doc: clearer rule about formatting literals
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
44e1e4d6 12'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
68e4b552 13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
673151a9 25linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
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26commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27in-depth introduction.
cb22bc44 28
7687ae98 29After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
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30page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
06ab60c0 32manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
4514ad4f 33
2de9b711 34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
7687ae98 35can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
34b604af 36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
2ff3f61a 41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
06ab60c0 42unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
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43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
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53 link:RelNotes/2.8.0.txt[2.8].
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360 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
361 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
362 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
363 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
364 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
365 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
366 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
367 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
368 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
78d553b7 369
1b974346 370* link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
0a53e9dd
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371
372* release notes for
1b974346 373 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
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374 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
375 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
376 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
377 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
378 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
0a53e9dd 379
441b40d8 380* link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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381
382* release notes for
761e742d
NP
383 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
384 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
385 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
386 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
387 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
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388
389* release notes for
761e742d
NP
390 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
391 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
392 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
393 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
394 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
395 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
a95148de 396
621f1b4b 397* link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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398
399* release notes for
761e742d
NP
400 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
401 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
402 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
403 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
8104ebfe 404
efe05b01 405* link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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406
407* release notes for
761e742d
NP
408 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
409 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
410 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
411 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
412 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
413 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
414 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
ea02eef0 415
efe05b01 416* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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417
418* release notes for
761e742d
NP
419 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
420 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
421 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
422 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
423 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
424 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
425 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 426
efe05b01 427* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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428
429* release notes for
761e742d
NP
430 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
431 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
432 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
433 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
434 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
435 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
436 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
1d2375dd 437
efe05b01 438* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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439
440* release notes for
761e742d
NP
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
442 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
443 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
444 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
445 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
446 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
447 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 449
e708af6e 450* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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451
452* release notes for
761e742d
NP
453 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
454 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
455 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
456 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
457 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
458 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
459 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
460 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
461 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 462
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463* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
464
aba170cd 465* release notes for
761e742d
NP
466 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
467 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
468 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
469 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
470 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
471 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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472
473* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
474
475* release notes for
761e742d
NP
476 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
477 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
478 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
479 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
480 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
481 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
482 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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483
484* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
485
aba170cd 486* release notes for
761e742d
NP
487 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
488 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
489 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
490 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
491 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
492 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
493 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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494
495* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
496 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
497 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
498 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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499
500============
501
502endif::stalenotes[]
503
cb22bc44
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504OPTIONS
505-------
506--version::
2de9b711 507 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
cb22bc44
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508
509--help::
a87cd02c 510 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
0f6f195b 511 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
2de9b711 512 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
0f6f195b 513 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
45533d26
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514+
515Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 516displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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517because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
518help ...`.
cb22bc44 519
44e1e4d6
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520-C <path>::
521 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
522 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
523 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
524 <path>`.
525+
526This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
527`--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
528made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
529example the following invocations are equivalent:
530
531 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
532 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
533
8b1fa778
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534-c <name>=<value>::
535 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
536 given will override values from configuration files.
537 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
538 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
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539+
540Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
541`foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
542config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
543foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
8b1fa778 544
62b4698e 545--exec-path[=<path>]::
2de9b711 546 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 547 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 548 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
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549 the current setting and then exit.
550
89a56bfb 551--html-path::
2de9b711 552 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
239b5ed9 553 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 554
f2dd8c37 555--man-path::
239b5ed9 556 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
2de9b711 557 this version of Git and exit.
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558
559--info-path::
239b5ed9 560 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
2de9b711 561 version of Git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 562
3240240f
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563-p::
564--paginate::
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565 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
566 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
567 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
568 below).
6acbcb92 569
463a849d 570--no-pager::
2de9b711 571 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
463a849d 572
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573--git-dir=<path>::
574 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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575 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
576 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 577
892c41b9 578--work-tree=<path>::
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579 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
580 or a path relative to the current working directory.
892c41b9
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581 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
582 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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583 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
584 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 585
d49483f0 586--namespace=<path>::
2de9b711 587 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
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588 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
589 variable.
590
6acbcb92 591--bare::
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592 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
593 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
594 directory.
