Documentation: avoid poor-man's small caps GIT
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-pack-objects.txt
CommitLineData
5f40520f
JH
1git-pack-objects(1)
2===================
5f40520f
JH
3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-pack-objects - Create a packed archive of objects
5f40520f
JH
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
ca5381d4 11[verse]
4f366275
NP
12'git pack-objects' [-q | --progress | --all-progress] [--all-progress-implied]
13 [--no-reuse-delta] [--delta-base-offset] [--non-empty]
62b4698e 14 [--local] [--incremental] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>]
0adda936 15 [--revs [--unpacked | --all]] [--stdout | base-name]
7f3140cd 16 [--keep-true-parents] < object-list
5f40520f
JH
17
18
19DESCRIPTION
20-----------
21Reads list of objects from the standard input, and writes a packed
22archive with specified base-name, or to the standard output.
23
738820a9
SB
24A packed archive is an efficient way to transfer a set of objects
25between two repositories as well as an access efficient archival
26format. In a packed archive, an object is either stored as a
27compressed whole or as a difference from some other object.
28The latter is often called a delta.
29
30The packed archive format (.pack) is designed to be self-contained
31so that it can be unpacked without any further information. Therefore,
32each object that a delta depends upon must be present within the pack.
33
34A pack index file (.idx) is generated for fast, random access to the
35objects in the pack. Placing both the index file (.idx) and the packed
36archive (.pack) in the pack/ subdirectory of $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY (or
1e6ab5de 37any of the directories on $GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES)
738820a9 38enables git to read from the pack archive.
1e6ab5de 39
0b444cdb 40The 'git unpack-objects' command can read the packed archive and
5f40520f
JH
41expand the objects contained in the pack into "one-file
42one-object" format; this is typically done by the smart-pull
43commands when a pack is created on-the-fly for efficient network
44transport by their peers.
45
5f40520f
JH
46
47OPTIONS
48-------
49base-name::
50 Write into a pair of files (.pack and .idx), using
51 <base-name> to determine the name of the created file.
52 When this option is used, the two files are written in
53 <base-name>-<SHA1>.{pack,idx} files. <SHA1> is a hash
e23ed9a8
NP
54 of the sorted object names to make the resulting filename
55 based on the pack content, and written to the standard
5f40520f
JH
56 output of the command.
57
58--stdout::
89438677 59 Write the pack contents (what would have been written to
5f40520f
JH
60 .pack file) out to the standard output.
61
4321134c
JH
62--revs::
63 Read the revision arguments from the standard input, instead of
64 individual object names. The revision arguments are processed
0b444cdb 65 the same way as 'git rev-list' with the `--objects` flag
4321134c
JH
66 uses its `commit` arguments to build the list of objects it
67 outputs. The objects on the resulting list are packed.
68
69--unpacked::
70 This implies `--revs`. When processing the list of
71 revision arguments read from the standard input, limit
72 the objects packed to those that are not already packed.
73
74--all::
75 This implies `--revs`. In addition to the list of
76 revision arguments read from the standard input, pretend
cc1b8d8b 77 as if all refs under `refs/` are specified to be
4321134c
JH
78 included.
79
f0a24aa5
SP
80--include-tag::
81 Include unasked-for annotated tags if the object they
82 reference was included in the resulting packfile. This
83 can be useful to send new tags to native git clients.
84
62b4698e
ŠN
85--window=<n>::
86--depth=<n>::
3df19671 87 These two options affect how the objects contained in
5f40520f
JH
88 the pack are stored using delta compression. The
89 objects are first internally sorted by type, size and
90 optionally names and compared against the other objects
91 within --window to see if using delta compression saves
92 space. --depth limits the maximum delta depth; making
93 it too deep affects the performance on the unpacker
94 side, because delta data needs to be applied that many
95 times to get to the necessary object.
618e613a 96 The default value for --window is 10 and --depth is 50.
5f40520f 97
62b4698e 98--window-memory=<n>::
e93b15cd
BD
99 This option provides an additional limit on top of `--window`;
100 the window size will dynamically scale down so as to not take
62b4698e 101 up more than '<n>' bytes in memory. This is useful in
e93b15cd
BD
102 repositories with a mix of large and small objects to not run
103 out of memory with a large window, but still be able to take
104 advantage of the large window for the smaller objects. The
105 size can be suffixed with "k", "m", or "g".
106 `--window-memory=0` makes memory usage unlimited, which is the
107 default.
108
62b4698e 109--max-pack-size=<n>::
07cf0f24
NP
110 Maximum size of each output pack file. The size can be suffixed with
111 "k", "m", or "g". The minimum size allowed is limited to 1 MiB.
6b94b1a0 112 If specified, multiple packfiles may be created.
2b84b5a8
JS
113 The default is unlimited, unless the config variable
114 `pack.packSizeLimit` is set.
6b94b1a0 115
e96fb9b8
BC
116--honor-pack-keep::
117 This flag causes an object already in a local pack that
0353a0c4 118 has a .keep file to be ignored, even if it would have
18879bc5 119 otherwise been packed.
e96fb9b8 120
5f40520f 121--incremental::
21da4262 122 This flag causes an object already in a pack to be ignored
3909f14f 123 even if it would have otherwise been packed.
5f40520f 124
12ea5bea 125--local::
21da4262 126 This flag causes an object that is borrowed from an alternate
3909f14f
JH
127 object store to be ignored even if it would have otherwise been
128 packed.
5f40520f 129
63ae26f8
NW
130--non-empty::
131 Only create a packed archive if it would contain at
132 least one object.
133
231f240b
NP
134--progress::
135 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
136 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
137 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if
138 the standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
139
140--all-progress::
141 When --stdout is specified then progress report is
4f366275 142 displayed during the object count and compression phases
231f240b
NP
143 but inhibited during the write-out phase. The reason is
144 that in some cases the output stream is directly linked
145 to another command which may wish to display progress
146 status of its own as it processes incoming pack data.
147 This flag is like --progress except that it forces progress
148 report for the write-out phase as well even if --stdout is
149 used.
150
4f366275
NP
151--all-progress-implied::
152 This is used to imply --all-progress whenever progress display
153 is activated. Unlike --all-progress this flag doesn't actually
154 force any progress display by itself.
155
ca5381d4
JH
156-q::
157 This flag makes the command not to report its progress
158 on the standard error stream.
159
160--no-reuse-delta::
161 When creating a packed archive in a repository that
162 has existing packs, the command reuses existing deltas.
163 This sometimes results in a slightly suboptimal pack.
164 This flag tells the command not to reuse existing deltas
165 but compute them from scratch.
166
fa736f72
NP
167--no-reuse-object::
168 This flag tells the command not to reuse existing object data at all,
169 including non deltified object, forcing recompression of everything.
960ccca6 170 This implies --no-reuse-delta. Useful only in the obscure case where
fa736f72
NP
171 wholesale enforcement of a different compression level on the
172 packed data is desired.
173
62b4698e 174--compression=<n>::
960ccca6
DH
175 Specifies compression level for newly-compressed data in the
176 generated pack. If not specified, pack compression level is
177 determined first by pack.compression, then by core.compression,
178 and defaults to -1, the zlib default, if neither is set.
483bc4f0 179 Add --no-reuse-object if you want to force a uniform compression
05cc2ffc 180 level on all data no matter the source.
960ccca6 181
738820a9
SB
182--thin::
183 Create a "thin" pack by omitting the common objects between a
184 sender and a receiver in order to reduce network transfer. This
185 option only makes sense in conjunction with --stdout.
186+
187Note: A thin pack violates the packed archive format by omitting
188required objects and is thus unusable by git without making it
189self-contained. Use `git index-pack --fix-thin`
190(see linkgit:git-index-pack[1]) to restore the self-contained property.
191
63fba759 192--delta-base-offset::
2f8ee02c
SB
193 A packed archive can express the base object of a delta as
194 either a 20-byte object name or as an offset in the
c14f3727 195 stream, but ancient versions of git don't understand the
0b444cdb 196 latter. By default, 'git pack-objects' only uses the
63fba759
JH
197 former format for better compatibility. This option
198 allows the command to use the latter format for
199 compactness. Depending on the average delta chain
200 length, this option typically shrinks the resulting
201 packfile by 3-5 per-cent.
c14f3727
JH
202+
203Note: Porcelain commands such as `git gc` (see linkgit:git-gc[1]),
204`git repack` (see linkgit:git-repack[1]) pass this option by default
205in modern git when they put objects in your repository into pack files.
206So does `git bundle` (see linkgit:git-bundle[1]) when it creates a bundle.
63fba759 207
367f4a43
NP
208--threads=<n>::
209 Specifies the number of threads to spawn when searching for best
210 delta matches. This requires that pack-objects be compiled with
211 pthreads otherwise this option is ignored with a warning.
212 This is meant to reduce packing time on multiprocessor machines.
213 The required amount of memory for the delta search window is
214 however multiplied by the number of threads.
833e3df1
AE
215 Specifying 0 will cause git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
216 and set the number of threads accordingly.
367f4a43 217
be18c1fe
NP
218--index-version=<version>[,<offset>]::
219 This is intended to be used by the test suite only. It allows
220 to force the version for the generated pack index, and to force
221 64-bit index entries on objects located above the given offset.
222
7f3140cd
JS
223--keep-true-parents::
224 With this option, parents that are hidden by grafts are packed
225 nevertheless.
226
56ae8df5 227SEE ALSO
e31bb3bb 228--------
5162e697
DM
229linkgit:git-rev-list[1]
230linkgit:git-repack[1]
231linkgit:git-prune-packed[1]
e31bb3bb 232
5f40520f
JH
233GIT
234---
9e1f0a85 235Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite