------------
598
2de9b711 599Although Git includes its
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600own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
601development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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602might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
603linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 604
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605The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
606to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
607than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
608primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
609on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
610end user experience.
611
612The following description divides
613the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
b1f33d62
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614the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
615compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
616repositories.
617
89bf2077 618
b1f33d62
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619Manipulation commands
620~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 621
377e8139 622include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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623
624
625Interrogation commands
626~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
627
377e8139 628include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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629
630In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
631the working tree.
632
633
634Synching repositories
635~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
636
377e8139 637include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 638
57f6ec02 639The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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640typically do not use them directly.
641
642include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
643
644
645Internal helper commands
646~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
647
648These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
649users typically do not use them directly.
650
651include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
652
b1f33d62 653
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654Configuration Mechanism
655-----------------------
656
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657Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
658repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
659like this:
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660
661------------
662#
2fa090b6 663# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
5773c9f2
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664#
665
666; core variables
667[core]
668 ; Don't trust file modes
669 filemode = false
670
671; user identity
672[user]
673 name = "Junio C Hamano"
c0179c0d 674 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
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675
676------------
677
678Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
06300d97 679their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
c0179c0d 680list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
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681
682
6c84e2e0 683Identifier Terminology
2cf565c5
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684----------------------
685<object>::
2fa090b6 686 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
2cf565c5
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687
688<blob>::
2fa090b6 689 Indicates a blob object name.
2cf565c5
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690
691<tree>::
2fa090b6 692 Indicates a tree object name.
2cf565c5
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693
694<commit>::
2fa090b6 695 Indicates a commit object name.
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696
697<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 698 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
6c84e2e0
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699 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
700 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
701 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 702
043d7605
TT
703<commit-ish>::
704 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
705 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
706 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
707 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
708
2cf565c5
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709<type>::
710 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 711 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
2cf565c5
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712
713<file>::
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714 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
715 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 716
c1bdacf9
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717Symbolic Identifiers
718--------------------
2de9b711 719Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 720symbolic notation:
c1bdacf9
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721
722HEAD::
0abcfbff 723 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 724
c1bdacf9 725<tag>::
2fa090b6 726 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 727 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 728
c1bdacf9 729<head>::
2fa090b6 730 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 731 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 732
d47107d8 733For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 734"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 735
c1bdacf9
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736
737File/Directory Structure
738------------------------
c1bdacf9 739
6998e4db 740Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 741
6998e4db 742Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 743
c1bdacf9 744Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 745`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 746
a1d4aa74 747
2cf565c5
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748Terminology
749-----------
6998e4db 750Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
2cf565c5
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751
752
753Environment Variables
754---------------------
2de9b711 755Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
2cf565c5 756
2de9b711 757The Git Repository
c1bdacf9 758~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2de9b711 759These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
c1bdacf9 760is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2de9b711 761Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
c1bdacf9
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762
763'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
764 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
5f3aa197
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765 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
766 is used.
c1bdacf9 767
136347d7
TG
768'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
769 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
770 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
771 files. By default index file version [23] is used.
772
c1bdacf9
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773'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
774 If the object storage directory is specified via this
775 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
776 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
777 directory is used.
778
779'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
2de9b711 780 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
c1bdacf9 781 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
80ba074f 782 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
2de9b711 783 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
80ba074f 784 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
c1bdacf9
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785
786'GIT_DIR'::
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787 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
788 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
789 for the base of the repository.
75940a00 790 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
c1bdacf9 791
892c41b9 792'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
a758a349 793 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
06ab60c0 794 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
892c41b9
ML
795 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
796
d49483f0 797'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
2de9b711 798 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
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799 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
800
0454dd93 801'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
7ec30aaa 802 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
3e07d268 803 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
7ec30aaa
MH
804 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
805 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
806 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
807 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
808 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
809 might be present in order to compare them with the current
810 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
811 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
812 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
813 e.g.,
814 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
0454dd93 815
cf87463e 816'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
e6405517 817 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
2de9b711 818 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
e6405517
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819 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
820 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
2de9b711 821 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
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822 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
823 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
824 command line.
8030e442 825
2de9b711 826Git Commits
c1bdacf9
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827~~~~~~~~~~~
828'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
829'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
830'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
831'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
832'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 833'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 834'EMAIL'::
5162e697 835 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
c1bdacf9 836
2de9b711 837Git Diffs
c1bdacf9 838~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 839'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
fde97d8a
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840 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
841 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
842 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
2de9b711 843 value passed on the Git diff command line.
fde97d8a 844
d81ed1b5 845'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
fde97d8a
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846 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
847 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
848 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
849 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
850
851 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
852+
853where:
854
855 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
856 contents of <old|new>,
d5fa1f1a 857 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
fde97d8a 858 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
fde97d8a
SE
859+
860The file parameters can point at the user's working file
861(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
862when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
863index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
864temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
865+
866For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
867parameter, <path>.
ee7fb0b1
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868+
869For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
870'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
871
872'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
873 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
874
875'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
876 The total number of paths.
2cf565c5 877
575ba9d6
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878other
879~~~~~
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880'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
881 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
882 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 883 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 884
c27d205a 885'GIT_PAGER'::
a7738c77 886 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
2de9b711 887 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
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888 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
889 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 890
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891'GIT_EDITOR'::
892 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
2de9b711 893 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
36384c97
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894 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
895 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
896
d5538b41 897'GIT_SSH'::
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898'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
899 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
900 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
901 when they need to connect to a remote system.
902 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
903 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
904 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
905 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
906 something other than the default SSH port.
d5538b41 907+
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908`$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
909by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
910`$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
911(which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
912needed).
d5538b41
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913+
914Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
915personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
916for further details.
917
453842c9 918'GIT_ASKPASS'::
2de9b711 919 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
453842c9 920 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
06ab60c0 921 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
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922 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
923 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
924
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925'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
926 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
927 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
928
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929'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
930 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
931 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
932 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
933 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
934 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
935 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
936
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937'GIT_FLUSH'::
938 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
0b444cdb 939 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
627a8b8d 940 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
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941 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
942 flushed. If this
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943 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
944 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
2de9b711 945 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
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946 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
947
575ba9d6 948'GIT_TRACE'::
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949 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
950 command execution and external command execution.
951+
952If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
953is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
954stderr.
955+
956If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
957and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
958value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
959trace messages into this file descriptor.
960+
961Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
962(starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
963as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
964into it.
965+
966Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
967"false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
575ba9d6 968
b12ca963 969'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
67dc598e 970 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
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971 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
972 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
973 pack-related performance problems.
67dc598e 974 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
b12ca963 975
1dd278ce 976'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
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977 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
978 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
979 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
980 starting with "PACK".
981 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
982
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983'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
984 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
985 time of each Git command.
986 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
987
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988'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
989 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
990 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
991 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
992
993'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
994 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
995 cloning of shallow repositories.
996 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1dd278ce 997
823ab40f 998GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
2de9b711 999 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
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1000 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1001 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1002 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1003 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
2de9b711 1004 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
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1005 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1006
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1007GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1008 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1009 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1010
1011GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1012 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1013 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1014
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1015GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1016 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1017 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1018
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1019'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1020 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1021 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1022 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1023 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1024 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1025 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1026 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1027 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1028
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1029`GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1030 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1031 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1032 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1033 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1034 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1035 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1036 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1037 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1038 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1039
823ab40f 1040
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1041Discussion[[Discussion]]
1042------------------------
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1043
1044More detail on the following is available from the
2de9b711 1045link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 1046user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
40dac517 1047
2de9b711 1048A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
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1049subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1050things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1051of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1052contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1053as tags and branch heads.
1054
1055The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1056hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 1057directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
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1058and some number of parent commits.
1059
1060The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1061"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1062represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1063parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1064
d5fa1f1a 1065All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
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1066written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1067The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1068just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1069purpose.
1070
1071When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1072efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1073
1074Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
d5fa1f1a
TA
1075may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1076with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1077recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
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1078tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1079`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1080
1081The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1082path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1083the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1084attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1085corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1086working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1087be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1088content stored in the index.
1089
1090The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1091for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1092unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 1093
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1094FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1095---------------------
1096
1097See the references in the "description" section to get started
2de9b711 1098using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
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1099for a first-time user.
1100
2de9b711 1101The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
7687ae98 1102user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
2de9b711 1103introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
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1104
1105See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1106
1107See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1108examples.
1109
1110The internals are documented in the
48a8c26c 1111link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
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1112
1113Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1114read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1115
1116
cb22bc44
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1117Authors
1118-------
48bb914e 1119Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
2de9b711 1120C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
405869d0 1121<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
6ecc01f2
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1122gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1123
1124If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
d8f708f8
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1125output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1126the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 1127
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1128Reporting Bugs
1129--------------
1130
1131Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1132development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1133subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1134
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1135SEE ALSO
1136--------
1137linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
673151a9 1138linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 1139linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
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1140linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1141linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 1142
2cf565c5
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1143GIT
1144---
9e1f0a85 1145Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite