t/README: reformat Do, Don't, Keep in mind lists
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1Core GIT Tests
2==============
3
4This directory holds many test scripts for core GIT tools. The
5first part of this short document describes how to run the tests
6and read their output.
7
8When fixing the tools or adding enhancements, you are strongly
9encouraged to add tests in this directory to cover what you are
10trying to fix or enhance. The later part of this short document
11describes how your test scripts should be organized.
12
13
14Running Tests
15-------------
16
17The easiest way to run tests is to say "make". This runs all
18the tests.
19
20 *** t0000-basic.sh ***
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21 ok 1 - .git/objects should be empty after git init in an empty repo.
22 ok 2 - .git/objects should have 3 subdirectories.
23 ok 3 - success is reported like this
986aa7f1 24 ...
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25 ok 43 - very long name in the index handled sanely
26 # fixed 1 known breakage(s)
27 # still have 1 known breakage(s)
28 # passed all remaining 42 test(s)
29 1..43
30 *** t0001-init.sh ***
31 ok 1 - plain
32 ok 2 - plain with GIT_WORK_TREE
33 ok 3 - plain bare
34
35Since the tests all output TAP (see http://testanything.org) they can
85b0b34e 36be run with any TAP harness. Here's an example of parallel testing
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37powered by a recent version of prove(1):
38
39 $ prove --timer --jobs 15 ./t[0-9]*.sh
40 [19:17:33] ./t0005-signals.sh ................................... ok 36 ms
41 [19:17:33] ./t0022-crlf-rename.sh ............................... ok 69 ms
42 [19:17:33] ./t0024-crlf-archive.sh .............................. ok 154 ms
43 [19:17:33] ./t0004-unwritable.sh ................................ ok 289 ms
44 [19:17:33] ./t0002-gitfile.sh ................................... ok 480 ms
45 ===( 102;0 25/? 6/? 5/? 16/? 1/? 4/? 2/? 1/? 3/? 1... )===
46
47prove and other harnesses come with a lot of useful options. The
48--state option in particular is very useful:
49
50 # Repeat until no more failures
51 $ prove -j 15 --state=failed,save ./t[0-9]*.sh
986aa7f1 52
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53You can give DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove on the make command (or define it
54in config.mak) to cause "make test" to run tests under prove.
55GIT_PROVE_OPTS can be used to pass additional options, e.g.
56
57 $ make DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove GIT_PROVE_OPTS='--timer --jobs 16' test
58
5099b99d 59You can also run each test individually from command line, like this:
986aa7f1 60
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61 $ sh ./t3010-ls-files-killed-modified.sh
62 ok 1 - git update-index --add to add various paths.
63 ok 2 - git ls-files -k to show killed files.
64 ok 3 - validate git ls-files -k output.
65 ok 4 - git ls-files -m to show modified files.
66 ok 5 - validate git ls-files -m output.
67 # passed all 5 test(s)
68 1..5
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69
70You can pass --verbose (or -v), --debug (or -d), and --immediate
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71(or -i) command line argument to the test, or by setting GIT_TEST_OPTS
72appropriately before running "make".
986aa7f1 73
5e3b4fce 74-v::
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75--verbose::
76 This makes the test more verbose. Specifically, the
77 command being run and their output if any are also
78 output.
79
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80--verbose-only=<pattern>::
81 Like --verbose, but the effect is limited to tests with
82 numbers matching <pattern>. The number matched against is
83 simply the running count of the test within the file.
84
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85-x::
86 Turn on shell tracing (i.e., `set -x`) during the tests
94201a2b 87 themselves. Implies `--verbose`.
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88 Ignored in test scripts that set the variable 'test_untraceable'
89 to a non-empty value, unless it's run with a Bash version
90 supporting BASH_XTRACEFD, i.e. v4.1 or later.
a136f6d8 91
5e3b4fce 92-d::
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93--debug::
94 This may help the person who is developing a new test.
95 It causes the command defined with test_debug to run.
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96 The "trash" directory (used to store all temporary data
97 during testing) is not deleted even if there are no
98 failed tests so that you can inspect its contents after
99 the test finished.
986aa7f1 100
5e3b4fce 101-i::
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102--immediate::
103 This causes the test to immediately exit upon the first
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104 failed test. Cleanup commands requested with
105 test_when_finished are not executed if the test failed,
106 in order to keep the state for inspection by the tester
107 to diagnose the bug.
986aa7f1 108
5e3b4fce 109-l::
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110--long-tests::
111 This causes additional long-running tests to be run (where
112 available), for more exhaustive testing.
113
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114-r::
115--run=<test-selector>::
116 Run only the subset of tests indicated by
117 <test-selector>. See section "Skipping Tests" below for
118 <test-selector> syntax.
119
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120--valgrind=<tool>::
121 Execute all Git binaries under valgrind tool <tool> and exit
122 with status 126 on errors (just like regular tests, this will
123 only stop the test script when running under -i).
986aa7f1 124
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125 Since it makes no sense to run the tests with --valgrind and
126 not see any output, this option implies --verbose. For
127 convenience, it also implies --tee.
128
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129 <tool> defaults to 'memcheck', just like valgrind itself.
130 Other particularly useful choices include 'helgrind' and
131 'drd', but you may use any tool recognized by your valgrind
132 installation.
133
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134 As a special case, <tool> can be 'memcheck-fast', which uses
135 memcheck but disables --track-origins. Use this if you are
136 running tests in bulk, to see if there are _any_ memory
137 issues.
138
952af351 139 Note that memcheck is run with the option --leak-check=no,
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140 as the git process is short-lived and some errors are not
141 interesting. In order to run a single command under the same
142 conditions manually, you should set GIT_VALGRIND to point to
143 the 't/valgrind/' directory and use the commands under
144 't/valgrind/bin/'.
145
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146--valgrind-only=<pattern>::
147 Like --valgrind, but the effect is limited to tests with
148 numbers matching <pattern>. The number matched against is
149 simply the running count of the test within the file.
150
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151--tee::
152 In addition to printing the test output to the terminal,
153 write it to files named 't/test-results/$TEST_NAME.out'.
154 As the names depend on the tests' file names, it is safe to
155 run the tests with this option in parallel.
156
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157--verbose-log::
158 Write verbose output to the same logfile as `--tee`, but do
159 _not_ write it to stdout. Unlike `--tee --verbose`, this option
160 is safe to use when stdout is being consumed by a TAP parser
161 like `prove`. Implies `--tee` and `--verbose`.
162
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163--with-dashes::
164 By default tests are run without dashed forms of
165 commands (like git-commit) in the PATH (it only uses
166 wrappers from ../bin-wrappers). Use this option to include
167 the build directory (..) in the PATH, which contains all
168 the dashed forms of commands. This option is currently
169 implied by other options like --valgrind and
170 GIT_TEST_INSTALLED.
171
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172--root=<directory>::
173 Create "trash" directories used to store all temporary data during
174 testing under <directory>, instead of the t/ directory.
175 Using this option with a RAM-based filesystem (such as tmpfs)
176 can massively speed up the test suite.
177
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178--chain-lint::
179--no-chain-lint::
180 If --chain-lint is enabled, the test harness will check each
181 test to make sure that it properly "&&-chains" all commands (so
182 that a failure in the middle does not go unnoticed by the final
183 exit code of the test). This check is performed in addition to
184 running the tests themselves. You may also enable or disable
185 this feature by setting the GIT_TEST_CHAIN_LINT environment
186 variable to "1" or "0", respectively.
187
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188You can also set the GIT_TEST_INSTALLED environment variable to
189the bindir of an existing git installation to test that installation.
190You still need to have built this git sandbox, from which various
191test-* support programs, templates, and perl libraries are used.
192If your installed git is incomplete, it will silently test parts of
193your built version instead.
194
195When using GIT_TEST_INSTALLED, you can also set GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH to
196override the location of the dashed-form subcommands (what
197GIT_EXEC_PATH would be used for during normal operation).
198GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH defaults to `$GIT_TEST_INSTALLED/git --exec-path`.
199
200
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201Skipping Tests
202--------------
203
204In some environments, certain tests have no way of succeeding
205due to platform limitation, such as lack of 'unzip' program, or
206filesystem that do not allow arbitrary sequence of non-NUL bytes
207as pathnames.
208
209You should be able to say something like
210
211 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS=t9200.8 sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh
212
213and even:
214
215 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS='t[0-4]??? t91?? t9200.8' make
216
217to omit such tests. The value of the environment variable is a
218SP separated list of patterns that tells which tests to skip,
219and either can match the "t[0-9]{4}" part to skip the whole
220test, or t[0-9]{4} followed by ".$number" to say which
221particular test to skip.
222
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223For an individual test suite --run could be used to specify that
224only some tests should be run or that some tests should be
225excluded from a run.
226
227The argument for --run is a list of individual test numbers or
228ranges with an optional negation prefix that define what tests in
229a test suite to include in the run. A range is two numbers
230separated with a dash and matches a range of tests with both ends
231been included. You may omit the first or the second number to
232mean "from the first test" or "up to the very last test"
233respectively.
234
235Optional prefix of '!' means that the test or a range of tests
236should be excluded from the run.
237
238If --run starts with an unprefixed number or range the initial
239set of tests to run is empty. If the first item starts with '!'
240all the tests are added to the initial set. After initial set is
241determined every test number or range is added or excluded from
242the set one by one, from left to right.
243
244Individual numbers or ranges could be separated either by a space
245or a comma.
246
247For example, to run only tests up to a specific test (21), one
248could do this:
249
250 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='1-21'
251
252or this:
253
254 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='-21'
255
256Common case is to run several setup tests (1, 2, 3) and then a
257specific test (21) that relies on that setup:
258
259 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='1 2 3 21'
260
261or:
262
263 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run=1,2,3,21
264
265or:
266
267 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='-3 21'
268
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269As noted above, the test set is built by going through the items
270from left to right, so this:
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271
272 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='1-4 !3'
273
01e4be6c 274will run tests 1, 2, and 4. Items that come later have higher
2e3a16b2 275precedence. It means that this:
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276
277 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='!3 1-4'
278
279would just run tests from 1 to 4, including 3.
280
281You may use negation with ranges. The following will run all
282test in the test suite except from 7 up to 11:
283
284 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='!7-11'
285
286Some tests in a test suite rely on the previous tests performing
287certain actions, specifically some tests are designated as
288"setup" test, so you cannot _arbitrarily_ disable one test and
289expect the rest to function correctly.
290
291--run is mostly useful when you want to focus on a specific test
292and know what setup is needed for it. Or when you want to run
293everything up to a certain test.
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294
295
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296Running tests with special setups
297---------------------------------
298
299The whole test suite could be run to test some special features
300that cannot be easily covered by a few specific test cases. These
301could be enabled by running the test suite with correct GIT_TEST_
302environment set.
303
304GIT_TEST_SPLIT_INDEX=<boolean> forces split-index mode on the whole
305test suite. Accept any boolean values that are accepted by git-config.
306
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307GIT_TEST_FULL_IN_PACK_ARRAY=<boolean> exercises the uncommon
308pack-objects code path where there are more than 1024 packs even if
309the actual number of packs in repository is below this limit. Accept
310any boolean values that are accepted by git-config.
311
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312GIT_TEST_OE_SIZE=<n> exercises the uncommon pack-objects code path
313where we do not cache object size in memory and read it from existing
314packs on demand. This normally only happens when the object size is
315over 2GB. This variable forces the code path on any object larger than
316<n> bytes.
317
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318GIT_TEST_OE_DELTA_SIZE=<n> exercises the uncomon pack-objects code
319path where deltas larger than this limit require extra memory
320allocation for bookkeeping.
321
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322GIT_TEST_VALIDATE_INDEX_CACHE_ENTRIES=<boolean> checks that cache-tree
323records are valid when the index is written out or after a merge. This
324is mostly to catch missing invalidation. Default is true.
325
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326GIT_TEST_COMMIT_GRAPH=<boolean>, when true, forces the commit-graph to
327be written after every 'git commit' command, and overrides the
328'core.commitGraph' setting to true.
329
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330Naming Tests
331------------
332
333The test files are named as:
334
335 tNNNN-commandname-details.sh
336
337where N is a decimal digit.
338
339First digit tells the family:
340
341 0 - the absolute basics and global stuff
342 1 - the basic commands concerning database
343 2 - the basic commands concerning the working tree
344 3 - the other basic commands (e.g. ls-files)
345 4 - the diff commands
346 5 - the pull and exporting commands
347 6 - the revision tree commands (even e.g. merge-base)
8f4a9b62 348 7 - the porcelainish commands concerning the working tree
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349 8 - the porcelainish commands concerning forensics
350 9 - the git tools
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351
352Second digit tells the particular command we are testing.
353
354Third digit (optionally) tells the particular switch or group of switches
355we are testing.
356
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357If you create files under t/ directory (i.e. here) that is not
358the top-level test script, never name the file to match the above
359pattern. The Makefile here considers all such files as the
63d32945 360top-level test script and tries to run all of them. Care is
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361especially needed if you are creating a common test library
362file, similar to test-lib.sh, because such a library file may
363not be suitable for standalone execution.
364
f50c9f76 365
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366Writing Tests
367-------------
368
369The test script is written as a shell script. It should start
51b7a525 370with the standard "#!/bin/sh", and an
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371assignment to variable 'test_description', like this:
372
373 #!/bin/sh
986aa7f1 374
14cd1ff3 375 test_description='xxx test (option --frotz)
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376
377 This test registers the following structure in the cache
378 and tries to run git-ls-files with option --frotz.'
379
f50c9f76 380
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381Source 'test-lib.sh'
382--------------------
383
384After assigning test_description, the test script should source
385test-lib.sh like this:
386
387 . ./test-lib.sh
388
389This test harness library does the following things:
390
391 - If the script is invoked with command line argument --help
392 (or -h), it shows the test_description and exits.
393
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394 - Creates an empty test directory with an empty .git/objects database
395 and chdir(2) into it. This directory is 't/trash
396 directory.$test_name_without_dotsh', with t/ subject to change by
397 the --root option documented above.
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398
399 - Defines standard test helper functions for your scripts to
400 use. These functions are designed to make all scripts behave
401 consistently when command line arguments --verbose (or -v),
402 --debug (or -d), and --immediate (or -i) is given.
403
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404Do's & don'ts
405-------------
20873f45 406
6fd45295 407Here are a few examples of things you probably should and shouldn't do
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408when writing tests.
409
441ee35d 410Here are the "do's:"
20873f45 411
6fd45295 412 - Put all code inside test_expect_success and other assertions.
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413
414 Even code that isn't a test per se, but merely some setup code
6fd45295 415 should be inside a test assertion.
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416
417 - Chain your test assertions
418
419 Write test code like this:
420
421 git merge foo &&
422 git push bar &&
423 test ...
424
425 Instead of:
426
427 git merge hla
428 git push gh
429 test ...
430
431 That way all of the commands in your tests will succeed or fail. If
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432 you must ignore the return value of something, consider using a
433 helper function (e.g. use sane_unset instead of unset, in order
434 to avoid unportable return value for unsetting a variable that was
435 already unset), or prepending the command with test_might_fail or
436 test_must_fail.
20873f45 437
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438 - Check the test coverage for your tests. See the "Test coverage"
439 below.
440
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441 Don't blindly follow test coverage metrics; if a new function you added
442 doesn't have any coverage, then you're probably doing something wrong,
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443 but having 100% coverage doesn't necessarily mean that you tested
444 everything.
445
446 Tests that are likely to smoke out future regressions are better
447 than tests that just inflate the coverage metrics.
448
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449 - When a test checks for an absolute path that a git command generated,
450 construct the expected value using $(pwd) rather than $PWD,
451 $TEST_DIRECTORY, or $TRASH_DIRECTORY. It makes a difference on
452 Windows, where the shell (MSYS bash) mangles absolute path names.
453 For details, see the commit message of 4114156ae9.
454
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455 - Remember that inside the <script> part, the standard output and
456 standard error streams are discarded, and the test harness only
457 reports "ok" or "not ok" to the end user running the tests. Under
458 --verbose, they are shown to help debug the tests.
459
460And here are the "don'ts:"
20873f45 461
441ee35d 462 - Don't exit() within a <script> part.
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463
464 The harness will catch this as a programming error of the test.
465 Use test_done instead if you need to stop the tests early (see
466 "Skipping tests" below).
467
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468 - Don't use '! git cmd' when you want to make sure the git command
469 exits with failure in a controlled way by calling "die()". Instead,
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470 use 'test_must_fail git cmd'. This will signal a failure if git
471 dies in an unexpected way (e.g. segfault).
472
f445500e 473 On the other hand, don't use test_must_fail for running regular
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474 platform commands; just use '! cmd'. We are not in the business
475 of verifying that the world given to us sanely works.
f445500e 476
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477 - Don't use perl without spelling it as "$PERL_PATH". This is to help
478 our friends on Windows where the platform Perl often adds CR before
ad78585e 479 the end of line, and they bundle Git with a version of Perl that
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480 does not do so, whose path is specified with $PERL_PATH. Note that we
481 provide a "perl" function which uses $PERL_PATH under the hood, so
482 you do not need to worry when simply running perl in the test scripts
483 (but you do, for example, on a shebang line or in a sub script
484 created via "write_script").
ad78585e 485
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486 - Don't use sh without spelling it as "$SHELL_PATH", when the script
487 can be misinterpreted by broken platform shell (e.g. Solaris).
ad78585e 488
441ee35d 489 - Don't chdir around in tests. It is not sufficient to chdir to
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490 somewhere and then chdir back to the original location later in
491 the test, as any intermediate step can fail and abort the test,
492 causing the next test to start in an unexpected directory. Do so
493 inside a subshell if necessary.
494
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495 - Don't save and verify the standard error of compound commands, i.e.
496 group commands, subshells, and shell functions (except test helper
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497 functions like 'test_must_fail') like this:
498
499 ( cd dir && git cmd ) 2>error &&
500 test_cmp expect error
501
502 When running the test with '-x' tracing, then the trace of commands
503 executed in the compound command will be included in standard error
504 as well, quite possibly throwing off the subsequent checks examining
505 the output. Instead, save only the relevant git command's standard
506 error:
507
508 ( cd dir && git cmd 2>../error ) &&
509 test_cmp expect error
510
441ee35d 511 - Don't break the TAP output
20873f45 512
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513 The raw output from your test may be interpreted by a TAP harness. TAP
514 harnesses will ignore everything they don't know about, but don't step
515 on their toes in these areas:
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516
517 - Don't print lines like "$x..$y" where $x and $y are integers.
518
519 - Don't print lines that begin with "ok" or "not ok".
520
6fd45295 521 TAP harnesses expect a line that begins with either "ok" and "not
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522 ok" to signal a test passed or failed (and our harness already
523 produces such lines), so your script shouldn't emit such lines to
524 their output.
525
526 You can glean some further possible issues from the TAP grammar
c1d44cee 527 (see https://metacpan.org/pod/TAP::Parser::Grammar#TAP-GRAMMAR)
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528 but the best indication is to just run the tests with prove(1),
529 it'll complain if anything is amiss.
530
20873f45 531
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532Skipping tests
533--------------
534
681186ae 535If you need to skip tests you should do so by using the three-arg form
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536of the test_* functions (see the "Test harness library" section
537below), e.g.:
538
ad78585e 539 test_expect_success PERL 'I need Perl' '
a0e0ec9f 540 perl -e "hlagh() if unf_unf()"
ad78585e 541 '
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542
543The advantage of skipping tests like this is that platforms that don't
544have the PERL and other optional dependencies get an indication of how
545many tests they're missing.
546
547If the test code is too hairy for that (i.e. does a lot of setup work
548outside test assertions) you can also skip all remaining tests by
549setting skip_all and immediately call test_done:
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550
551 if ! test_have_prereq PERL
552 then
553 skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
554 test_done
555 fi
14cd1ff3 556
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557The string you give to skip_all will be used as an explanation for why
558the test was skipped.
559
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560End with test_done
561------------------
562
563Your script will be a sequence of tests, using helper functions
564from the test harness library. At the end of the script, call
565'test_done'.
566
567
568Test harness library
569--------------------
570
571There are a handful helper functions defined in the test harness
572library for your script to use.
573
9a897893 574 - test_expect_success [<prereq>] <message> <script>
986aa7f1 575
72942a61 576 Usually takes two strings as parameters, and evaluates the
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577 <script>. If it yields success, test is considered
578 successful. <message> should state what it is testing.
579
580 Example:
581
582 test_expect_success \
583 'git-write-tree should be able to write an empty tree.' \
584 'tree=$(git-write-tree)'
585
9a897893 586 If you supply three parameters the first will be taken to be a
72942a61 587 prerequisite; see the test_set_prereq and test_have_prereq
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588 documentation below:
589
590 test_expect_success TTY 'git --paginate rev-list uses a pager' \
591 ' ... '
592
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593 You can also supply a comma-separated list of prerequisites, in the
594 rare case where your test depends on more than one:
595
596 test_expect_success PERL,PYTHON 'yo dawg' \
597 ' test $(perl -E 'print eval "1 +" . qx[python -c "print 2"]') == "4" '
598
9a897893 599 - test_expect_failure [<prereq>] <message> <script>
986aa7f1 600
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601 This is NOT the opposite of test_expect_success, but is used
602 to mark a test that demonstrates a known breakage. Unlike
603 the usual test_expect_success tests, which say "ok" on
604 success and "FAIL" on failure, this will say "FIXED" on
605 success and "still broken" on failure. Failures from these
606 tests won't cause -i (immediate) to stop.
986aa7f1 607
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608 Like test_expect_success this function can optionally use a three
609 argument invocation with a prerequisite as the first argument.
610
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611 - test_debug <script>
612
613 This takes a single argument, <script>, and evaluates it only
614 when the test script is started with --debug command line
615 argument. This is primarily meant for use during the
616 development of a new test script.
617
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618 - debug <git-command>
619
620 Run a git command inside a debugger. This is primarily meant for
621 use when debugging a failing test script.
622
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623 - test_done
624
625 Your test script must have test_done at the end. Its purpose
626 is to summarize successes and failures in the test script and
627 exit with an appropriate error code.
628
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629 - test_tick
630
631 Make commit and tag names consistent by setting the author and
63d32945 632 committer times to defined state. Subsequent calls will
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633 advance the times by a fixed amount.
634
635 - test_commit <message> [<filename> [<contents>]]
636
637 Creates a commit with the given message, committing the given
638 file with the given contents (default for both is to reuse the
639 message string), and adds a tag (again reusing the message
640 string as name). Calls test_tick to make the SHA-1s
641 reproducible.
642
643 - test_merge <message> <commit-or-tag>
644
645 Merges the given rev using the given message. Like test_commit,
646 creates a tag and calls test_tick before committing.
986aa7f1 647
72942a61 648 - test_set_prereq <prereq>
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649
650 Set a test prerequisite to be used later with test_have_prereq. The
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651 test-lib will set some prerequisites for you, see the
652 "Prerequisites" section below for a full list of these.
653
654 Others you can set yourself and use later with either
655 test_have_prereq directly, or the three argument invocation of
656 test_expect_success and test_expect_failure.
9a897893 657
72942a61 658 - test_have_prereq <prereq>
9a897893 659
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660 Check if we have a prerequisite previously set with test_set_prereq.
661 The most common way to use this explicitly (as opposed to the
662 implicit use when an argument is passed to test_expect_*) is to skip
663 all the tests at the start of the test script if we don't have some
664 essential prerequisite:
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665
666 if ! test_have_prereq PERL
667 then
668 skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
669 test_done
670 fi
671
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672 - test_external [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>
673
674 Execute a <script> with an <external> interpreter (like perl). This
675 was added for tests like t9700-perl-git.sh which do most of their
676 work in an external test script.
677
678 test_external \
679 'GitwebCache::*FileCache*' \
a0e0ec9f 680 perl "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9503/test_cache_interface.pl
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681
682 If the test is outputting its own TAP you should set the
683 test_external_has_tap variable somewhere before calling the first
684 test_external* function. See t9700-perl-git.sh for an example.
685
686 # The external test will outputs its own plan
687 test_external_has_tap=1
688
689 - test_external_without_stderr [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>
690
691 Like test_external but fail if there's any output on stderr,
692 instead of checking the exit code.
693
694 test_external_without_stderr \
695 'Perl API' \
a0e0ec9f 696 perl "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9700/test.pl
2fac6a4b 697
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698 - test_expect_code <exit-code> <command>
699
700 Run a command and ensure that it exits with the given exit code.
701 For example:
702
703 test_expect_success 'Merge with d/f conflicts' '
704 test_expect_code 1 git merge "merge msg" B master
705 '
706
12e31a6b 707 - test_must_fail [<options>] <git-command>
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708
709 Run a git command and ensure it fails in a controlled way. Use
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710 this instead of "! <git-command>". When git-command dies due to a
711 segfault, test_must_fail diagnoses it as an error; "! <git-command>"
712 treats it as just another expected failure, which would let such a
713 bug go unnoticed.
c9667456 714
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715 Accepts the following options:
716
717 ok=<signal-name>[,<...>]:
718 Don't treat an exit caused by the given signal as error.
719 Multiple signals can be specified as a comma separated list.
720 Currently recognized signal names are: sigpipe, success.
721 (Don't use 'success', use 'test_might_fail' instead.)
722
723 - test_might_fail [<options>] <git-command>
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724
725 Similar to test_must_fail, but tolerate success, too. Use this
726 instead of "<git-command> || :" to catch failures due to segv.
727
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728 Accepts the same options as test_must_fail.
729
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730 - test_cmp <expected> <actual>
731
732 Check whether the content of the <actual> file matches the
733 <expected> file. This behaves like "cmp" but produces more
734 helpful output when the test is run with "-v" option.
735
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736 - test_cmp_rev <expected> <actual>
737
738 Check whether the <expected> rev points to the same commit as the
739 <actual> rev.
740
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741 - test_line_count (= | -lt | -ge | ...) <length> <file>
742
743 Check whether a file has the length it is expected to.
744
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745 - test_path_is_file <path> [<diagnosis>]
746 test_path_is_dir <path> [<diagnosis>]
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747 test_path_is_missing <path> [<diagnosis>]
748
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749 Check if the named path is a file, if the named path is a
750 directory, or if the named path does not exist, respectively,
751 and fail otherwise, showing the <diagnosis> text.
2caf20c5 752
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753 - test_when_finished <script>
754
755 Prepend <script> to a list of commands to run to clean up
756 at the end of the current test. If some clean-up command
757 fails, the test will not pass.
758
759 Example:
760
761 test_expect_success 'branch pointing to non-commit' '
762 git rev-parse HEAD^{tree} >.git/refs/heads/invalid &&
763 test_when_finished "git update-ref -d refs/heads/invalid" &&
764 ...
765 '
766
bb98b01e 767 - test_write_lines <lines>
ac9afcc3 768
bb98b01e 769 Write <lines> on standard output, one line per argument.
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770 Useful to prepare multi-line files in a compact form.
771
772 Example:
773
bb98b01e 774 test_write_lines a b c d e f g >foo
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775
776 Is a more compact equivalent of:
777 cat >foo <<-EOF
778 a
779 b
780 c
781 d
782 e
783 f
784 g
785 EOF
786
787
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788 - test_pause
789
790 This command is useful for writing and debugging tests and must be
791 removed before submitting. It halts the execution of the test and
792 spawns a shell in the trash directory. Exit the shell to continue
793 the test. Example:
794
795 test_expect_success 'test' '
796 git do-something >actual &&
797 test_pause &&
798 test_cmp expected actual
799 '
800
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801 - test_ln_s_add <path1> <path2>
802
803 This function helps systems whose filesystem does not support symbolic
804 links. Use it to add a symbolic link entry to the index when it is not
805 important that the file system entry is a symbolic link, i.e., instead
806 of the sequence
807
808 ln -s foo bar &&
809 git add bar
810
811 Sometimes it is possible to split a test in a part that does not need
812 the symbolic link in the file system and a part that does; then only
813 the latter part need be protected by a SYMLINKS prerequisite (see below).
814
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815Prerequisites
816-------------
817
818These are the prerequisites that the test library predefines with
819test_have_prereq.
820
821See the prereq argument to the test_* functions in the "Test harness
822library" section above and the "test_have_prereq" function for how to
823use these, and "test_set_prereq" for how to define your own.
824
f8fc0ee3 825 - PYTHON
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827 Git wasn't compiled with NO_PYTHON=YesPlease. Wrap any tests that
828 need Python with this.
829
830 - PERL
831
832 Git wasn't compiled with NO_PERL=YesPlease.
833
834 Even without the PERL prerequisite, tests can assume there is a
835 usable perl interpreter at $PERL_PATH, though it need not be
836 particularly modern.
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837
838 - POSIXPERM
839
840 The filesystem supports POSIX style permission bits.
841
842 - BSLASHPSPEC
843
844 Backslashes in pathspec are not directory separators. This is not
845 set on Windows. See 6fd1106a for details.
846
847 - EXECKEEPSPID
848
849 The process retains the same pid across exec(2). See fb9a2bea for
850 details.
851
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852 - PIPE
853
854 The filesystem we're on supports creation of FIFOs (named pipes)
855 via mkfifo(1).
856
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857 - SYMLINKS
858
859 The filesystem we're on supports symbolic links. E.g. a FAT
860 filesystem doesn't support these. See 704a3143 for details.
2fac6a4b 861
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862 - SANITY
863
864 Test is not run by root user, and an attempt to write to an
865 unwritable file is expected to fail correctly.
2fac6a4b 866
3eb585c1 867 - PCRE
8f852ce6 868
3eb585c1 869 Git was compiled with support for PCRE. Wrap any tests
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870 that use git-grep --perl-regexp or git-grep -P in these.
871
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872 - LIBPCRE1
873
874 Git was compiled with PCRE v1 support via
875 USE_LIBPCRE1=YesPlease. Wrap any PCRE using tests that for some
876 reason need v1 of the PCRE library instead of v2 in these.
877
878 - LIBPCRE2
879
880 Git was compiled with PCRE v2 support via
881 USE_LIBPCRE2=YesPlease. Wrap any PCRE using tests that for some
882 reason need v2 of the PCRE library instead of v1 in these.
883
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884 - CASE_INSENSITIVE_FS
885
886 Test is run on a case insensitive file system.
887
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888 - UTF8_NFD_TO_NFC
889
890 Test is run on a filesystem which converts decomposed utf-8 (nfd)
891 to precomposed utf-8 (nfc).
892
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893 - PTHREADS
894
895 Git wasn't compiled with NO_PTHREADS=YesPlease.
896
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897Tips for Writing Tests
898----------------------
899
900As with any programming projects, existing programs are the best
901source of the information. However, do _not_ emulate
902t0000-basic.sh when writing your tests. The test is special in
903that it tries to validate the very core of GIT. For example, it
904knows that there will be 256 subdirectories under .git/objects/,
905and it knows that the object ID of an empty tree is a certain
90640-byte string. This is deliberately done so in t0000-basic.sh
907because the things the very basic core test tries to achieve is
908to serve as a basis for people who are changing the GIT internal
909drastically. For these people, after making certain changes,
910not seeing failures from the basic test _is_ a failure. And
911such drastic changes to the core GIT that even changes these
912otherwise supposedly stable object IDs should be accompanied by
913an update to t0000-basic.sh.
914
915However, other tests that simply rely on basic parts of the core
916GIT working properly should not have that level of intimate
917knowledge of the core GIT internals. If all the test scripts
918hardcoded the object IDs like t0000-basic.sh does, that defeats
919the purpose of t0000-basic.sh, which is to isolate that level of
920validation in one place. Your test also ends up needing
921updating when such a change to the internal happens, so do _not_
922do it and leave the low level of validation to t0000-basic.sh.
d15e9ebc 923
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924Test coverage
925-------------
926
927You can use the coverage tests to find code paths that are not being
928used or properly exercised yet.
929
930To do that, run the coverage target at the top-level (not in the t/
931directory):
932
933 make coverage
934
935That'll compile Git with GCC's coverage arguments, and generate a test
936report with gcov after the tests finish. Running the coverage tests
937can take a while, since running the tests in parallel is incompatible
938with GCC's coverage mode.
939
940After the tests have run you can generate a list of untested
941functions:
942
943 make coverage-untested-functions
944
945You can also generate a detailed per-file HTML report using the
946Devel::Cover module. To install it do:
947
948 # On Debian or Ubuntu:
949 sudo aptitude install libdevel-cover-perl
950
951 # From the CPAN with cpanminus
952 curl -L http://cpanmin.us | perl - --sudo --self-upgrade
953 cpanm --sudo Devel::Cover
954
955Then, at the top-level:
956
957 make cover_db_html
958
959That'll generate a detailed cover report in the "cover_db_html"
960directory, which you can then copy to a webserver, or inspect locally
961in a browser.