595
b0fa7ab5 596--no-replace-objects::
2de9b711 597 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
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598 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
599
823ab40f 600--literal-pathspecs::
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601 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
602 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
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603 variable to `1`.
604
6fb02165 605--glob-pathspecs::
bd30c2e4
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606 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
607 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
608 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
609 magic ":(literal)"
610
6fb02165 611--noglob-pathspecs::
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612 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
613 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
614 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
615 magic ":(glob)"
9755afbd 616
6fb02165 617--icase-pathspecs::
93d93537
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618 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
619 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
9755afbd 620
23091e95
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621GIT COMMANDS
622------------
9755afbd 623
2de9b711 624We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
23091e95 625("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 626
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627High-level commands (porcelain)
628-------------------------------
629
630We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
631ancillary user utilities.
632
633Main porcelain commands
634~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 635
377e8139 636include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 637
90933efb 638Ancillary Commands
23091e95 639~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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640Manipulators:
641
377e8139 642include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 643
90933efb 644Interrogators:
204ee6a9 645
377e8139 646include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 647
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648
649Interacting with Others
650~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
651
652These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
653people via patch over e-mail.
654
655include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
656
657
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658Low-level commands (plumbing)
659-----------------------------
660
2de9b711 661Although Git includes its
b1f33d62
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662own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
663development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
5162e697
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664might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
665linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 666
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667The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
668to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
669than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
670primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
671on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
672end user experience.
673
674The following description divides
675the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
b1f33d62
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676the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
677compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
678repositories.
679
89bf2077 680
b1f33d62
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681Manipulation commands
682~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 683
377e8139 684include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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685
686
687Interrogation commands
688~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
689
377e8139 690include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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691
692In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
693the working tree.
694
695
696Synching repositories
697~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
698
377e8139 699include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 700
57f6ec02 701The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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702typically do not use them directly.
703
704include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
705
706
707Internal helper commands
708~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
709
710These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
711users typically do not use them directly.
712
713include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
714
b1f33d62 715
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716Configuration Mechanism
717-----------------------
718
c0179c0d
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719Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
720repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
721like this:
5773c9f2
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722
723------------
724#
2fa090b6 725# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
5773c9f2
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726#
727
728; core variables
729[core]
730 ; Don't trust file modes
731 filemode = false
732
733; user identity
734[user]
735 name = "Junio C Hamano"
c0179c0d 736 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
5773c9f2
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737
738------------
739
740Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
06300d97 741their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
c0179c0d 742list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
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743
744
6c84e2e0 745Identifier Terminology
2cf565c5
DG
746----------------------
747<object>::
2fa090b6 748 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
2cf565c5
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749
750<blob>::
2fa090b6 751 Indicates a blob object name.
2cf565c5
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752
753<tree>::
2fa090b6 754 Indicates a tree object name.
2cf565c5
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755
756<commit>::
2fa090b6 757 Indicates a commit object name.
2cf565c5
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758
759<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 760 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
6c84e2e0
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761 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
762 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
763 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 764
043d7605
TT
765<commit-ish>::
766 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
767 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
768 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
769 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
770
2cf565c5
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771<type>::
772 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 773 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
2cf565c5
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774
775<file>::
2fa090b6
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776 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
777 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 778
c1bdacf9
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779Symbolic Identifiers
780--------------------
2de9b711 781Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 782symbolic notation:
c1bdacf9
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783
784HEAD::
0abcfbff 785 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 786
c1bdacf9 787<tag>::
2fa090b6 788 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 789 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 790
c1bdacf9 791<head>::
2fa090b6 792 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 793 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 794
d47107d8 795For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 796"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 797
c1bdacf9
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798
799File/Directory Structure
800------------------------
c1bdacf9 801
6998e4db 802Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 803
6998e4db 804Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 805
c1bdacf9 806Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 807`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 808
a1d4aa74 809
2cf565c5
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810Terminology
811-----------
6998e4db 812Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
2cf565c5
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813
814
815Environment Variables
816---------------------
2de9b711 817Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
2cf565c5 818
2de9b711 819The Git Repository
c1bdacf9 820~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2de9b711 821These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
c1bdacf9 822is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
f25b98e6 823Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
c1bdacf9
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824
825'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
826 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
5f3aa197
LS
827 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
828 is used.
c1bdacf9 829
136347d7
TG
830'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
831 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
832 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
70320541
NTND
833 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
834 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
136347d7 835
c1bdacf9
DG
836'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
837 If the object storage directory is specified via this
838 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
839 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
840 directory is used.
841
842'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
2de9b711 843 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
c1bdacf9 844 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
80ba074f 845 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
2de9b711 846 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
80ba074f 847 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
c1bdacf9
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848
849'GIT_DIR'::
2fa090b6
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850 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
851 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
852 for the base of the repository.
75940a00 853 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
c1bdacf9 854
892c41b9 855'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
a758a349 856 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
06ab60c0 857 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
892c41b9
ML
858 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
859
d49483f0 860'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
2de9b711 861 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
d49483f0
JT
862 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
863
0454dd93 864'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
7ec30aaa 865 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
3e07d268 866 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
7ec30aaa
MH
867 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
868 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
869 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
870 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
871 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
872 might be present in order to compare them with the current
873 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
874 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
875 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
876 e.g.,
877 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
0454dd93 878
cf87463e 879'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
e6405517 880 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
2de9b711 881 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
e6405517
JH
882 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
883 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
2de9b711 884 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
cf87463e
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885 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
886 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
887 command line.
8030e442 888
c7b3a3d2
NTND
889'GIT_COMMON_DIR'::
890 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
891 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
892 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
529fef20 893 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
1eaca7a5 894 linkgit:git-worktree[1] for
c7b3a3d2
NTND
895 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
896 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
897
2de9b711 898Git Commits
c1bdacf9
DG
899~~~~~~~~~~~
900'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
901'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
902'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
903'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
904'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 905'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 906'EMAIL'::
5162e697 907 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
c1bdacf9 908
2de9b711 909Git Diffs
c1bdacf9 910~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 911'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
fde97d8a
SE
912 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
913 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
914 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
2de9b711 915 value passed on the Git diff command line.
fde97d8a 916
d81ed1b5 917'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
fde97d8a
SE
918 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
919 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
920 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
921 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
922
923 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
924+
925where:
926
927 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
928 contents of <old|new>,
d5fa1f1a 929 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
fde97d8a 930 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
fde97d8a
SE
931+
932The file parameters can point at the user's working file
933(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
934when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
935index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
936temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
937+
938For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
939parameter, <path>.
ee7fb0b1
ZK
940+
941For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
942'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
943
944'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
945 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
946
947'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
948 The total number of paths.
2cf565c5 949
575ba9d6
ML
950other
951~~~~~
dbddb714
JN
952'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
953 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
954 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 955 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 956
c27d205a 957'GIT_PAGER'::
a7738c77 958 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
2de9b711 959 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
ab54cd6c
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960 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
961 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 962
36384c97
RSM
963'GIT_EDITOR'::
964 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
2de9b711 965 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
36384c97
RSM
966 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
967 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
968
d5538b41 969'GIT_SSH'::
39942766
TQ
970'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
971 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
972 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
973 when they need to connect to a remote system.
974 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
975 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
976 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
977 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
978 something other than the default SSH port.
d5538b41 979+
39942766
TQ
980`$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
981by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
982`$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
983(which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
984needed).
d5538b41
SP
985+
986Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
987personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
988for further details.
989
453842c9 990'GIT_ASKPASS'::
2de9b711 991 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
453842c9 992 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
06ab60c0 993 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
da0005b8 994 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
453842c9
KF
995 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
996
e652c0eb
JK
997'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
998 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
999 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
1000
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1001'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
1002 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
1003 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
1004 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
1005 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
1006 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
1007 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
1008
06f59e9f
TT
1009'GIT_FLUSH'::
1010 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
0b444cdb 1011 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
627a8b8d 1012 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
f1ed7fea
AS
1013 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
1014 flushed. If this
06f59e9f
TT
1015 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
1016 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
2de9b711 1017 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
06f59e9f
TT
1018 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
1019
575ba9d6 1020'GIT_TRACE'::
eb9250df
KB
1021 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
1022 command execution and external command execution.
1023+
1024If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
1025is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
1026stderr.
1027+
1028If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
1029and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
1030value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
1031trace messages into this file descriptor.
1032+
1033Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
1034(starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
1035as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
1036into it.
1037+
1038Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
1039"false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
575ba9d6 1040
b12ca963 1041'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
67dc598e 1042 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
b12ca963
NTND
1043 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
1044 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
1045 pack-related performance problems.
67dc598e 1046 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
b12ca963 1047
1dd278ce 1048'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
eb9250df
KB
1049 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1050 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1051 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
32359838 1052 starting with "PACK" (but see 'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE' below).
eb9250df
KB
1053 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1054
32359838
JK
1055'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE'::
1056 Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a
1057 given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
1058 verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost
1059 certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
1060 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack`) rather than displaying it on
1061 the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
1062+
1063Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
1064of clones and fetches.
1065
578da039
KB
1066'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1067 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1068 time of each Git command.
1069 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1070
eb9250df
KB
1071'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1072 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1073 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1074 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1075
1076'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1077 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1078 cloning of shallow repositories.
1079 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1dd278ce 1080
6dedd800 1081'GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS'::
2de9b711 1082 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
823ab40f
JK
1083 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1084 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1085 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1086 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
2de9b711 1087 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
823ab40f
JK
1088 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1089
6dedd800 1090'GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS'::
bd30c2e4
NTND
1091 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1092 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1093
6dedd800 1094'GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS'::
bd30c2e4
NTND
1095 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1096 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1097
6dedd800 1098'GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS'::
93d93537
NTND
1099 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1100 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1101
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JH
1102'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1103 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1104 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1105 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1106 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1107 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1108 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1109 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1110 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1111
6dedd800 1112'GIT_REF_PARANOIA'::
49672f26
JK
1113 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1114 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1115 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1116 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1117 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1118 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1119 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1120 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1121 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1122
6dedd800 1123'GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL'::
a5adaced
JK
1124 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1125 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1126 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1127 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1128 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1129 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1130 currently used by git are:
1131
1132 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1133 or local paths)
1134
1135 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1136 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1137
1138 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
07c7782c 1139 `ssh://`, etc).
a5adaced 1140
a5adaced
JK
1141 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1142 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1143 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1144
1145 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1146 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
a5adaced 1147
823ab40f 1148
8db9307c
JH
1149Discussion[[Discussion]]
1150------------------------
40dac517
BF
1151
1152More detail on the following is available from the
2de9b711 1153link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 1154user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
40dac517 1155
2de9b711 1156A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
40dac517
BF
1157subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1158things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1159of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1160contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1161as tags and branch heads.
1162
1163The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1164hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 1165directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
40dac517
BF
1166and some number of parent commits.
1167
1168The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1169"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1170represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1171parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1172
d5fa1f1a 1173All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
40dac517
BF
1174written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1175The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1176just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1177purpose.
1178
1179When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1180efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1181
1182Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
d5fa1f1a
TA
1183may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1184with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1185recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
40dac517
BF
1186tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1187`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1188
1189The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1190path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1191the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1192attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1193corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1194working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1195be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1196content stored in the index.
1197
1198The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1199for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1200unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 1201
7687ae98
JH
1202FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1203---------------------
1204
1205See the references in the "description" section to get started
2de9b711 1206using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
7687ae98
JH
1207for a first-time user.
1208
2de9b711 1209The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
7687ae98 1210user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
2de9b711 1211introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
7687ae98
JH
1212
1213See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1214
1215See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1216examples.
1217
1218The internals are documented in the
48a8c26c 1219link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
7687ae98
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1220
1221Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1222read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1223
1224
cb22bc44
AE
1225Authors
1226-------
48bb914e 1227Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
2de9b711 1228C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
405869d0 1229<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
6ecc01f2
JH
1230gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1231
1232If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
d8f708f8
JK
1233output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1234the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 1235
c97ca277
JH
1236Reporting Bugs
1237--------------
1238
1239Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1240development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1241subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1242
497c8331
CC
1243SEE ALSO
1244--------
1245linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
673151a9 1246linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 1247linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
801a011d
TR
1248linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1249linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 1250
2cf565c5
DG
1251GIT
1252---
9e1f0a85 1253Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite