Git 2.2.3
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
44e1e4d6 12'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
68e4b552 13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
673151a9 25linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
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26commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27in-depth introduction.
cb22bc44 28
7687ae98 29After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
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30page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
06ab60c0 32manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
4514ad4f 33
2de9b711 34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
7687ae98 35can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
34b604af 36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
2ff3f61a 41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
06ab60c0 42unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
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43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
441c4a40 46* link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
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47
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52 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
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361 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
362 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
363 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
364 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
365 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
366 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
367 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
1d2375dd 368
efe05b01 369* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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370
371* release notes for
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372 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
373 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
374 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
375 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
376 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
377 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
378 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
379 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 380
e708af6e 381* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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382
383* release notes for
761e742d
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384 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
385 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
386 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
387 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
388 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
389 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
390 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
391 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
392 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 393
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394* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
395
aba170cd 396* release notes for
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397 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
398 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
399 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
400 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
401 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
402 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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403
404* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
405
406* release notes for
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407 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
408 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
409 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
410 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
411 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
412 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
413 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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414
415* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
416
aba170cd 417* release notes for
761e742d
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418 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
419 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
420 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
421 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
422 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
423 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
424 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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425
426* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
427 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
428 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
429 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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430
431============
432
433endif::stalenotes[]
434
cb22bc44
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435OPTIONS
436-------
437--version::
2de9b711 438 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
cb22bc44
AE
439
440--help::
a87cd02c 441 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
0f6f195b 442 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
2de9b711 443 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
0f6f195b 444 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
45533d26
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445+
446Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 447displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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448because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
449help ...`.
cb22bc44 450
44e1e4d6
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451-C <path>::
452 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
453 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
454 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
455 <path>`.
456+
457This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
458`--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
459made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
460example the following invocations are equivalent:
461
462 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
463 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
464
8b1fa778
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465-c <name>=<value>::
466 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
467 given will override values from configuration files.
468 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
469 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
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470+
471Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
472`foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
473config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
474foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
8b1fa778 475
62b4698e 476--exec-path[=<path>]::
2de9b711 477 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 478 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 479 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
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AE
480 the current setting and then exit.
481
89a56bfb 482--html-path::
2de9b711 483 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
239b5ed9 484 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 485
f2dd8c37 486--man-path::
239b5ed9 487 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
2de9b711 488 this version of Git and exit.
f2dd8c37
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489
490--info-path::
239b5ed9 491 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
2de9b711 492 version of Git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 493
3240240f
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494-p::
495--paginate::
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496 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
497 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
498 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
499 below).
6acbcb92 500
463a849d 501--no-pager::
2de9b711 502 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
463a849d 503
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504--git-dir=<path>::
505 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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506 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
507 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 508
892c41b9 509--work-tree=<path>::
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510 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
511 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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512 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
513 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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514 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
515 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 516
d49483f0 517--namespace=<path>::
2de9b711 518 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
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519 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
520 variable.
521
6acbcb92 522--bare::
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523 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
524 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
525 directory.
526
b0fa7ab5 527--no-replace-objects::
2de9b711 528 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
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529 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
530
823ab40f 531--literal-pathspecs::
a16bf9dd
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532 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
533 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
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534 variable to `1`.
535
6fb02165 536--glob-pathspecs::
bd30c2e4
NTND
537 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
538 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
539 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
540 magic ":(literal)"
541
6fb02165 542--noglob-pathspecs::
bd30c2e4
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543 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
544 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
545 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
546 magic ":(glob)"
9755afbd 547
6fb02165 548--icase-pathspecs::
93d93537
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549 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
550 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
9755afbd 551
23091e95
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552GIT COMMANDS
553------------
9755afbd 554
2de9b711 555We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
23091e95 556("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 557
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558High-level commands (porcelain)
559-------------------------------
560
561We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
562ancillary user utilities.
563
564Main porcelain commands
565~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 566
377e8139 567include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 568
90933efb 569Ancillary Commands
23091e95 570~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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571Manipulators:
572
377e8139 573include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 574
90933efb 575Interrogators:
204ee6a9 576
377e8139 577include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 578
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579
580Interacting with Others
581~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
582
583These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
584people via patch over e-mail.
585
586include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
587
588
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589Low-level commands (plumbing)
590-----------------------------
591
2de9b711 592Although Git includes its
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593own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
594development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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595might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
596linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 597
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598The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
599to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
600than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
601primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
602on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
603end user experience.
604
605The following description divides
606the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
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607the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
608compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
609repositories.
610
89bf2077 611
b1f33d62
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612Manipulation commands
613~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 614
377e8139 615include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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616
617
618Interrogation commands
619~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
620
377e8139 621include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
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622
623In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
624the working tree.
625
626
627Synching repositories
628~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
629
377e8139 630include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 631
57f6ec02 632The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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633typically do not use them directly.
634
635include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
636
637
638Internal helper commands
639~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
640
641These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
642users typically do not use them directly.
643
644include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
645
b1f33d62 646
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647Configuration Mechanism
648-----------------------
649
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650Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
651repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
652like this:
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653
654------------
655#
2fa090b6 656# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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657#
658
659; core variables
660[core]
661 ; Don't trust file modes
662 filemode = false
663
664; user identity
665[user]
666 name = "Junio C Hamano"
c0179c0d 667 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
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668
669------------
670
671Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
06300d97 672their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
c0179c0d 673list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
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674
675
6c84e2e0 676Identifier Terminology
2cf565c5
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677----------------------
678<object>::
2fa090b6 679 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
2cf565c5
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680
681<blob>::
2fa090b6 682 Indicates a blob object name.
2cf565c5
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683
684<tree>::
2fa090b6 685 Indicates a tree object name.
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686
687<commit>::
2fa090b6 688 Indicates a commit object name.
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689
690<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 691 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
6c84e2e0
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692 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
693 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
694 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 695
043d7605
TT
696<commit-ish>::
697 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
698 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
699 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
700 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
701
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702<type>::
703 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 704 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
2cf565c5
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705
706<file>::
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707 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
708 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 709
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710Symbolic Identifiers
711--------------------
2de9b711 712Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 713symbolic notation:
c1bdacf9
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714
715HEAD::
0abcfbff 716 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 717
c1bdacf9 718<tag>::
2fa090b6 719 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 720 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 721
c1bdacf9 722<head>::
2fa090b6 723 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 724 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 725
d47107d8 726For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 727"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 728
c1bdacf9
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729
730File/Directory Structure
731------------------------
c1bdacf9 732
6998e4db 733Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 734
6998e4db 735Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 736
c1bdacf9 737Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 738`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 739
a1d4aa74 740
2cf565c5
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741Terminology
742-----------
6998e4db 743Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
2cf565c5
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744
745
746Environment Variables
747---------------------
2de9b711 748Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
2cf565c5 749
2de9b711 750The Git Repository
c1bdacf9 751~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2de9b711 752These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
c1bdacf9 753is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2de9b711 754Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
c1bdacf9
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755
756'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
757 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
5f3aa197
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758 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
759 is used.
c1bdacf9 760
136347d7
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761'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
762 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
763 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
764 files. By default index file version [23] is used.
765
c1bdacf9
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766'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
767 If the object storage directory is specified via this
768 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
769 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
770 directory is used.
771
772'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
2de9b711 773 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
c1bdacf9 774 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
80ba074f 775 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
2de9b711 776 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
80ba074f 777 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
c1bdacf9
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778
779'GIT_DIR'::
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780 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
781 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
782 for the base of the repository.
75940a00 783 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
c1bdacf9 784
892c41b9 785'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
a758a349 786 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
06ab60c0 787 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
892c41b9
ML
788 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
789
d49483f0 790'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
2de9b711 791 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
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792 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
793
0454dd93 794'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
7ec30aaa 795 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
3e07d268 796 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
7ec30aaa
MH
797 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
798 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
799 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
800 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
801 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
802 might be present in order to compare them with the current
803 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
804 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
805 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
806 e.g.,
807 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
0454dd93 808
cf87463e 809'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
e6405517 810 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
2de9b711 811 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
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812 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
813 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
2de9b711 814 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
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815 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
816 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
817 command line.
8030e442 818
2de9b711 819Git Commits
c1bdacf9
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820~~~~~~~~~~~
821'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
822'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
823'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
824'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
825'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 826'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 827'EMAIL'::
5162e697 828 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
c1bdacf9 829
2de9b711 830Git Diffs
c1bdacf9 831~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 832'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
fde97d8a
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833 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
834 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
835 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
2de9b711 836 value passed on the Git diff command line.
fde97d8a 837
d81ed1b5 838'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
fde97d8a
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839 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
840 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
841 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
842 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
843
844 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
845+
846where:
847
848 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
849 contents of <old|new>,
d5fa1f1a 850 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
fde97d8a 851 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
fde97d8a
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852+
853The file parameters can point at the user's working file
854(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
855when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
856index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
857temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
858+
859For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
860parameter, <path>.
ee7fb0b1
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861+
862For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
863'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
864
865'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
866 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
867
868'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
869 The total number of paths.
2cf565c5 870
575ba9d6
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871other
872~~~~~
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873'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
874 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
875 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 876 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 877
c27d205a 878'GIT_PAGER'::
a7738c77 879 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
2de9b711 880 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
ab54cd6c
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881 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
882 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 883
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884'GIT_EDITOR'::
885 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
2de9b711 886 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
36384c97
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887 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
888 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
889
d5538b41 890'GIT_SSH'::
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891 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
892 and 'git push' will use this command instead
2fd02c92 893 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
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894 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two or
895 four arguments: the 'username@host' (or just 'host')
896 from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
897 remote system, optionally preceded by '-p' (literally) and
898 the 'port' from the URL when it specifies something other
899 than the default SSH port.
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900+
901To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
902you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
903then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
904+
905Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
906personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
907for further details.
908
453842c9 909'GIT_ASKPASS'::
2de9b711 910 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
453842c9 911 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
06ab60c0 912 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
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913 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
914 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
915
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916'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
917 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
918 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
919 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
920 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
921 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
922 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
923
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924'GIT_FLUSH'::
925 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
0b444cdb 926 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
627a8b8d 927 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
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928 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
929 flushed. If this
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930 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
931 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
2de9b711 932 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
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933 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
934
575ba9d6 935'GIT_TRACE'::
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936 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
937 command execution and external command execution.
938+
939If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
940is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
941stderr.
942+
943If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
944and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
945value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
946trace messages into this file descriptor.
947+
948Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
949(starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
950as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
951into it.
952+
953Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
954"false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
575ba9d6 955
b12ca963 956'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
67dc598e 957 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
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958 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
959 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
960 pack-related performance problems.
67dc598e 961 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
b12ca963 962
1dd278ce 963'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
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964 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
965 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
966 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
967 starting with "PACK".
968 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
969
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970'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
971 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
972 time of each Git command.
973 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
974
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975'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
976 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
977 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
978 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
979
980'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
981 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
982 cloning of shallow repositories.
983 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1dd278ce 984
823ab40f 985GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
2de9b711 986 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
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987 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
988 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
989 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
990 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
2de9b711 991 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
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992 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
993
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994GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
995 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
996 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
997
998GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
999 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1000 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1001
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1002GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1003 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1004 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1005
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1006'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1007 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1008 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1009 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1010 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1011 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1012 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1013 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1014 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1015
823ab40f 1016
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1017Discussion[[Discussion]]
1018------------------------
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1019
1020More detail on the following is available from the
2de9b711 1021link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 1022user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
40dac517 1023
2de9b711 1024A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
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1025subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1026things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1027of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1028contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1029as tags and branch heads.
1030
1031The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1032hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 1033directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
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1034and some number of parent commits.
1035
1036The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1037"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1038represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1039parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1040
d5fa1f1a 1041All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
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1042written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1043The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1044just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1045purpose.
1046
1047When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1048efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1049
1050Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
d5fa1f1a
TA
1051may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1052with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1053recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
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1054tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1055`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1056
1057The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1058path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1059the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1060attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1061corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1062working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1063be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1064content stored in the index.
1065
1066The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1067for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1068unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 1069
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1070FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1071---------------------
1072
1073See the references in the "description" section to get started
2de9b711 1074using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
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1075for a first-time user.
1076
2de9b711 1077The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
7687ae98 1078user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
2de9b711 1079introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
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1080
1081See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1082
1083See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1084examples.
1085
1086The internals are documented in the
48a8c26c 1087link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
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1088
1089Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1090read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1091
1092
cb22bc44
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1093Authors
1094-------
48bb914e 1095Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
2de9b711 1096C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
405869d0 1097<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
6ecc01f2
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1098gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1099
1100If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
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1101output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1102the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 1103
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1104Reporting Bugs
1105--------------
1106
1107Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1108development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1109subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1110
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1111SEE ALSO
1112--------
1113linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
673151a9 1114linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 1115linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
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1116linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1117linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 1118
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1119GIT
1120---
9e1f0a85 1121Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite