Fix typos in the documentation
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-bundle.txt
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1git-bundle(1)
2=============
3
4NAME
5----
6git-bundle - Move objects and refs by archive
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
e448ff87 11[verse]
5e1f9605 12'git bundle' create <file> <git-rev-list-args>
b1889c36 13'git bundle' verify <file>
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14'git bundle' list-heads <file> [<refname>...]
15'git bundle' unbundle <file> [<refname>...]
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16
17DESCRIPTION
18-----------
19
20Some workflows require that one or more branches of development on one
21machine be replicated on another machine, but the two machines cannot
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22be directly connected, and therefore the interactive git protocols (git,
23ssh, rsync, http) cannot be used. This command provides support for
0b444cdb 24'git fetch' and 'git pull' to operate by packaging objects and references
2e0afafe 25in an archive at the originating machine, then importing those into
0b444cdb 26another repository using 'git fetch' and 'git pull'
3c652d16 27after moving the archive by some means (e.g., by sneakernet). As no
1d52b026 28direct connection between the repositories exists, the user must specify a
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29basis for the bundle that is held by the destination repository: the
30bundle assumes that all objects in the basis are already in the
31destination repository.
32
33OPTIONS
34-------
35
36create <file>::
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37 Used to create a bundle named 'file'. This requires the
38 'git-rev-list-args' arguments to define the bundle contents.
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39
40verify <file>::
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41 Used to check that a bundle file is valid and will apply
42 cleanly to the current repository. This includes checks on the
43 bundle format itself as well as checking that the prerequisite
44 commits exist and are fully linked in the current repository.
45 'git bundle' prints a list of missing commits, if any, and exits
46 with a non-zero status.
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47
48list-heads <file>::
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49 Lists the references defined in the bundle. If followed by a
50 list of references, only references matching those given are
51 printed out.
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52
53unbundle <file>::
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54 Passes the objects in the bundle to 'git index-pack'
55 for storage in the repository, then prints the names of all
56 defined references. If a list of references is given, only
57 references matching those in the list are printed. This command is
58 really plumbing, intended to be called only by 'git fetch'.
2e0afafe 59
5e1f9605 60<git-rev-list-args>::
a6190565 61 A list of arguments, acceptable to 'git rev-parse' and
469bfc96 62 'git rev-list' (and containing a named ref, see SPECIFYING REFERENCES
1884df1a 63 below), that specifies the specific objects and references
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64 to transport. For example, `master{tilde}10..master` causes the
65 current master reference to be packaged along with all objects
66 added since its 10th ancestor commit. There is no explicit
67 limit to the number of references and objects that may be
68 packaged.
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69
70
62b4698e 71[<refname>...]::
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72 A list of references used to limit the references reported as
73 available. This is principally of use to 'git fetch', which
74 expects to receive only those references asked for and not
75 necessarily everything in the pack (in this case, 'git bundle' acts
76 like 'git fetch-pack').
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77
78SPECIFYING REFERENCES
79---------------------
80
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81'git bundle' will only package references that are shown by
82'git show-ref': this includes heads, tags, and remote heads. References
5e1f9605 83such as `master{tilde}1` cannot be packaged, but are perfectly suitable for
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84defining the basis. More than one reference may be packaged, and more
85than one basis can be specified. The objects packaged are those not
86contained in the union of the given bases. Each basis can be
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87specified explicitly (e.g. `^master{tilde}10`), or implicitly (e.g.
88`master{tilde}10..master`, `--since=10.days.ago master`).
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89
90It is very important that the basis used be held by the destination.
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91It is okay to err on the side of caution, causing the bundle file
92to contain objects already in the destination, as these are ignored
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93when unpacking at the destination.
94
95EXAMPLE
96-------
97
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98Assume you want to transfer the history from a repository R1 on machine A
99to another repository R2 on machine B.
2e0afafe 100For whatever reason, direct connection between A and B is not allowed,
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101but we can move data from A to B via some mechanism (CD, email, etc.).
102We want to update R2 with development made on the branch master in R1.
99d8ea2c 103
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104To bootstrap the process, you can first create a bundle that does not have
105any basis. You can use a tag to remember up to what commit you last
106processed, in order to make it easy to later update the other repository
107with an incremental bundle:
99d8ea2c 108
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109----------------
110machineA$ cd R1
ffe4da15 111machineA$ git bundle create file.bundle master
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112machineA$ git tag -f lastR2bundle master
113----------------
99d8ea2c 114
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115Then you transfer file.bundle to the target machine B. If you are creating
116the repository on machine B, then you can clone from the bundle as if it
117were a remote repository instead of creating an empty repository and then
118pulling or fetching objects from the bundle:
99d8ea2c 119
8aa7eebf 120----------------
ffe4da15 121machineB$ git clone /home/me/tmp/file.bundle R2
8aa7eebf 122----------------
2e0afafe 123
8aa7eebf 124This will define a remote called "origin" in the resulting repository that
1d52b026 125lets you fetch and pull from the bundle. The $GIT_DIR/config file in R2 will
8aa7eebf 126have an entry like this:
2e0afafe 127
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128------------------------
129[remote "origin"]
ffe4da15 130 url = /home/me/tmp/file.bundle
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131 fetch = refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
132------------------------
133
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134To update the resulting mine.git repository, you can fetch or pull after
135replacing the bundle stored at /home/me/tmp/file.bundle with incremental
136updates.
8aa7eebf 137
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138After working some more in the original repository, you can create an
139incremental bundle to update the other repository:
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140
141----------------
142machineA$ cd R1
ffe4da15 143machineA$ git bundle create file.bundle lastR2bundle..master
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144machineA$ git tag -f lastR2bundle master
145----------------
146
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147You then transfer the bundle to the other machine to replace
148/home/me/tmp/file.bundle, and pull from it.
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149
150----------------
151machineB$ cd R2
152machineB$ git pull
153----------------
99d8ea2c 154
8aa7eebf 155If you know up to what commit the intended recipient repository should
1d52b026 156have the necessary objects, you can use that knowledge to specify the
8aa7eebf 157basis, giving a cut-off point to limit the revisions and objects that go
5e1f9605 158in the resulting bundle. The previous example used the lastR2bundle tag
1d52b026 159for this purpose, but you can use any other options that you would give to
8aa7eebf 160the linkgit:git-log[1] command. Here are more examples:
99d8ea2c 161
1d52b026 162You can use a tag that is present in both:
99d8ea2c 163
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164----------------
165$ git bundle create mybundle v1.0.0..master
166----------------
2e0afafe 167
1d52b026 168You can use a basis based on time:
ee8245b5 169
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170----------------
171$ git bundle create mybundle --since=10.days master
172----------------
2e0afafe 173
1d52b026 174You can use the number of commits:
2e0afafe 175
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176----------------
177$ git bundle create mybundle -10 master
178----------------
179
180You can run `git-bundle verify` to see if you can extract from a bundle
1d52b026 181that was created with a basis:
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182
183----------------
b1889c36 184$ git bundle verify mybundle
8aa7eebf 185----------------
2e0afafe 186
8aa7eebf 187This will list what commits you must have in order to extract from the
1d52b026 188bundle and will error out if you do not have them.
2e0afafe 189
8aa7eebf 190A bundle from a recipient repository's point of view is just like a
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191regular repository which it fetches or pulls from. You can, for example, map
192references when fetching:
2e0afafe 193
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194----------------
195$ git fetch mybundle master:localRef
196----------------
2e0afafe 197
5e1f9605 198You can also see what references it offers:
2e0afafe 199
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200----------------
201$ git ls-remote mybundle
202----------------
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203
204Author
205------
206Written by Mark Levedahl <mdl123@verizon.net>
207
208GIT
209---
9e1f0a85 210Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite